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Anatomy of Nervous

System

Objectives:

Outline the organization of nervous system


Compare the structure and function of neurons
and neuroglia.
Describe the 3 layers of meningens around the
central nervous system
Locate and identify the major regions of the brain
and describe their function.
Describe the structure and functions of the spinal
cord.
Distinguish between the sympathetic and
parasympathetic division.

The Nervous System


The major controlling, regulatory, and
communicating system in the body.
The center of mental activity : thought,
learning and memory.
With endocrine system is responsible for
regulating and maintaining homeostasis.
Keep us in touch with external and
internal environment.
Functions : - sensory functions
- integrative functions
- motor functions

Functions of Nervous system


External (stimuli : temp, light,sound)
Internal (body : receptors detect variations in pressure,
PH,CO2concentration, & level of elit)-------SENSORY INPUT
Electrical signals (nerve impulses)
Brain (create sensations)
Produce thoughts ---decision is made based on input
sensory--INTEGRATION
Respon to muscles and glands

----- MOTOR OUTPUT

The Brain

Meninges of The Central Nervous System

(CSF and blood


vessels)

(Dural sinus :
venous return)

(Thin and
delicate layer)

Lobes and Functional Areas of the


Cerebrum

The Neuron
Transmit impulses to neuron cell
body (AFFERENT PROCESS)

(EFFERENT PROCESS)

(regeneration of nerves
fibers)

(white matter)

The Neuron
Conducting

nerve impulses.
They are highly specialized and
amitotic (lack of centrioles).
Each neuron has 3 basic parts :
- Cell body
- One or more dendrites
- A single axon

The Neuroglia
Neuroglia

cells do not conduct nerve


impulses, BUT,
Support, nourish and protect the
neurons.
They are far more numerous than
neurons.
Capable of mitosis.

Cerebrum

Cerebral cortex ---Sensory areas


interpret sensory impulses, motor
areas control muscular
movement and association areas
function in emotional and
intellectual process.
Basal ganglia (gray matter)
coordinates gross, automatic
muscle movements and regulate
muscle tone.
Limbic system consists of
scattered but interconnected
regions of gray matter in cerebral
hemispheres and diencephalon--involved in memory and emotions
:sadness,happiness,anger & fear
(EMOTIONAL BRAIN)

Medulla Oblongata

Relays motor and sensory


impulses between other
parts of the brain and the
spinal cord.
Vital centers regulate
heartbeat, breathing
together with pons, and
blood vessel diameter.
Other centers coordinate
swallowing, vomiting,
coughing, sneezing, and
hiccuping.
Contains nuclei of origin
for cranial nerves VIII, IX,
X, XI, and XII.

Pons

Relay impulses from


one side of the
cerebellum to the
other and between the
medulla and midbrain.
Contain nuclei of origin
for cranial nerves V, VI,
VII, and VIII.
Pneumotaxic area and
apneuistic area,
together with the
medulla, help control
breathing.

Midbrain
Relays motor impulses from the cerebral
cortex to the pons and sensory impulses
from the spinal cord to the thalamus.
Superior colliculi coordinate movements of
the eyeballs in response to visual and other
stimuli (visual reflex center).
Inferior colliculi coordinates movements of
the head and trunk in response to auditory
stimuli.(auditory reflex center)
Contains nuclei of origin for cranial nerves
III and IV.

Cerebellum
Compares

intended movements with


what is actually happening to smooth
and coordinate complex, skilled
movements.
Regulates posture and balance.

Hypothalamus
Controls and integrates activities of the
autonomic nervous system and pituitary
gland---maintain homeostasis
Regulates emotional and behavioral
patterns and circadian rhythms.
Controls body temperature and regulates
eating and drinking behavior.
Helps maintain the walking state and
establish pattern of sleep.

Thalamus
Relays

all sensory input to the cerebral

cortex.
Provides crude perception of touch,
pressure, pain, and temperature.
Includes nuclei involved in voluntary
motor actions and arousal; anterior
nucleus functions in emotions and
memory.
Also function in cognitive and
awareness.

Organization of The Nervous System

(voluntary)

(involuntary)

Cardiac muscle
Skeletal
muscles

smooth
muscle

skin

Spinal Nerves

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)


Is a visceral efferent system (it sends
motor impulses to visceral organs).
It functions automatically and continuously
without conscious effort ----- to innervate
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and
glands.
It concerns with HR, RR, BP, and
temperature to maintain homeostasis.
It has 2 parts : sympathetic and
parasympathetic division

Structure and Function of ANS