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# Chapter 2: Heat Conduction

Equation

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Objectives

## Understand multidimensionality and time dependence of heat transfer,

and the conditions under which a heat transfer problem can be
approximated as being one-dimensional,
Obtain the differential equation of heat conduction in various
coordinate systems, and simplify it for steady one-dimensional case,
Identify the thermal conditions on surfaces, and express them
mathematically as boundary and initial conditions,
Solve one-dimensional heat conduction problems and obtain the
temperature distributions within a medium and the heat flux,
Analyze one-dimensional heat conduction in solids that involve heat
generation, and
Evaluate heat conduction in solids with temperature-dependent
thermal conductivity.

Introduction
Although heat transfer and temperature are
closely related, they are of a different nature.
Temperature has only magnitude
it is a scalar quantity.
Heat transfer has direction as well as magnitude
it is a vector quantity.
We work with a coordinate system and indicate
direction with plus or minus signs.

Introduction Continue
The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the
temperature difference.
The larger the temperature difference, the larger the
rate of heat transfer.
Three prime coordinate systems:
rectangular (T(x, y, z)) ,
cylindrical (T(r, , z)),
spherical (T(r, , )).

Introduction Continue
Classification of conduction heat transfer problems:
multidimensional heat transfer,
heat generation.

## Steady versus Transient Heat Transfer

Steady implies no change with time at any point
within the medium

dependence

## Multidimensional Heat Transfer

Heat transfer problems are also classified as being:
one-dimensional,
two dimensional,
three-dimensional.

## In the most general case, heat transfer through a

medium is three-dimensional. However, some
problems can be classified as two- or one-dimensional
depending on the relative magnitudes of heat transfer
rates in different directions and the level of accuracy
desired.

## The rate of heat conduction through a medium in

a specified direction (say, in the x-direction) is
expressed by Fouriers law of heat conduction
for one-dimensional heat conduction as:
dT
&
Qcond kA
dx

(W) (2-1)

## Heat is conducted in the direction

of decreasing temperature, and thus
when heat is conducted in the positive xdirection.

## General Relation for Fouriers Law of

Heat Conduction
The heat flux vector at a point P on the surface of
the figure must be perpendicular to the surface,
and it must point in the direction of decreasing
temperature
If n is the normal of the
isothermal surface at point P,
the rate of heat conduction at
that point can be expressed by
Fouriers law as
dT
&
Qn kA
(W) (2-2)
dn

## General Relation for Fouriers Law of

Heat Conduction-Continue
In rectangular coordinates, the heat conduction
vector can be expressed
in terms of its components as
r

r
r
r
Q&n Q&x i Q&y j Q&z k

(2-3)

## which can be determined from Fouriers law as

&
T
Qx kAx x

T
&
Qy kAy
y

T
&
Qz kAz
z

(2-4)

Heat Generation
Examples:
electrical energy being converted to heat at a rate of I2R,
fuel elements of nuclear reactors,
exothermic chemical reactions.

## Heat generation is a volumetric phenomenon.

The rate of heat generation units : W/m3 or Btu/h ft3.
The rate of heat generation in a medium may vary
with time as well as position within the medium.
The total rate of heat generation in a medium of
volume V can be determined from
E& e& dV (W)
(2-5)
gen

gen

## One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

Equation - Plane Wall
Rate of heat
conduction
at x

Rate of heat
conduction
at x+ x

Rate of heat
generation inside
the element

E
element
&
&
&

Qx Qx x Egen,element
t

(2-6)

Rate of change of
the energy content
of the element

Eelement
&
&
&
Qx Qx x Egen ,element
t

(2-6)

## The change in the energy content and the rate of heat

generation can be expressed as
Eelement Et t Et mc Tt t Tt cAx Tt t Tt (2-7)
&
(2-8)
Egen ,element e&genVelement e&gen Ax

Tt t Tt
&
&
&

e
A

x
Qx Qx x gen
cAx
t

(2-9)

## Dividing by Ax, taking the limit as x 0 and t 0,

and from Fouriers law:
1
T
T
&
kA

c
gen

A x
x
t

(2-11)

## The area A is constant for a plane wall the one dimensional

transient heat conduction equation in a plane wall is
Variable conductivity:

T
T
&
k egen c
x x
t

Constant conductivity:

2T e&gen 1 T

2
x
k
t

(2-13)
k
c

(2-14)

## The one-dimensional conduction equation may be reduces

to the following forms under special conditions

d 2T e&gen

0
2
dx
k

(2-15)

2T 1 T

2
x
t

(2-16)

d 2T
0
2
dx

(2-17)

## One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

Equation - Long Cylinder
Rate of heat
conduction
at r

Rate of heat
conduction
at r+ r

Rate of heat
generation inside
the element

## Q&r Q&r r E&gen,element

Eelement

t
(2-18)

Rate of change of
the energy content
of the element

Eelement
&
&
&
Qr Qr r Egen ,element
t

(2-18)

## The change in the energy content and the rate of heat

generation can be expressed as
Eelement Et t Et mc Tt t Tt cAr Tt t Tt (2-19)
&
(2-20)
Egen ,element e&genVelement e&gen Ar

Tt t Tt
&
&
&

e
A

r
Qr Qr r gen
cAr
t

(2-21)

## Dividing by Ar, taking the limit as r 0 and t 0,

and from Fouriers law:
1
T
T
&
kA

c
gen

A r
r
t

(2-23)

## Noting that the area varies with the independent variable r

according to A=2rL, the one dimensional transient heat
conduction equation in a cylinder becomes
Variable conductivity:
Constant conductivity:

1
T
T
&
rk

c
gen

r r
r
t
e&gen 1 T
1 T

r
r r r
k
t

(2-25)
(2-26)

## The one-dimensional conduction equation may be reduces

to the following forms under special conditions
2) Transient, no heat generation:

e&gen
1 d dT
0 (2-27)
r
r dr dr
k
1 T
1 T
r
r r r
t

(2-28)

d dT
r 0
dr dr

(2-29)

## One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

Equation - Sphere

Variable conductivity:

1 2 T
T
r k e&gen c
2
r r
r
t

(2-30)

Constant conductivity:

e&gen 1 T
1 2 T

2
r r
r
k
t

(2-31)

## Rate of heat Rate of heat

conduction
conduction
at x, y, and z at x+ x, y+ y,
and z+ z

Rate of heat
generation
inside the
element

Rate of change
of the energy
content of the
element

Eelement
&
&
&
&
&
&

E
(2-36)
Qx Qy Qz Qx x Qy y Qz z
gen ,element
t

Repeating the mathematical approach used for the onedimensional heat conduction, the three-dimensional heat
conduction equation is determined to be
Two-dimensional

Constant conductivity:

2T 2T 2T e&gen 1 T
2 2

2
x
y
z
k
t

(2-39)

Three-dimensional

2T 2T 2T e&gen
2 2
0 (2-40)
2
x
y
z
k

## 2) Transient, no heat generation:

2T 2T 2T 1 T
2 2
2
x
y
z
t

(2-41)

2T 2T 2T
generation: x 2 y 2 z 2 0

(2-42)

Cylindrical Coordinates

1
T
1 T T

T
T
k k e&gen c
rk 2
r r
r
r
z
z
t
(2-43)

Spherical Coordinates

1 2 T
1
T
1

T
T
&
k 2
kr
2 2
k sin egen c
2
r r
r
r sin
r sin

t

(2-44)

## Specified Temperature Boundary Condition

Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition
Convection Boundary Condition
Interface Boundary Conditions
Generalized Boundary Conditions

## Specified Temperature Boundary

Condition
For one-dimensional heat transfer
through a plane wall of thickness
L, for example, the specified
temperature boundary conditions
can be expressed as
T(0, t) = T1
T(L, t) = T2

(2-46)

## The specified temperatures can be constant, which is the

case for steady heat conduction, or may vary with time.

## Specified Heat Flux Boundary

Condition
The heat flux in the positive xdirection anywhere in the medium,
including the boundaries, can be
expressed by Fouriers law of heat
conduction as
dT
q& k

dx

## Heat flux in the

positive xdirection

(2-47)

## The sign of the specified heat flux is determined by

inspection: positive if the heat flux is in the positive
direction of the coordinate axis, and negative if it is in
the opposite direction.

## Two Special Cases

Insulated boundary

T (0, t )
k
0
x

or

T (0, t )
0
x

(2-49)

Thermal symmetry

T L , t
2 0
x

(2-50)

## Convection Boundary Condition

Heat conduction
at the surface in a
selected direction

and

Heat convection
at the surface in
the same direction

T (0, t )
k
h1 T1 T (0, t )
x
T ( L, t )
k
h2 T ( L, t ) T 2
x

(2-51a)
(2-51b)

Heat conduction
at the surface in a
selected direction

and

at the surface in
the same direction

T (0, t )
4
4

k
1 Tsurr

T
(0,
t
)
,1
x

(2-52a)

T ( L, t )
4

k
2 T ( L, t ) 4 Tsurr
,2
x

(2-52b)

## Interface Boundary Conditions

At the interface the requirements are:
(1) two bodies in contact must have the same
temperature at the area of contact,
(2) an interface (which is a
surface) cannot store any
energy, and thus the heat flux
on the two sides of an
interface must be the same.
TA(x0, t) = TB(x0, t)
and
k A

(2-53)

TA ( x0 , t )
T ( x , t )
k B B 0 (2-54)
x
x

## Generalized Boundary Conditions

In general a surface may involve convection, radiation,
and specified heat flux simultaneously. The boundary
condition in such cases is again obtained from a surface
energy balance, expressed as
Heat transfer
to the surface
in all modes

Heat transfer
from the surface
In all modes

## Heat Generation in Solids

The quantities of major interest in a medium with heat
generation are the surface temperature Ts and the
maximum temperature Tmax that occurs in the medium in

## Heat Generation in Solids -The Surface

Temperature
Rate of
heat transfer
from the solid

Rate of
energy generation
within the solid

(2-63)

Q& e&genV (W)
(2-64)

## The heat transfer rate by convection can also be

expressed from Newtons law of cooling as

Q& hAs Ts T
Ts T

(W)

e&genV
hAs

(2-65)
(2-66)

## Heat Generation in Solids -The Surface

Temperature
For a large plane wall of thickness 2L (As=2Awall and
V=2LAwall)
e&gen L
(2-67)
Ts , plane wall T
h
For a long solid cylinder of radius r0 (As=2r0L and
V=r02L)
e&gen r0
(2-68)
Ts ,cylinder T
2h
For a solid sphere of radius r0 (As=4r02 and V=4/3r03)

Ts , sphere T

e&gen r0
3h

(2-69)

END