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2015 PLUMBING REVIEW 004

WATER CONSUMPTION
AND
WATER DEMAND

Average Day Demand


Maximum Day Demand
Maximum Hour Demand
Water Supply Fixture Unit

Water Consumption vs. Water


Demand
Water
Water Demand is
Consumption is
the
sum
of
water
the amount of
consumption and
water consumed by
unaccounted
for
all residents,
water*.
institutions, etc.
when provided with
Unaccounted for water
water service
the amount of water losses
facilities.
thru leakages and
pilferages
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Water Demand
Knowledge of the
quantity of water
needed to satisfy
the requirement of
the building or
community is
necessary in the
design of any
water supply
system.
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Water Consumption
Oftentimes, water is
utilized mainly for
domestic
consumption which is
affected by:
1. Size of population
served.
2. Standard of living of
the consumers
3. Quality and quantity
of water available

4.

Cost of water to
consumers
5. Habits and manner of
usage of the consumers
6. Climate
7. Livestock, poultry, hogs
and other animals being
raised by the residents
8. Plants and gardens
being maintained by
the residents

Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP


Cebu Chapter

Estimated Water
Consumption
Average Human Water
Consumption
Use
Consumption
in
liters/capita/d
ay
Rural Area
1. Public Faucet
2. Individual
Household
Connection
3. Combined Public
Faucets & some
Household
Connection

60
100
80

Breakdown of Water Usage(per


Use
%
120 liter
150 liter
capita/day)
Consumpti
on

Consumpti
on

Kitchen

15%

18 liters

22.50 liters

Drinking

5%

7.50

Shower

10%

12

15

Laundry

20%

24

30

Toilet
Flush

40%

48

60

Others:
Carwash,
Water
gardens

10%

12

15

TOTAL

100
%

120 liters

150 liters

Suburban
Area

120

Urban Area

Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP


150
Cebu Chapter

Other Water Usage According to the Type of Building


Building Type

Airports (per Passenger)

Consumption
in
liters/capita/
day
11 -19

Apartments (per resident)

151

Boardinghouses (per
boarder)

150 189

Factories (per
person/shift)

57 - 132

Building Type

Consumption
in
liters/capita/
day

Restaurants
with toilets (per
patron)

26 - 38

without toilets (per


patron)

9 - 11

with bar / cocktail


(addl)

Hotels with T & B (twin


sharing)

227

Hotels w/o T & B (per


person)

189

Hospitals (per bed)

946 - 1514

with gym, canteen,


shower

Institutional Building (per


person)

284 - 473

with canteen only

76
57

Large Residential Houses


(per resident)

189 - 284

w/o gym, canteen,


shower
Auditorium (per seat)

19

Schools (per student)


95

Stores (per toilet room)

151

Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP


Office (per person/shift)
Cebu Chapter

57

Average Daily Livestock


Animal Consumption
Consumptio
n in
liters/day
Each Milk Cow

133

Each Steer or Dry


Cow

45

Each Horse

45

Each Hog

15

Each Sheep
Each 100
Chickens

8
15

Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP


Cebu Chapter

Leakages and Pilferages


In addition to
domestic
consumption,
allowance should
be made for
leakages and
pilferages.
Ideally, this should
not be more than
15% of the total
water sent to the
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter
distribution

Design Criteria
The objectives of the
design criteria are to
establish goals such that
if the criteria are met,
consumers will receive
water at reasonable
quantities and cost.
However, during the
planning process, it may
be necessary to modify
the criteria to
accommodate special
requirements of the
locality.

Design criteria include:


1. Design population
2. Design period (when
applicable)
3. Demand factors
a. Average Day
Demand
b. Maximum Day
Demand
c. Maximum Hour
(Peak Hour) Demand

Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP


Cebu Chapter

Design
Population

Stated
mathematically:
Pp = 1.15 x P

Design
Based on 3% annual increase
of population for the design
Population is the
period of 5 years: (0.03 x 5 =
0.15)
number of
where:
individuals of the
Pp = Projected
building or area to
population at the
be served within
end of the design
the design period.
period
The design
population is equal
to the present
P = Present
population
population
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter
multiplied by 1.15.

Design Period
The effective life of
The design periods
the project is
recommended for
dependent upon the
the following
size and source of
appurtenances are:
the water supply, the
1. Pumps : 5 years*
life span of pumps,
2. Wells, pipelines: 5
pipelines, and
years *
storage tanks. This
3. Storage Tanks: 5
may also include the
years*
availability of funds
* The life of the system may
to finance the project last up to 20 years
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Demand Factor: Average Day Demand

Average Day Demand is the sum of


the daily water demands in one year
divided by the number of days of
that year.
The Formula is:
Average Day Demand = Design Population x Water
Consumption Rate

Use the value in Average Day


Demand in the design of the
Reservoir or Storage Tank
capacity.
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Demand Factor: Maximum Day Demand


Maximum Day Demand is the day with the
highest water demand. Usually, this occurs
during dry season generally on a Monday.
The formula is:
Maximum Day Demand = 1.30 x Average Day
Demand
The value from the Maximum Day Demand is used
in determining the minimum pump capacity.
(Except in Hydropneumatic Pressure System)
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Demand Factor: Maximum Hour


Demand
Maximum Hour Demand or Peak Hour
Demand is any hour of the day when the
water demand is at its maximum. In most
places this occurs early morning at 7 or 8.
The formula is
If the Design Population is less than 600 persons:

MHD = (3 x Average Day Demand)


Time*
If the Design Population is more than 600 persons:

MHD = (2.5 x Average Day Demand)


Time**Time = Duration of Usage
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Maximum Hour Demand is used


in:
1. Estimating the diameter of
transmission and distribution mains.
2. Estimating the minimum pump
capacity in Hydropneumatic Pressure
System.
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Example: Proposed 10
Storey Office Building
Total Useable Floor Area: 10,000 square meters

Determine the:
1. Average Day Demand
2. Maximum Day Demand
3. Maximum Hour Demand

Solve for:
1. Capacity of Overhead Storage Tank, if the Gravity System is
to be used.
2. Capacity of Transfer Pump
3. Capacity of Booster Pump and Pressure Tank, if the
Hydropneumatic Pressure System is to be used.
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Sample Calculations: Office


Building
1. Design
Population
If the population is not
given or known,
determine the gross
floor area of the
building and use the
occupant load of 11
square meters per
person.

2. Daily Water
Consumption

3. Duration of Usage
Use 9 hours or 540 minutes of
usage per day.

4. Maximum Hour
Demand
Use: (3 x Ave. Day
Demand)Time, if the
population is less than 600.
Use: ( 2.5 x Ave. Day
Demand)Time, if the
population is more than 600.

Use 75
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
liters/person/shift/day. Cebu Chapter

Step 1. Solving for


the Design
Population (Pp).
Pp = 1.15 (10,000m
11m/person)
Pp = 1046 person

Step 2. Solving for


Average Day
Demand (AVD).
AVD = 1046 person x lpd
AVD = 78,450 liters/day

Step 3. Solving for


Maximum Day
Demand (MDD).
MDD = 1.3 x Average Day
Demand
= 1.3 x 78,450 liters
MDD = 101,985 liters/day

Step 4. Solving for


Maximum Hour
Demand (MHD).
MHD = (2.5 x Ave. Day
Demand)Time
= (2.5 x 78,450
liters)540 min
MHD = 363.19 liters/minute

Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP


Cebu Chapter

Summary
Average Day Demand:
liters/day

78,450

Maximum Day Demand: 101,985


liters/day
Maximum Hour demand:
363.19
liters/minute
or 6.05 liters/second
Danilo V. Ravina New NAMPAP
Cebu Chapter

Equivalent WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU)

Type of Fixture

Number of Water Supply


Fixture Units
(WSFU)
Private Use

Public Use

Bar Sink

Bathtub (with or without Shower


over)

Bidet

Drinking Fountain (each faucet)

Hose Bibb

Laundry Tub or Clothes Washer

Lavatory

Shower (each head)

Sink (kitchen) or dishwasher

Urinal (wall or stall type)

Water Closet Flush Tank

ESTIMATING WATER DEMAND


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS
LOAD IN
WATER
SUPPLY
FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND
Gallon per
minute

Liter per
second

LOAD IN
WATER
SUPPLY
FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

3.0

0.19

60

32.0

2.02

5.0

0.32

70

35.0

2.21

6.5

0.41

80

38.0

2.40

8.0

0.51

90

41.0

2.59

9.4

0.59

100

43.5

2.74

10.7

0.68

120

48.0

3.03

11.8

0.74

140

52.5

3.31

12.8

0.81

160

57.0

3.60

13.7

0.86

180

61.0

3.85

10

14.6

0.92

200

65.0

4.10

12

16.0

1.01

250

75.0

4.73

14

17.0

1.07

300

85.0

5.36

16

18.0

1.14

400

105.0

6.62

18

18.8

1.19

500

124.0

7.82

20

19.6

1.24

750

170.0

10.73

25

21.5

1.36

1000

208.0

13.12

30

23.3

1.47

1250

239.0

15.08

35

24.9

1.57

1500

269.0

16.97

40

26.3

1.66

2000

325.0

20.50

45

27.7

1.76

2500

380.0

23.97

50

29.1

1.84

3000

433.0

27.32

Gallon per
minute

Liter per
second

ESTIMATING WATER DEMAND

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES


LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY
FIXTURE UNITS
(WSFU)

WATER DEMAND
Gallon per
minute

Liter per second

LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY
FIXTURE UNITS
(WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

60

54.0

3.41

70

58.0

3.66

80

61.2

3.86

90

64.3

4.06

15.0

0.95

100

67.5

4.26

17.4

1.10

120

73.0

4.61

19.8

1.25

140

77.0

4.86

22.2

1.40

160

81.0

5.11

24.6

1.55

180

85.5

5.39

10

27.0

1.70

200

90.0

5.68

12

28.6

1.80

250

101.0

6.37

14

30.2

1.91

300

108.0

6.81

16

31.8

2.01

400

127.0

8.01

18

33.4

2.11

500

143.0

9.02

20

35.0

2.21

750

177.0

11.17

25

38.0

2.40

1000

208.0

13.12

30

42.0

2.65

1250

239.0

15.08

35

44.0

2.78

1500

269.0

16.97

40

46.0

2.90

2000

325.0

20.50

45

48.0

3.03

2500

380.0

23.97

50

50.0

3.15

3000

433.0

27.32

Gallon per
minute

Liter per second