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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates
Soil Definition (Engineering)
refers to all unconsolidated material in the
earths crust, all material above the
bedrock
mineral particles (gravel, sand, silt, clay)
organic material (top soil, marshes)

Aggregates
mineral particles of a soil
specifically, granular soil group
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gravel, sand, silt

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Granular Soil Group (Aggregates)
Physical weathering

action of frost, water, wind, glaciers, plant/animals


particles transported by wind, water, ice
soils formed are called granular soil type
grains are similar to the original bedrock

Larger grain sizes than clays


Particles tend to be more or less spheres/cubes
Bound water is small compared to overall mass
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Granular Soil Group (Aggregates)
ability to achieve greater densities
well graded granular material

increased soil strength


lower permeability
reduced future settlement

These improvements dictate the use of


aggregates in pavement layers where wheel
loads are greater
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
In combination with asphalt cement or
portland cement to form asphalt concrete or
cement concrete respectively
In subbases and bases of a roadway
structure
drainage structures
concrete blocks
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Types of Aggregates
Basic properties of these aggregates
Tests used to evaluate these properties

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Aggregate Sources

natural sand or gravel deposits *


crushed rock *
slag and mine refuse
rubble and refuse
artificial and processed materials
pulverized concrete and asphalt pavements
other recycled and waste materials

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Natural sand and gravel deposits
sand and gravel pits
sand and gravel soils that have been
naturally sorted to eliminate most of the silt
or clay sizes then deposited in:
glacier formations (eskers, outwash plains)
river deposits
beaches of current and previous lakes and seas
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Sand / Gravel Pit Development
Stripping of topsoil, vegetation from surface
Excavation of material
material is loose - front end loaders

Crushing of the material


larger size aggregate is broke down to desired size
crushed gravel is considered high quality aggregate
washing of aggregate cleans dust removes silt/clay

Type of material depends on bedrock source


Limestone, sandstone,granite,etc.

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Crushed Rock
Type of aggregates produced from
quarries depends on the type of bedrock
Classes of Rocks
Igneous rocks
Sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic rocks

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Crushed Rock
Igneous Rocks
Original bedrock formed from the cooling of molten
material
Coarse grained igneous rock (granite) cooled slowly
Fine grained igneous rocks (basalt) cooled rapidly

Sedimentary Rocks
Solidification of chemical or mineral sediments deposited
under ancient seas
Layered since original material was deposited in this
manner

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Crushed Rock
Sedimentary Rocks

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Limestone
Dolomite
Shale
Sandstone
Chert
Conglomerate

Calcium Carbonate
Calcium/Magnesium Carbonate
Clay
Quartz
Fine sand
Gravel
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Crushed Rock
Metamorphic Rocks
Igneous or Sedimentary rocks that have been
metamorphosed due to intense heat and
pressure

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Slate
Marble
Quartzite
Gneiss

shale
limestone
sandstone
granite
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Crushed Rock
Igneous and Metamorphic rocks are very hard and
make an excellent source for aggregates
Limestone and Dolomite are common sedimentary
rocks, are softer than igneous rocks but are
acceptable for aggregates
Shale primarily composed of clay grains is weak
and disintegrates easily
Chert also disintegrates easily
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Quarry Pit Development
Opening and Stripping of the face of the quarry
Blasting of rock with dynamite into sizes that
can be transported
Crushing of rock into the required aggregate
sizes

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Slag and Mine Refuse
Slag is a waste material resulting from the treatment
of ore to produce iron, steel, nickel, ..
Blast furnace slag from iron mills is a common
aggregate

Mine tailings can also be used for aggregates

Rubble and Refuse


recycling of pulverized concrete from structures
recycled asphalt pavements in base courses
recycled rubber, crushed glass in base courses
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Types of Aggregates
Fine Aggregate
aggregate particles mainly between the 4.75 mm
size and the 75um sieve.

Coarse Aggregate
aggregate particles mainly larger than 4.75 mm

Pit Run
aggregate from a sand or gravel pit with no
processing
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Types of Aggregates
Crushed Gravel
pit gravel (or sand) that has been put through a
crusher either to break the rounded gravel particles
into smaller sizes or to produce rougher surfaces

Crushed Rock
aggregate from the crushing of bedrock. All
particles are angular and not rounded as in gravel

Screenings
chips, dust, powder that are produced from crushing
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Types of Aggregates
Concrete Sand
sand that has been washed to remove dust and fines

Fines
silt, clay, or dust particles smaller than 75um usually
the undesirable impurities in aggregates

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Types of Aggregates
Nominal Size
Not economical to have 100% of the particles of an
aggregate be within a specified size range.
Reduce as much reject as possible from a pit in
order to efficiently use the material resources of a
pit
Usually 5% - 10% of the aggregate particles can be
allowed to be larger or smaller than specs
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Types of Aggregates
Nominal Size
Coarse aggregates 19-4.75 mm nominal aggregate
Fine aggregate
4.75 mm nominal aggregate

Clear
a single size coarse aggregate is called clear. Most
of the particles are between the specified maximum
size and a minimum size which is defined as onehalf of the maximum
19 mm clear aggregate
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Aggregate Properties
Gradation (grain size analysis)
grain size distribution for highway bases and asphalt
mixes that will provide a dense strong mixture
ensure that the voids between the larger particles are
filled with medium particles. The remaining voids are
filled with still smaller particles until the smallest voids
are filled with a small amount of fines.
Ensure maximum density and strength using a
maximum density curve

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Theoretical Maximum Density Curves
Fuller Maximum Density Curve
P = (d/D)0.5
P = % passing sieve size d and D represents
the maximum sieve size (100% passing)

Federal Highway Administration


P = (d/D)0.45

plotted on semi-log paper where sieve sizes are


raised to power 0.45

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Gradations

Strength or resistance to shear failure in road


bases and pavements is increased greatly if
the mixture is dense graded

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Gradations

a) larger particles are in contact with each other


developing frictional resistances to shearing failure.
Particles are tightly bond together due to the interlocking effect of smaller particles. This effect is
higher in (a) than (b)
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Gradations
b) Must limit the amount of fines
silt and clay particles are relatively weak
dust on larger aggregates will interface with the
aggregate/asphalt bond
Excessive fines in a base or subbase may lead to
drainage on frost leaving problems
Excessive fines (smaller aggregates) results in weak
structures because larger particles are not in contact
with each other strength
Sn (smaller particles) are weaker. Therefore managing
% of fines is important.

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Washed Sieve Analysis
as a result it is important in determining the amount
passing the 75m sieve
sample is dried and washed, wash water poured out
over the 75 um sieve
material retained is returned to the sample for sieve
analysis
total amount passing 75 um is equal to the amount lost
in washing and % passing 75 um sieve

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Example 4-1
Mass of sample 446.7 g
Mass after washing 414.1 g
Results of dry sieving:
Retained in
4.75 mm
0.0g
1.18 mm 205.3g
300 mm 127.9g
75 mm
76.4g
Pan 3.8g
Find the grain-size distribution:
Lost in washing over 75 mm= 446.7 g - 414.1 g= 32.6 g
Passing 75 mm in sieving
3.8 g
Total finer than 75 mm
36.4 g

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Calculations:
Sieve
4.75 mm
1.18 mm
300 m
75 m
Pan

Retained
(g)
0
205.3
127.9
76.4
36.4
446.0

Percentage Cumulative
Retained
Passing
0
100%
46.0
54
28.7
25.3
17.1
8.2
8.2
100%

Note: Only 0.7 g was lost during sieving, which is an


acceptable loss.) If a washed sieve analysis is not
required, usually for coarse aggregates the procedure
for grain-size analysis of soils (see Section 1-3.3) is
used
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Aggregate Properties
Gradation (grain size analysis)
High density mixtures are important in terms of
density and asphalt cement required. Asphalt must
coat each particle and fill in most of the void space.
If you fill in void space with cheaper material such
as aggregates you save asphalt

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
The relative density (specific gravity) and
absorption of aggregates are important
properties especially in asphalt cement
mixtures
In the mix designs, it is important to measure
accurately the volumes occupied by the
aggregate and any water that may have seeped
into the pores in the particles. Therefore voids
must be considered in the aggregate.
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
For aggregates
Dry Mass = MD
Total Mass = MSSD
(dry mass MD + absorbed water MWA)

Bulk Volume = VB
(includes volume of absorbed water)

Net Volume = VN
VN = VB - volume of absorbed water
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Relative density calculations are made
as follows:
Apparent

RDA = MD/(VN x W)

Bulk

RDB = MD/(VB x W)

Saturated, surface-dry RDSSD = MSSD/(VB x


W)
Percentage absorption % Abs = MWA/MD
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates

Saturated Surface Dry


all permeable pores filled with water
Bulk Volume = VNET + VABSORBED WATER

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates
Example 4-2 The dry mass of a sample is 2239.1 g. The mass in saturated surfaceis 2268.4 g. The net volume is 835.4 cm3. Find the relative density values.
Mass of absorbed water

2268.4 - 2239.1 = 29.3 g

Volume of absorbed water

29.3 g
1 g/cm3

Bulk Volume

835.4 cm3 + 29.3 cm3 = 864.7 cm3

Therefore

RDA =

2239.1 g
835.4 cm3 x 1 g/cm3

= 2.68

RDB =

2239.1 g
864.7 cm3 x 1 g/cm3

= 2.59

RDSSD =

2268.4 g
864.7 cm3 x 1 g/cm3

= 2.62

% Abs =

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= 29.3 cm3

29.3 g
2239.1 g

= 1.31%

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregates

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Properties
Aggregate Hardness (resistant to wear)
It is important that aggregates for pavement
surfaces not become rounded or polished thereby
reducing skid resistance
Load cycles in the pavement structure tend to
break aggregates or fines will result changing the
gradation (finer) resulting in reduced strength of
the pavement structure
Broken aggregates are not cemented into the
structure, again reducing strength
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Properties
Aggregate Hardness (contd)
Resistance to degradation during mixing,
transportation, placing and compacting is important
as soft particles may break changing the gradation
Los Angeles Abrasion Test measures the hardness
of aggregates
Deval Apparatus
Aggregate Impact Value Test
Polished Stone Value Test
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Properties
Aggregate Durability
resistance to degradation due to cycles of wetting and
drying, heating and cooling, and freezing and thawing
freezing and thawing
pore spaces in the aggregate are often saturated and on
freezing expands
repeated cycles can cause the aggregate to break
sedimentary rocks are vulnerable because of planes of
weakness between layers
Soundness Test Field Performance / Absorption Value

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Properties
Aggregate Particle Shape/Surface Texture
bonding capability with asphalt cement
particles with rough fractured faces allow a better bond
with asphalt cements than rounded smooth particles

resistance to one particle sliding over another


flat, thin, long aggregate particles break easier
than cubical particles
Specifications restrict the percentage of long thin
particles and require aggregates particles having at
least one fractured face

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Properties
Deleterious Substances
harmful or injurious materials including various
types of weak or low quality particles or coatings
found on the surface of aggregates
dust (material passing the 75 um sieve)
clay lumps, shale, coal particles, friable particles, chert
(weak in terms of freezing and thawing)

These substances effect the bond between


cements and aggregates and break easily
Petrographic analysis Sand Equivalency Test
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Properties
Aggregate Crushing Strength
crushing strength is the compressive load that
aggregate particles can carry before breaking
relatively unimportant for most aggregates
strength is higher than the strength of an asphalt
mix

Chemical Stability
refers to specific problems due to chemical
composition
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Highway Materials, Soils, and


Concrete Aggregate Specifications
Specifications by highway departments takes
into account the aggregate properties we just
discussed
Requirements for aggregates to be used in bases
and subbases differ from aggregates to be used
in asphalt mixes
specifications include local experience,
availability of materials and type of project
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Properties
Abrasion test:
Original mass 5009g
Final mass 3267 g

5009-3267 = 34.8%
5009

Soundness test:
Original mass 2649g 2649-2115 = 20.2%
Final mass 2115 g
2649
-lower strength fines content
-drainage and frost heave potential
-durability question freeze/thaw resistance

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing
The characterization of an aggregate source
depends on how representative the samples are
taken from the aggregates
size of samples are specified
samples should be obtained from the final product
if possible, after all the steps in processing and
transportation have been completed

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing
Samples taken from a production or discharge
should be taken at various times and across the
entire cross section of discharge and combined to
form one sample
Sampling from stockpiles requires care due to
possible segregation of material. Three samples
should be taken, one from the top third, middle
third, bottom third and combined
Sample tubes for fine aggregate stockpiles
should be used, five tube samples combined

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing
Samples taken from a truck or railway car should
be done from a cross sectional trench, three
combined to form one sample
Combined samples should be done with equal size
component samples
Randomness should be used to determine location
or time to eliminate personal bias
Ensure proper identification of the sample
Samples should be properly secured
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing
Samples tested in the lab must be representative of
the samples delivered to the lab

Sample Splitting
testing aggregates composed of significant amounts
of both coarse and fine aggregates the sample must
be split on the 4.75 mm sieve and the two fractions
sieved separately
If not, the amount of sample on the fine sieves may
be too great for effective sieving
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete


Aggregate Sampling and Testing

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