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Equation

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Objectives

and the conditions under which a heat transfer problem can be

approximated as being one-dimensional,

Obtain the differential equation of heat conduction in various

coordinate systems, and simplify it for steady one-dimensional case,

Identify the thermal conditions on surfaces, and express them

mathematically as boundary and initial conditions,

Solve one-dimensional heat conduction problems and obtain the

temperature distributions within a medium and the heat flux,

Analyze one-dimensional heat conduction in solids that involve heat

generation, and

Evaluate heat conduction in solids with temperature-dependent

thermal conductivity.

Introduction

Although heat transfer and temperature are

closely related, they are of a different nature.

Temperature has only magnitude

it is a scalar quantity.

Heat transfer has direction as well as magnitude

it is a vector quantity.

We work with a coordinate system and indicate

direction with plus or minus signs.

Introduction Continue

The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the

temperature difference.

The larger the temperature difference, the larger the

rate of heat transfer.

Three prime coordinate systems:

rectangular (T(x, y, z)) ,

cylindrical (T(r, , z)),

spherical (T(r, , )).

Introduction Continue

Classification of conduction heat transfer problems:

steady versus transient heat transfer,

multidimensional heat transfer,

heat generation.

Steady implies no change with time at any point

within the medium

dependence

Heat transfer problems are also classified as being:

one-dimensional,

two dimensional,

three-dimensional.

medium is three-dimensional. However, some

problems can be classified as two- or one-dimensional

depending on the relative magnitudes of heat transfer

rates in different directions and the level of accuracy

desired.

a specified direction (say, in the x-direction) is

expressed by Fouriers law of heat conduction

for one-dimensional heat conduction as:

dT

&

Qcond kA

dx

(W) (2-1)

of decreasing temperature, and thus

the temperature gradient is negative

when heat is conducted in the positive xdirection.

Heat Conduction

The heat flux vector at a point P on the surface of

the figure must be perpendicular to the surface,

and it must point in the direction of decreasing

temperature

If n is the normal of the

isothermal surface at point P,

the rate of heat conduction at

that point can be expressed by

Fouriers law as

dT

&

Qn kA

(W) (2-2)

dn

Heat Conduction-Continue

In rectangular coordinates, the heat conduction

vector can be expressed

in terms of its components as

r

r

r

r

Q&n Q&x i Q&y j Q&z k

(2-3)

&

T

Qx kAx x

T

&

Qy kAy

y

T

&

Qz kAz

z

(2-4)

Heat Generation

Examples:

electrical energy being converted to heat at a rate of I2R,

fuel elements of nuclear reactors,

exothermic chemical reactions.

The rate of heat generation units : W/m3 or Btu/h ft3.

The rate of heat generation in a medium may vary

with time as well as position within the medium.

The total rate of heat generation in a medium of

volume V can be determined from

E& e& dV (W)

(2-5)

gen

gen

Equation - Plane Wall

Rate of heat

conduction

at x

Rate of heat

conduction

at x+ x

Rate of heat

generation inside

the element

E

element

&

&

&

Qx Qx x Egen,element

t

(2-6)

Rate of change of

the energy content

of the element

Eelement

&

&

&

Qx Qx x Egen ,element

t

(2-6)

generation can be expressed as

Eelement Et t Et mc Tt t Tt cAx Tt t Tt (2-7)

&

(2-8)

Egen ,element e&genVelement e&gen Ax

Tt t Tt

&

&

&

e

A

x

Qx Qx x gen

cAx

t

(2-9)

and from Fouriers law:

1

T

T

&

kA

c

gen

A x

x

t

(2-11)

transient heat conduction equation in a plane wall is

Variable conductivity:

T

T

&

k egen c

x x

t

Constant conductivity:

2T e&gen 1 T

2

x

k

t

(2-13)

k

c

(2-14)

to the following forms under special conditions

1) Steady-state:

d 2T e&gen

0

2

dx

k

(2-15)

2T 1 T

2

x

t

(2-16)

d 2T

0

2

dx

(2-17)

Equation - Long Cylinder

Rate of heat

conduction

at r

Rate of heat

conduction

at r+ r

Rate of heat

generation inside

the element

Eelement

t

(2-18)

Rate of change of

the energy content

of the element

Eelement

&

&

&

Qr Qr r Egen ,element

t

(2-18)

generation can be expressed as

Eelement Et t Et mc Tt t Tt cAr Tt t Tt (2-19)

&

(2-20)

Egen ,element e&genVelement e&gen Ar

Tt t Tt

&

&

&

e

A

r

Qr Qr r gen

cAr

t

(2-21)

and from Fouriers law:

1

T

T

&

kA

c

gen

A r

r

t

(2-23)

according to A=2rL, the one dimensional transient heat

conduction equation in a cylinder becomes

Variable conductivity:

Constant conductivity:

1

T

T

&

rk

c

gen

r r

r

t

e&gen 1 T

1 T

r

r r r

k

t

(2-25)

(2-26)

to the following forms under special conditions

1) Steady-state:

2) Transient, no heat generation:

e&gen

1 d dT

0 (2-27)

r

r dr dr

k

1 T

1 T

r

r r r

t

(2-28)

d dT

r 0

dr dr

(2-29)

Equation - Sphere

Variable conductivity:

1 2 T

T

r k e&gen c

2

r r

r

t

(2-30)

Constant conductivity:

e&gen 1 T

1 2 T

2

r r

r

k

t

(2-31)

conduction

conduction

at x, y, and z at x+ x, y+ y,

and z+ z

Rate of heat

generation

inside the

element

Rate of change

of the energy

content of the

element

Eelement

&

&

&

&

&

&

E

(2-36)

Qx Qy Qz Qx x Qy y Qz z

gen ,element

t

Repeating the mathematical approach used for the onedimensional heat conduction, the three-dimensional heat

conduction equation is determined to be

Two-dimensional

Constant conductivity:

2T 2T 2T e&gen 1 T

2 2

2

x

y

z

k

t

(2-39)

Three-dimensional

1) Steady-state:

2T 2T 2T e&gen

2 2

0 (2-40)

2

x

y

z

k

2T 2T 2T 1 T

2 2

2

x

y

z

t

(2-41)

2T 2T 2T

generation: x 2 y 2 z 2 0

(2-42)

3) Steady-state, no heat

Cylindrical Coordinates

1

T

1 T T

T

T

k k e&gen c

rk 2

r r

r

r

z

z

t

(2-43)

Spherical Coordinates

1 2 T

1

T

1

T

T

&

k 2

kr

2 2

k sin egen c

2

r r

r

r sin

r sin

t

(2-44)

Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition

Convection Boundary Condition

Radiation Boundary Condition

Interface Boundary Conditions

Generalized Boundary Conditions

Condition

For one-dimensional heat transfer

through a plane wall of thickness

L, for example, the specified

temperature boundary conditions

can be expressed as

T(0, t) = T1

T(L, t) = T2

(2-46)

case for steady heat conduction, or may vary with time.

Condition

The heat flux in the positive xdirection anywhere in the medium,

including the boundaries, can be

expressed by Fouriers law of heat

conduction as

dT

q& k

dx

positive xdirection

(2-47)

inspection: positive if the heat flux is in the positive

direction of the coordinate axis, and negative if it is in

the opposite direction.

Insulated boundary

T (0, t )

k

0

x

or

T (0, t )

0

x

(2-49)

Thermal symmetry

T L , t

2 0

x

(2-50)

Heat conduction

at the surface in a

selected direction

and

Heat convection

at the surface in

the same direction

T (0, t )

k

h1 T1 T (0, t )

x

T ( L, t )

k

h2 T ( L, t ) T 2

x

(2-51a)

(2-51b)

Heat conduction

at the surface in a

selected direction

and

Radiation exchange

at the surface in

the same direction

T (0, t )

4

4

k

1 Tsurr

T

(0,

t

)

,1

x

(2-52a)

T ( L, t )

4

k

2 T ( L, t ) 4 Tsurr

,2

x

(2-52b)

At the interface the requirements are:

(1) two bodies in contact must have the same

temperature at the area of contact,

(2) an interface (which is a

surface) cannot store any

energy, and thus the heat flux

on the two sides of an

interface must be the same.

TA(x0, t) = TB(x0, t)

and

k A

(2-53)

TA ( x0 , t )

T ( x , t )

k B B 0 (2-54)

x

x

In general a surface may involve convection, radiation,

and specified heat flux simultaneously. The boundary

condition in such cases is again obtained from a surface

energy balance, expressed as

Heat transfer

to the surface

in all modes

Heat transfer

from the surface

In all modes

The quantities of major interest in a medium with heat

generation are the surface temperature Ts and the

maximum temperature Tmax that occurs in the medium in

steady operation.

Temperature

Rate of

heat transfer

from the solid

Rate of

energy generation

within the solid

(2-63)

Q& e&genV (W)

(2-64)

expressed from Newtons law of cooling as

Q& hAs Ts T

Ts T

(W)

e&genV

hAs

(2-65)

(2-66)

Temperature

For a large plane wall of thickness 2L (As=2Awall and

V=2LAwall)

e&gen L

(2-67)

Ts , plane wall T

h

For a long solid cylinder of radius r0 (As=2r0L and

V=r02L)

e&gen r0

(2-68)

Ts ,cylinder T

2h

For a solid sphere of radius r0 (As=4r02 and V=4/3r03)

Ts , sphere T

e&gen r0

3h

(2-69)

END

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