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Analysis of Axial & Centrifugal Compressors

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department

To be Selected as per Specific Speed of


Applications.

Multi Stage Hybrid Compressor

Static & Stagnation Scalars

Irreversible Adiabatic Stage of an Axial Flow Compressor


p03s=p02s
p02
p03
T03=T02
Rotor Losses

T02s

Total Losses
T03s
T

Pinput ,a
Pinput , s
p01
T01

Gas dynamics of Irreversible Compressor


p02s

Va23
2c p

Va22
2c p

Va21
2c p

Stage Efficiency
The stage efficiency of an adiabatic compressor stage is:

stage
For calorically perfect gas

stage

h03 s h01

h03 h01

T03 s T01

T03 T01

Actual temperature rise of a fluid when compressed in an


irreversible stage for a pressure ratio of p03/p01 is:

T03 s T01
T03 T01
stage

stage T0 S
p03
1
p01
T01

System of Equations for Stage Design


UV f cot 1 cot 2

stage
cp

T01

p03,act
p01

Vr21 Vr22
2
Vr1 Vr22 Va22 Va21

U
cot 1 cot 1 cot 2 cot 2
Vf

Vr 2

V f cot 1 cot 1 cot 2


sin 2

Selection of Global Stage Variables


h
2
U

Stage load coefficient

Stage flow coefficient

Stage reaction

Vf
U

h2 h1

h03 h01

The stage load distribution throughout the


compressor

Selection of Design Parameters


A high pressure rise per stage will decrease the number of
stages for a given overall pressure rise.
A high pressure rise per stage is obtained using:
High blade speed.
High inlet flow velocity.
High fluid deflection in rotor blades.

Pstage m c p T03a T01 m UV f cot 1 cot 2

Inlet Velocity Triangle & Flow Velocity

Selection of Inlet Angle

Va1

Vr1
Vr1

Va1

Blade Speed

For a given rotor speed the velocity of the blade at the tip will be
maximum.
The centrifugal stress in the rotor blades depends on the rotational
speed, the blade material and length of the blade.
The maximum centrifugal stress is given by,

ct ,max

b 2
U t 1 b 2 K
2

b, hub-tip diameter ratio.


K varies in the range 0.55 0.65.

Fluid Deflection

Fluid Deflection cot 1 cot 2


c
solidity , 100
s

Vr,max Vr2
Diffusion factor, D
Vr1

Performance of Aerofoil

Camber angle,

Naca 65 : in
Circula rarc : in

Clues to Invent an Aerofoil


Outlet flow Angle

Deflection

Loss coefficient

Current Design Practice


Fan or low pressure Compressor
Parameter

Range

Pressure ratio for single


stage

1.5 2.0

Pressure ratio for two


stages

2.0 3.5

Pressure ratio for three


stages

3.5 4.5

Inlet mass flow rates

195 205 kg/m2.s

Tip speed

427 457 m/s

Diffusion factor

0.5 0.55

Current Design Practice


High pressure Compressor
Parameter

Range

Stage loading
coefficient

0.3 0.35

Flow coefficient

0.45 0.55

Hub/tip ratio

0.6 0.75

Inlet mass flow rates 175 185 kg/m2.s


Tip speed

386 457 m/s

Diffusion factor

0.5 0.55

Compressor Maps

po 3act
p01

m To1 pstp

Tstp poi

Multi Stage Compression

Loss in capacity due to variation of velocity is defined as work done factor.


Work done factor, , decrease with number of stages.

Multi Stage Axial-flow Compressor

Gas Dynamics of An Impeller


Va2
Vf2

Vr2
Vw2 < U

Vw1
Vr1

Va1
Vf1

Thermodynamic View of an isentropic Compressor

P m Vw 2 r2 Vw1r1 m h02 h01 m c p T02 T01

P m c p T03 T01
p03=p02

p3

Only Impeller can consume Power !!!

Va23
2c p

T03=T02

p2

Va22
2c p

p01

P m Vw 2 r2 Vw1r1

p1
Va21
2c p

T01
s

Irreversible Diffuser
p03s=p02s

p02a

p03a

T03=T02
Impeller Losses
Overall Losses
T

P m Vw 2 r2 Vw1r1
p01
T01

Work consumed by A compressor = Increase in Stagnation Enthalpy of gas

Pact m Vw 2 r2 Vw1r1 m h03 h01 m c p T03 T01

For an irreversible compression, the actual pressure rise is less than isentropic
pressure rise due to (T03-T01).

p03a p03 s

p03a T03as


p01 T01

Define, Adiabatic Efficiency of A Compressor:

comp

T03as T01

1
T01

T03as T01

T03 T01

comp T03 T01


p03a

1
p01
T01

Pact m Vw 2 r2 Vw1r1 m c p T03 T01

Ur2 Vw1r1
T03 T01
cp

p03,act
p01

comp Ur2 Vw1r1

c pT01

Ns

N Q
H

for pumps

Erection of Pump

Hd

ps
Hs

Hpump

Internals Pump Vs Compressor

Compressor Impeller

Fan Impeller

Pump Impeller