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HVAC

DEFINITIONS

Air Conditioning
Process

of treating air so as to control


simultaneously its temperature,
humidity, cleanliness, and distribution
to meet the environmental
requirements of the conditioned space.

Environmental

requirements of the
conditioned space may be determined
by human occupancy as related to
comfort and health, a process, or a
product.
4

Air Conditioning Processes


Heating:

Transfer of energy to the air in a space.


Cooling: Transfer of energy from the air in a space.
Humidifying: Transfer of water vapor to the air in a
space.
Dehumidifying: Removal of water vapor from the
air in the space.
Cleaning: Removal of particulate and biological
contaminants from the air in a space.
Air

Motion (Circulation): movement of air


through the spaces in a building to achieve the
proper ventilation and facilitate the energy transfer,
humidification (or dehumidification), and cleaning
processes described above.
5

Energy
The

capacity for producing an effect

Either

stored or transient, and can


be transformed from one to another

Forms

include: thermal (heat),


mechanical (work), electrical,
chemical
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Heat
Energy

in transit from one mass to


another as a result of a temperature
difference between two masses.

basic law of thermodynamics


states that heat always flows from a
higher temperature to a lower
temperature
7

PRINCIPLE ONE
Heat

ALWAYS flows
from hot to cold
when objects are in
contact or connected
by a good heat
conductor.
The rate of heat
transfer will increase
as the difference in
temp between the
two objects increases

PRINCIPLE TWO
Cold

objects have
less heat than hot
objects of the same
mass.
To make a object
colder, remove heat
To make it
hotter, add heat.
The mass of the
object remains the
same regardless of
the heat content.

EVAPORATION
The

process of moisture becoming


a vapor(molecules escaping from
the surface of the liquid)
As moisture vaporizes from a warm
surface, it removes heat and
lowers the temperature of the
surface.
The warmer the substance the
quicker it will evaporate.

PRINCIPLE THREE
Everything

is composed of matter
All matter exists in one of three
states: solid, liquid or vapor.
LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION:
When matter changes from liquid to
vapor or vice versa, it absorbs or
releases a relatively large amount of
heat without a change in
temperature.

Sensible Heat
Heat

which changes the


temperature of a substance
without changing its state.

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Latent Heat
Heat

which changes the state of a


substance without changing its
temperature.

Two

familiar examples: latent heat


of fusion (changing ice to water)
and latent heat of vaporization
(changing water to vapor)
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MBH

stands for One Thousand BTU per hour. BTU stands


for British Thermal Unit. MBh units should help with the
cost estimate of running your air conditioning (AC). It's a
measure of the heating/cooling capacity of AC
equipment.
MBH - One MBH is equivalent to 1,000 BTU's per hour.
The 'M' is derived from the Roman Numeral M that
equals 1000.Note BTUs and therefore MBH are Imperial
Units.)
BTU - A standard unit of measurement used to denote
both the amount of heat energy in fuels and the ability
of appliances and air conditioning systems to produce
heating or cooling. It is the amount of heat required to
increase the temperature of a pint of water by one
degree Fahrenheit.
BTUs are measurements of energy consumption, and
can be converted directly to kilowatt-hours (3412 BTUs
= 1 kWh) or joules (1 BTU = 1,055.06 joules).

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BRITISH THERMAL UNIT

BTU

is a heat quantity
measure.
BTU is the quantity of heat
needed to raise the
temperature of 1 lb. of
water one degree
Fahrenheit.
Vaporization: Will absorb
more than five times
amount of heat.
1 ton = 12,000 BTU/hr.
12,000 BTU/hr =
3,516Watts or 3.516 kW
(kilo-Watts).

Heat Energy Flow


Rate
Rate

of heat loss/heat gain


associated with buildings.
Also associated with applied heating
and air conditioning equipment.
Normally stated in the terms BTU/hr.

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PRINCIPLE FOUR
CONDENSATION

When a vapor is
cooled below its
dew point, it
becomes a liquid.
(boiling point in
reverse)
When vapor
condenses,
releases five times
as much heat

PRINCIPLE FIVE
Changing

the
pressure on a liquid
or a vapor changes
the boiling point.
Each lb. of pressure
above atmospheric
pressure, raises the
boiling point about
three degrees
Fahrenheit.

PRINCIPLE SIX
When

a vapor is
compressed, its
temperature and
pressure will
increase even
though heat has
not been added.

HEAT TRANSFER/
HEAT GENERATION

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Heat Transfer
Movement

of heat through surfaces and


openings of a building

Usually

assumed to be steady state


(various temperatures throughout a
system remain constant with respect to
time during heat transmission)

Based

upon predetermined temperature


differences
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Heat Loss/ Heat Gain


Heat

Loss heat transferred from the


interior of a building to its exterior

Heat

Gain heat transferred from the


exterior to the interior of a building

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Heat
Transfer

Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Resistance

(R-Value)

=1/R

= U x A x T

Usually

U-Value is the rate of heat


flow in Btu/h through a one
ft2 area when one side is
1oF warmer

all three modes occur


simultaneously

Conduction
Conduction

is the transmission of heat


through solids and composite sections such
as structural components
Conduction does not occur only within one
object or substance, it also occurs between
different substances that are in contact with
one another
By building the walls and roofs of a building
of materials having known conductive
characteristics, the heat flow rate for the
building can be controlled
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Convection
Convection

is the transfer of heat due to the


movement of a fluid: gases, vapors, and
liquids

If

the fluid moves because of a difference in


density resulting from temperature changes,
the process is called natural convection or
free convection

If

the fluid is moved by mechanical means


(pumps or fans), the process is called forced
convection
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Radiation
Radiation

is the transfer of heat through space


by energy carrying electromagnetic waves

Radiant

heat passing through air does not


warm the air through which it travels

All

objects absorb and radiate heat

The

amount of radiant heat given off in a


specified period of time is dependent on both
the temperature as well as the extent and
nature of the radiating object
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CONDUCTION,CONVECTION &
RADIATION

SPECIFIC HEAT
The

amount of heat that must be


absorbed by a certain material if it is to
undergo a temperature change of
1Fahrenheit.

Materials

will absorb, emit and


exchange heat at different rates. It
takes different amounts of heat energy
(Btu's) to make a temperature change
of the material.

SENSIBLE HEAT
Any

heat that can be felt (with your


senses) and can be measured with a
thermometer.
Like ambient air. You feel the
change in temperature which makes
you feel cold or feel hot. Even a few
degrees

PRESSURE
Pressure:

A force
exerted per unit of
surface area.
Atmospheric
Pressure: 21%
Oxygen 78%
Nitrogen 1% other
gases
Atmospheric pressure
is 14.696 psia

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
Service

Manuals refer to pressure


when using A/C gauges as: psig
(pounds per square inch gauge)
A/C Gauges are calibrated to
compensate for atmospheric
pressure.
Pressures below atmospheric are
called vacuum and measured in
inches of mercury (in Hg)

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
At

sea level where atmospheric


pressure is 14.7 PSI, the boiling point
of water is 212 degrees Fahrenheit
At any point higher than sea level the
atmospheric pressure is lower and so
is the boiling point of water.
Boiling point of H20 decreases by 1.1
0F for every 1000 foot in altitude.

PRESSURE AFFECTS BOILING


POINT

Pressure Increase
A

Pressure
increase also
raises the boiling
point of water.
For every 1 PSI of
pressure increase,
the boiling point
raises 2.53
degrees Fahrenheit

If

Result of controlling
Pressure

water boils at a higher temperature


when pressure is applied and at a
lower temperature when the pressure
is reduced, it is obvious that the
temperature can be controlled by
controlling the pressure.
This is the basic theory of physics that
determines and controls the
temperature conditions of air
conditioning systems

PSYCHROMETRICS
REFER TO NEXT PPT

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38

Importance of Load Estimating


An accurate load estimate is needed to get the process of designing,
installing, and operating a project off to a good start.
The load estimate numbers provide the data for a host of
subsequent calculations, selections, and decisions.
Among these items are:
HVAC system selection
Equipment selections for fans
Coils and pumps
Duct and electrical feeder sizing
water piping design
An accurate estimate will provide the correct cooling and heating
requirements, offer option for load reductions at the least
incremental cost, provide properly sized equipment, and yield
efficient air, water, and electrical distribution designs.
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A load calculation is a more detailed analysis of load


components based on actual building design knowledge
-performed by computer software spreadsheets and programs.
Not all the details of the inputs required by the software are
known.
The user must rely on good judgment, so the word estimate
is still appropriate for the results. Current calculation models
have increased the accuracy of software programs.
However, simplifying assumptions are a part of these
methods too, so as far as trying to approach the reality of
nature, it is still an estimate, but on increasingly higher levels.

40

Factors that Determine Building


HVAC Energy Use
Building

configuration and orientation

Building

envelope construction

Interior

space arrangement

Design

temperature and humidity, indoor

and outdoor
Zoning

criteria

Equipment
Control

application and sizing

methodologies

41

TERMINOLOGY
Commonly used terms relative to heat
transmission and load calculations are defined
below in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 1275, Refrigeration Terms and Definitions.
Space is either a volume or a site without a
partition or a partitioned room or group of
rooms.
Room is an enclosed or partitioned space
that is usually treated as single load.
Zone is a space or group of spaces within a
building with heating and/or cooling
requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort
conditions can be maintained throughout by a 42

Space Heat Gain is the rate at which heat enters


into and/or is generated within the conditioned space
during a given time interval.
The manner in which it enters the space
a. Solar radiation through transparent surfaces such
as windows
b. Heat conduction through exterior walls and roofs
c. Heat conduction through interior partitions, ceilings
and floors
d. Heat generated within the space by occupants,
lights, appliances, equipment and processes
e. Loads as a result of ventilation and infiltration of

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Sensible Heat Gain is the energy added to the


space by conduction, convection and/or radiation.
Sensible heat load is total of
a. Heat transmitted thru floors, ceilings, walls
b. Occupants body heat
c. Appliance & Light heat
d. Solar Heat gain thru glass
e. Infiltration of outside air
f. Air introduced by Ventilation
44

Latent Heat Gain is the energy added to the


space when moisture is added to the space by
means of vapor emitted by the occupants,
generated by a process or through air infiltration
from outside or adjacent areas.
Latent heat load is total of
a. Moisture-laden outside air form Infiltration &
Ventilation
b. Occupant Respiration & Activities
c. Moisture from Equipment & Appliances
To maintain a constant humidity ratio, water vapor
must condense on cooling apparatus at a rate equal
to its rate of addition into the space. This process is

45

Radiant Heat Gain the rate at


which heat absorbed is by the
surfaces enclosing the space and
the objects within the space.
Space Cooling Load is the rate
at which energy must be removed
from a space to maintain a constant
space air temperature.
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Space Heat Extraction Rate - the rate at which heat is


removed from the conditioned space and is equal to the space
cooling load if the room temperature remains constant.
Temperature, Dry Bulb is the temperature of air indicated by
a regular thermometer.
Temperature, Wet Bulb is the temperature measured by a
thermometer that has a bulb wrapped in wet cloth. The
evaporation of water from the thermometer has a cooling effect,
so the temperature indicated by the wet bulb thermometer is
less than the temperature indicated by a dry-bulb (normal,
unmodified) thermometer.
The rate of evaporation from the wet-bulb thermometer
depends on the humidity of the air. Evaporation is slower when
the air is already full of water vapor. For this reason, the
difference in the temperatures indicated by ordinary dry bulb
and wet bulb thermometers gives a measure of atmospheric
humidity.
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SIZING YOUR AIR-CONDITIONING


SYSTEM
The
heat gain or heat loss through a building depends
on:
a. The temperature difference between outside
temperature and our desired temperature.
b. The type of construction and the amount of insulation
is in your ceiling and walls.
c. How much shade is on your buildings windows, walls,
and roof. Two identical buildings with different
orientation with respect to the direction of sun rise and
fall will also influence the air conditioner sizing.
d. How large is your room? The surface area of the

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e. How much air leaks into indoor space from the outside?
Infiltration plays a part in determining our air conditioner sizing.
Door gaps, cracked windows, chimneys - are the "doorways" for
air to enter from outside, into your living space.
f. The occupants. It takes a lot to cool a town hall full of people.
g. Activities and other equipment within a building. Cooking?
Hot bath? Gymnasium?
h. Amount of lighting in the room. High efficiency lighting
fixtures generate less heat.
i. How much heat the appliances generate. Number of power
equipments such as oven, washing machine, computers, TV
inside the space; all contribute to heat.
The air conditioner's efficiency, performance, durability, and
cost depend on matching its size to the above factors. Many
designers use a simple square foot method for sizing the air-

49

What is the difference between


ventilation and infiltration?
A)

B)

C)

Ventilation refers to the total


amount of air entering a space,
and infiltration refers only to air
that unintentionally enters.
Ventilation is intended air entry
into a space. Infiltration is
unintended air entry.
Infiltration is uncontrolled
ventilation.

Heat transfer in the building


Not only conduction and
convection !

51

COOLING LOAD IN BUILDING


ROOF
OPAQUE WALL
GLASS
INFILTRATION
APPLIANCES AND LIGHTING FIGURES
USER

53

54

Building Cooling and Heating


Requirements

function of three heat transfer


components:

Heat gains or losses through the building


surfaces [walls, fenestration, roof, etc.]
Heat gains from internal heat producing
sources [lights, people, appliances, etc.]
Heat gains or losses from infiltration of
outdoor air through window and door
cracks, floors, walls, etc.
55

Indoor Design Conditions


The

primary purpose of the heating and airconditioning system is to maintain the space
in a comfortable and healthy condition.
This is generally accomplished by maintaining
the dry-bulb temperature and the relative
humidity within an acceptable range.
The HVAC Applications Volume of the ASHRAE
Handbook gives recommendations for indoor
design conditions for specific comfort as well
as industrial applications.

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Comfort Zone for human


being

Temperature

Range :21-24 degree

centigrade
Relative Humidity 30 -70 %
Out side and Inside
A man in outdoor needs to adjust
himself with his clothing and whims
of nature.
A man inside shelter We can control
his comfort .
HOW ?

Indoor Design Conditions


contd

ANSI

/ ASHRAE Standard 55-2004

Thermal Environmental Conditions for


Human Occupancy specifies the
combinations of indoor thermal
environmental factors and personal factors
that produce acceptable conditions to a
majority of the occupants

58

Typical Brick Veneer Wall


Section

59

Transmission Coefficient(U-Factor)
The

`U` factor is the rate at which


heat is transferred through a building
barrier. It is determined by the
following equation.
U=1/(R1+R2+R3......Rn)
Where the `R` values are the
resistance of the various wall
segments to the flow of heat.
U = overall heat transfer coefficient,
BTU/ hr sf F
R = thermal resistance, hr sf F /BTU

Transmission Heat Loss Through Walls, Roofs,


and Glass

H = U x A x T
H = heat loss, BTU/hr
A = surface area of element, sf
U = overall heat transfer coefficient, BTU/ hr sf F
T = design dry bulb temperature difference
between indoors and outdoors, F
Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD)
Equivalent temperature difference used for
calculating the instantaneous external cooling
load across a wall or roof.
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Transmission Heat Gain Through Walls and


Roofs

H = U x A x T
H = heat gain, BTU/hr
A = surface area of element, sf
U = overall heat transfer coefficient, BTU/
hr sf F
T = cooling load temperature difference,
F

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Conduction Heat Gains Through Glass

H = U x A x T
H = heat gain, BTU/hr
A = surface area of element, sf
U = overall heat transfer coefficient, BTU/ hr sf F
T = cooling load temperature difference, F

Solar Heat Gain Through Glass

H = A x SC x SCL
H = heat gain, BTU/hr
SC = shading coefficient
SCL = solar cooling load factor
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Infiltration Heat Gain and


Heat Loss
The

uncontrolled leakage of outdoor air


into a building through window and door
cracks, floors, walls, etc., as well as the
flow of outdoor air into a building through
the normal use of exterior doors.
[Ex filtration is the leakage of indoor air
out of the building.The amount of ex
filtration equals the amount of infiltration]
64

Heat Gain from Occupants


Activity

Typical
Application

Sensible
(BTU/hr)

Latent
(BTU/hr)

Seated at rest

Theater

210

140

Seated, very light work

Hotels, Apartments 230

190

Seated, eating

Restaurant

255

325

Seated, light work

Offices

255

255

Standing, walking slowly

Retail store, bank

315

325

Light bench work

Factory

345

435

Walking, light machine


work

Factory

345

695

Bowling

Bowling alley

345

625

Heavy work, lifting

Factory

565

1035

Heavy work

Gymnasium

635

1165
65

Heat Gains from Lights

Each watt of lighting load (including both lamp and


ballast) releases 3.413 BTU/hr

Heat Gain from Motors

Each brake or net horsepower of motor load


divided by the efficiency (including both motor
and drive) releases 2545 BTU/hr

H = 2545 BTU/hr x Bhp / EffM x EffD


H = heat gain, BTU/hr
Bhp = brake horsepower
EffM = motor efficiency, decimal fraction, 0 1.0
EffD = drive efficiency, decimal fraction, 0 1.0
66

Heat Gains from Appliances and


Equipment
Appliances

and equipment (including food prep.,


hospital, lab, office, etc.) normally produce
significant sensible heat, and may also produce
significant latent heat.
To estimate the cooling load, specific heat gain
data obtained from the manufacturer is
preferred. However, if it is not available,
recommended heat gains are published by
ASHRAE and other sources.
Evaluation of the operating schedule and the
load factor for each piece of equipment is
essential.
67

Energy Saving
Opportunities
Change

indoor temperature and/or


humidity set-points

Improve

building thermal envelope

Apply additional thermal insulation


Improve fenestration
Reduce infiltration
Improve

lighting system efficiency


68

Low-e coatings

A.

Obtain building characteristics:


Heating Load Calculation
1. Materials
Procedure
2. Size
3. Color
4. Shape
5. Location
6. Orientation, N, S, E,W, NE, SE, SW,
NW, etc.
7. External shading
8. Occupancy type and time of day

B.

Select outdoor design weather conditions:


1. Temperature.
2. Wind direction and speed.
3. Conditions in selecting outdoor design weather conditions:
a. Type of structure, heavy , medium or light.
b. Is structure insulated?
c. Is structure exposed to high wind?
d. Infiltration or ventilation load.
e. Amount of glass.
f. Time of building occupancy.
g. Type of building occupancy.
h. Length of reduced indoor temperature.
i. What is daily temperature range, minimum/maximum?
j. Are there significant variations from ASHRAE weather
data?
k. What type of heating devices will be used?
l. Expected cost of fuel.

C.

Select indoor design temperature to be maintained


in each space.
Energy Conservation and Design Conditions, for code
restrictions on selection of indoor design conditions.
D. Estimate temperatures in un-heated spaces.
E. Select and/or compute U-values for walls, roof,
windows, doors, partitions, etc.
F. Determine area of walls, windows, floors, doors,
partitions, etc.
G. Compute heat transmission losses for all walls,
windows, floors, doors, partitions, etc.
H. Compute heat losses from basement and/or grade
level slab floors.
I. Compute infiltration heat losses.
J. Compute ventilation heat loss required.
K. Compute sum of all heat losses indicated in items
G, H, I, and J above.

L.

For a building with sizable and steady


internal heat release, a credit may be taken,
but only a portion of the total. Use extreme
caution!!! For most buildings, credit for heat
gain should not be taken.
M. Include morning warm-up for buildings with
intermittent use and night set-back. Energy
Conservation and Design Conditions, for code
restrictions on excess HVAC system capacity
permitted for morning warm-up.
N. Consider equipment and materials which
will be brought into the building below inside
design temperature.
O. Heating load calculations should be
conducted using industry accepted methods
to determine actual heating load
requirements.

Example problem

Calculate the cooling load for the building with the


geometry shown on figure. On east north and west sides are
buildings which create shade on the whole wall.
Walls: 4 face brick + 2 insulation + 4 concrete block, U
value = 0.1, Dark color
Roof: 2 internal insulation + 4 concrete , U value = 0.120 ,
Dark color
Below the building is basement with temperature of 75 F.

Internal design parameters:


air temperature 75 F
Relative humidity 50%
Find the amount of fresh air
that needs to be supplied by
ventilation system.

Example problem
Internal

loads:

10 occupants, who are there from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00


P.M.doing moderately active office work
1 W/ft2 heat gain from computers and other office
equipment from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
0.2 W/ft2 heat gain from computers and other office
equipment from 5:00 P.M. to 8:00 A.M.
1.5 W/ft2 heat gain from suspended fluorescent
lights from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
0.3 W/ft2 heat gain from suspended fluorescent
lights from 5:00 P.M. to 8:00 A.M.

Infiltration:

0.5 ACH per hour

Example solution

For which hour to do the calculation when you do manual calculation?

Identify the major single contributor to the cooling load and do the
calculation for the hour when the maximum cooling load for this
contributor appear.

For example problem major heat gains are


through the roof or solar through windows!
Roof: maximum TETD=61F at 6 pm (Total equivalent temperature differance)
South windows: max. SHGF=109 Btu/hft2 at 12 am (solar heat gain factor)

If you are not sure, do the calculation for both hours:


at 6 pm
Roof gains = A x U x TETD = 900 ft2 x 0.12 Btu/hFft2 x 61 F = 6.6 kBtu/h
Window solar gains = A x SC x SHGF =80 ft2 x 0.71 x 10 Btu/hft2 = 0.6 kBtu/h
7.2 kBtu/h

total =

at 12 am
Roof gains = A x U x TETD = 900 ft2 x 0.12 Btu/hFft2 x 30 F = 3.2 kBtu/h
Window solar gains = A x SC x SHGF =80 ft2 x 0.71 x 109 Btu/hft2 = 6.2 kBtu/h
9.4 kBtu/h

For the example critical hour is July 12 AM.

total=

How to calculate Cooling Load for


HVAC design
If

the room with no outdoor influence


has 4 lighting fixtures with 100 W
each and 10 students,
what is the needed relative humidity
and temperature of supply air if only
required amount of fresh air is
supplied
and room temperature is 75 F and
RH 50%

"Rule of Thumb" Method


This method is simple to understand and use.
However, it only provides a rough guideline on the
estimation of cooling load requirement for the
conventional window or split air-conditioning system.
Procedures

a) Determine the function of the room (assuming there is


no over-crowding of occupants and / or heat generating
equipments).
b) Measure the floor area (A) of the room in either in
square feet or square meter (a standard height of about
8.5 feet or 2.65 meter between the floor and false ceiling
shall be assumed for the room).
c) Depending on whether you are using the imperial
( square feet ) or metric ( square meter ) system of
measurement, decide on which Factor (F) to use
78

79

80

81

INDOOR AIR QUALITYASHRAE STD. 62-1

82

83

AHSRAE Standard 62.1

Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air


Quality
Acceptable

Indoor Air Quality:


Air in which there are no known
contaminants at harmful
concentrations as determined by
cognizant authorities and with
which a substantial majority (80%
or more) of the people exposed do
not express dissatisfaction
84

The Purpose of Standard


62

The

purpose of the Standard, first


published in 1973 Standards for
Natural and Mechanical Ventilation,
has remained consistent:
To specify minimum ventilation rates
and other measures intended to
provide indoor air quality that is
acceptable to human occupants and
that minimizes adverse health
effects.

85

Under Continuous
Maintenance

The

standard is updated on a regular


bases using ASHRAEs Continuous
Maintenance Procedures
Continuously revised addenda are publicly
reviewed and approved by ASHRAE
Published in a Supplement approximately 18
months after each new edition of the
Standard
OR
A new, complete edition of the Standard is
published every three years
86

Significant Changes to ASHRAE


Standard 62
1981 Edition:
Reduced the minimum outdoor air requirements for ventilation
Office 15 cfm/person to 5 cfm/person

1989 Edition:
Increased minimum outdoor air requirements for ventilation
[Response to growing number of buildings with apparent IAQ
problems]
Office 5 cfm/person to 20 cfm/person

2004 Edition:
Changed the ventilation rate procedure to include the
summation of two components: the occupant-density related
component, and the area related component
Changed the ventilation rates in Table 6-1 to apply to nonsmoking spaces
87

Significant Changed
contd
2004 contd:
Added classification of air with respect to
contaminant and odor intensity, and established
guidelines for recirculation

2007 Edition:
Updated information in Table 4-1 National
primary ambient air quality standards for outdoor
air as set by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency
Added Section 5.18 Requirements for buildings
containing ETS areas and ETS-free areas (ETSEnvironmental Tobacco Smoke)

88

ASHRAE Standard 62.1


Two

alternative procedures for determining


outdoor air intake rates:
Ventilation Rate Procedure
This is a prescriptive procedure in which
outdoor air intake rates are determined based
on space type/application, occupancy level, and
floor area

IAQ Procedure
This is a design procedure in which outdoor air
intake rates and other system design
parameters are based on an analysis of
contaminant concentration targets, and
perceived acceptability targets
89

90

91

62.1-2007

92

62.1-2007

93

NCSBC

94

NCSBC

95

Noteworthy Energy
Conservation Considerations
CO2

based demand controlled


ventilation

Air-to-air

energy recovery

[Exhaust air stream outdoor ventilation air


stream]

96

Energy Conservation
Imperative
Ongoing

effective maintenance
program for equipment and controls

97

Commentary
ASHRAE Standard 62.1 Code
Adoption
Standard 62.1 is voluntary until adopted by
code or other regulation
Code adoption is often delayed due to time
required to be accepted and integrated
into the model codes, as then accepted
and adopted by the local codes

98

Energy Saving
Opportunities

Optimize the energy requirements


associated with outdoor ventilation
air

Apply

CO2 based demand control

Apply

air-to-air energy recovery


equipment

99

VAPOR
COMPRESSION
REFRIGERATION
CYCLE

10

Vapor Compression
Refrigeration Cycle
Evaporation:

Low pressure liquid


absorbs heat (heat source) and changes
state to a low pressure vapor
Compression: Low pressure vapor is
compressed to high pressure vapor
Condensation: High pressure vapor is
cooled (heat sink) and changes state to
a high pressure liquid
Expansion: High pressure liquid is
reduced to low pressure liquid via
throttling
10

Vapor Compression
Refrigeration Cycle
Components

EVAPORATOR

10

Basic Liquid Chiller - Water


Cooled

EVAPORATOR

CHILLED WATER

10

ENERGY USAGE

HVAC SYSTEM ENERGY USE


The energy use in a Heating, Ventilating
and Air-Conditioning System is that
The generation of heating and cooling medium
associated
with:
steam, hot water, chilled water, and dx
refrigeration (through boilers, chillers, and dx
refrigeration assemblies utilizing fossil fuels and
electricity)
The movement of heat transfer fluids air and
water (through fans and pumps utilizing electricity)
[As in the previous sections, energy saving
opportunities will be identified and discussed
throughout this seminar]

HVAC SYSTEMS

10

Developing an HVAC
System
Basic System Requirements
Provide

heating
Modulate heating to satisfy variations in load
Provide cooling
Modulate cooling to satisfy variations in load
Provide adequate ventilation
Provide air cleaning (filtration)
Control humidity (humidify/dehumidify)
Integrate with other building systems

10

Developing an HVAC
System

Critical Consideration Issues


Environmental

Control Requirements

Occupant Comfort
Clean Air / Ventilation
Product / Process Requirements
Equipment

Fuctionality

Reliability while meeting requirements


Economics

Initial Cost
Operating Cost
Maintenance Cost
10

HVAC System General


Classification
All-Air

Systems

Air-and-Water
All-Water
Unitary

Systems

Systems

Air Conditioners

10

HVAC System Definitions


All-Air System
Provides complete sensible and latent cooling capacity
in the cold air supplied by the system
No additional cooling is required at the zone
Heating can be accomplished by the same airstream,
either in the central system or at a particular zone

Air-and-Water System
Conditions the spaces by distributing air and water
sources to terminal units installed in habitable space
throughout a building
The air and water are cooled or heated in central
mechanical equipment rooms
The air supplied is called primary air, the water
supplied is called secondary water
11

HVAC System Definitions


All-Water System
Heats and/or cools a space by direct heat transfer
between water and circulating air

Unitary System
Packaged air conditioning units with integral
refrigeration cycles

11

All-Air Systems
Single

zone draw-through

Constant

volume terminal reheat

Dual-duct
Multizone
Variable

air volume (VAV)

11

General Air Handling System


Layout

11

Air Side Economizer

Modes:
Free Cooling
Economy Refrigeration
11

Constant Volume System with


Terminal Reheat

11

Dual Duct System

11

Variable Air Volume System


(VAV)

11

True VAV Terminal Unit

11

Parallel Fan-Powered VAV


Terminal Unit

11

Series Fan-Powered VAV


Terminal Unit

12

Fan Volume Modulation for


VAV Systems

12

Basic Fan Laws


1.

Volume varies directly with speed ratio


CFM2 = CFM1 (RPM2 / RPM1)

2.

Pressure varies with square of speed ratio


P2 = P1 (RPM2 / RPM1)2

3.

Horsepower varies with cube of speed


ratio
HP2 = HP1 (RPM2 / RPM1)3
12

Fan Problem
An existing centrifugal supply air fan serving a central
station air washer delivers 90,000 cfm @ 2 s.p. (wg),
825
rpm and 47.3 bhp.
It has been established that the volumetric air flow rate
(cfm) can be reduced 20% because of excessive design
safety factors and plant production equipment
modifications.
Determine: 1) new air volume, 2) rpm @ new cfm, 3) bhp
@ new cfm, and 4) annual electrical savings
Electricity cost:
Demand charge - $6.00/kw (avg)
Energy charge - $0.031/kwh (avg)
12

Fan
Solution
New Problem
Air Volume = 0.8 x 90,000
= 72,000 cfm
1.
2.
3.
4.

New RPM = 825 (72,000/90,000) = 660 rpm


New HP = 47.3 (660/825) 3 = 24.2 hp

Annual electrical savings


HP reduction = 47.3 24.2 = 23.1 hp
KW reduction = (23.1 hp)(0.746 kw/hp) = 17.2 kw
Energy:
(23.1 hp)(0.746 kw/hp)(8760 hr/yr)($0.031/kwh)(1.03
tax)
= $4,820 /yr
Demand:
(17.2 kw/mo)(12 mo/yr)($6.00/kw)(1.03 tax)
= $1,276 /yr
Annual Electrical Savings:
$4,820 + $1,276 = $6,096 /yr
12

Air and Water System


Induction
Fan

Coil

12

Induction Unit

Induction Nozzle

12

Fan Coil Unit

Note:

Conditioned outdoor ventilation air is


delivered into the space through an
independent de-coupled system
12

All-Water Systems
Unit
Fan

Ventilator
Coil

12

Unit Ventilator

13

Fan Coil Unit

Note:

Outdoor ventilation air provided


through infiltration
13

Unitary Air Conditioners


Rooftop
Split

System

Through-the-wall

13

Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning


Units

13

Water-Source Heat Pumps

13

Water Loop Heat Pump


System

13

Energy Saving
Opportunities
Convert air-handling systems from constant volume

to variable-air-volume (VAV) airflow: employ VAV


boxes and fan motor variable speed drives. [Typical

target systems: constant volume systems with


terminal reheat, & dual duct systems]
Convert

traditional multi-zone units to by-pass


multi-zone units

Install

air-side economizers maximize the use


of outdoor air for cooling: free-cooling and
economy refrigeration

Eliminate

the air-side economizer cycle on multizone units


Install water-side economizers
13

Energy Saving Opportunities


contd
Optimize/balance

volumetric airflow rates and


eliminate excess by fan speed adjustments
Implement occupied/unoccupied scheduling
Employ air-to-air heat exchangers exhaust air
heat recovery
Develop and implement an effective Preventative
Maintenance (PM) program
Replace equipment with higher efficiency
equipment. [Evaluate the employment of
evaporative condensers in lieu of air-cooled
condensers]

Air-to-Air Heat Recovery


Properly applied air-to-air energy recovery
equipment, which transfers energy between
supply and exhaust airstreams, will reduce
building and/or process energy usage in a costeffective manner.
Air-to-air energy recovery applications fall into
three categories (ASHRAE):
Comfort-to-comfort
Process-to-comfort
Process-to-process

[Because of time constraints in this workshop, we will


limit our discussion to comfort-to-comfort
applications]
13

Comfort-to-Comfort
Applications
Sensible

Heat Devices - only transfer


sensible heat between the supply and
exhaust airstreams, except when the
exhaust airstream is cooled to below its dew
point.

Total

Heat Devices - transfer both sensible


and latent heat between the supply and
exhaust airstreams

13

Performance Rating of Air-to-Air


Energy-Recovery Equipment
ASHRAE Standard 84-1991, Method of Testing
Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers, was developed
to establish a uniform testing and rating
standard.
e=
Actual transfer for the given
device
Maximum possible transfer between
airstreams
e = effectiveness
14

Air-to-Air Heat Recovery


Equipment
Rotary
Heat

(Heat Wheel)

Pipe

Static

Heat Echanger

Runaround

System

14

Rotary (Heat Wheel)

14

Heat Pipe

14

Static Heat Exchangers

14

Runaround System

14

CONTROL STRATEGY

14

Control Strategy
Optimize the operation of the HVAC
systems
[To minimize the fan, heating and cooling energy
requirements]
Develop and implement system scheduling
occupied/unoccupied
Implement optimal start/stop
Optimize the temperature and/or humidity setpoints
in both the occupied and unoccupied periods
Introduce outdoor ventilation air only when the
building is occupied
Provide control system override

14