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discussed and the best ones, so far:

10/02/05

Quick sort (best one in practice): O( n log n )

on average, O( n2 ) worst case

No.

It can be proven that any comparison-based

sorting algorithm will need to carry out at

least O( n log n ) operations

BucketSor

t

Slide 2

sorted can repeat but the values have a

limit (e.g., values are digits from 0 to 9)

Sorting, in this case, appears easier

Is it possible to come up with an

algorithm better than O( n log n )?

10/02/05

Yes

Strategy will not involve comparisons

BucketSor

t

Slide 3

Decision-tree example

Sort a1, a2, , an

1:2

2:3

123

1:3

213

1:3

132

312

2:3

231

321

The left subtree shows subsequent comparisons if ai aj.

BucketSor

The right subtree shows subsequent comparisons

t if ai aj.

10/02/05

Slide 4

Decision-tree example

Sort a1, a2,

a3 9, 4, 6

1:2

94

2:3

123

1:3

213

1:3

132

312

2:3

231

321

The left subtree shows subsequent comparisons if ai aj.

BucketSor

if ai aj.

The right subtree shows subsequent comparisons

10/02/05

t

Slide 5

Decision-tree example

Sort a1, a2,

a3 9, 4, 6

1:2

2:3

123

1:3

213

1:3

132

312

96

2:3

231

321

The left subtree shows subsequent comparisons if ai aj.

BucketSor

if ai aj.

The right subtree shows subsequent comparisons

10/02/05

t

Slide 6

Decision-tree example

Sort a1, a2,

a3 9, 4, 6

1:2

2:3

123

1:3

213

1:3

132

312

4 6 2:3

231

321

The left subtree shows subsequent comparisons if ai aj.

BucketSor

if ai aj.

The right subtree shows subsequent comparisons

10/02/05

t

Slide 7

Decision-tree example

Sort a1, a2,

a3 9, 4, 6

1:2

2:3

123

1:3

213

1:3

132

312

2:3

231

321

469

Each leaf contains a permutation , ,, (n) to

indicate that the ordering a(1) a(2) a(n) BucketSor

has been

established.

t

10/02/05

Slide 8

Decision-tree model

A decision tree can model the execution of

any comparison sort:

One tree for each input size n.

View the algorithm as splitting whenever

it compares two elements.

The tree contains the comparisons along

all possible instruction traces.

The running time of the algorithm = the

length of the path taken.

BucketSor

Worst-case running time = height ofttree.

10/02/05

Slide 9

Can be turned into a Decision tree

class InsertionSortAlgorithm {

1:2

int j = i;

while ((j > 0) && (a[j-1] > a[i])) {

2:3

1:3

a[j] = a[j-1];

j--; }

123

213

1:3

2:3

a[j] = B; }}

132

10/02/05

312

231

321

BucketSor

t

Slide 10

Theorem. Any decision tree that can sort n

elements must have height (n lg n) .

Proof. The tree must contain n! leaves, since

there are n! possible permutations. A height-h

binary tree has 2h leaves. Thus, n! 2h .

h lg(n!)

(lg is mono. increasing)

lg ((n/e)n)

(Stirlings formula)

= n lg n n lg e

BucketSor

= (n lg n) .

t

10/02/05

Slide 11

Bucket sort

0..m-1; start with m empty buckets

numbered 0 to m-1, scan the list and

place element s[i] in bucket s[i], and then

output the buckets in order

Will need an array of buckets, and the

values in the list to be sorted will be the

indexes to the buckets

10/02/05

BucketSor

t

Slide 12

Example

4 2 1

10/02/05

2 0 3 2 1

0

0

0

1

1

0 0 0 1

2

2

2

2

4 0 2 3 0

3

3

4

4

2 2 2 2 3 3 BucketSor

4 4

t

Slide 13

Algorithm BucketSort( S )

( values in S are between 0 and m-1 )

for j 0 to m-1 do

b[j] 0

for i 0 to n-1 do

b[S[i]] b[S[i]] + 1

i0

for j 0 to m-1 do

for r 1 to b[j] do

S[i] j

ii+1

10/02/05

// initialize m buckets

// place elements in their

// appropriate buckets

// place elements in buckets

// back in S

BucketSor

t

Slide 14

just a counter that we increment

whenever a value matching the buckets

number is encountered

If we were sorting entries according to

keys, then each bucket is a queue

10/02/05

Entries will be dequeued back into the array

after the scan

BucketSor

t

Slide 15

Algorithm BucketSort( S )

for j 0 to m-1 do

//

initialize queue b[j]

for i 0 to n-1 do

//

b[S[i].getKey()].enqueue( S[i] );

i0

for j 0 to m-1 do

//

while not b[j].isEmpty() do

//

S[i] b[j].dequeue()

ii+1

10/02/05

initialize m buckets

place in buckets

place elements in

buckets back in S

BucketSor

t

Slide 16

Time complexity

Bucket initialization: O( m )

From array to buckets: O( n )

From buckets to array: O( n )

Bucket sort is O( n )

10/02/05

all we do is dequeue from each bucket until they are

all empty > n dequeue operations in all

BucketSor

t

Slide 17

Sorting integers

(non-negative) integers?

maximum value is 999999, you will need 1 million

buckets!

10/02/05

depend on the maximum integer value

much > than n. Actual time complexity is O( m )

Can we do better?

BucketSor

t

Slide 18

Radix sort

multiple bucket sorts on S starting with the

rightmost digit

If maximum value is 999999, only ten buckets

(not 1 million) will be necessary

Use this strategy when the keys are integers,

and there is a reasonable limit on their values

10/02/05

on the number of digits in the maximum value

BucketSor

t

Slide 19

12 58 37 64 52 36 99 63 18 9

20

10/02/05

12

52

63

64

37

36 47

20 88 47

58

18

88

9

99

20 12 52 63 64 36 37 47 58 18 88BucketSor

9 99

t

Slide 20

20 12 52 63 64 36 37 47 58 18 88 9

9

10/02/05

12

18

20

36

37

52

47 58

63

64

88

99

99

12 18 20 36 37 47 52 58 63 64BucketSor

88 99

t

Slide 21

12 58 37 64 52 36 99 63 18 9

20 88 47

20 12 52 63 64 36 37 47 58 18 88 9

99

10/02/05

12 18 20 36 37 47 52 58 63 64 88 99

BucketSor

t

Slide 22

stages are stable sorts

Stable sort: in case of ties, relative order of

elements are preserved in the resulting array

10/02/05

the same; for example, 52 & 58

If 52 occurs before 58 in the array prior to the

sorting stage, 52 should occur before 58 in the

resulting array

bucket sort stages is preserved

BucketSor

t

Slide 23

Time complexity

sort stages (six stages in the case where

the maximum value is 999999), then

radix sort is O( n )

10/02/05

O( n ) time

O( pn ), where p is the number of digits

(note that p = log10m, where m is the

maximum value in the list)

BucketSor

t

Slide 24

regardless of number of stages since the

buckets are reused at each stage

Radix sort can apply to words

10/02/05

Use 27 buckets (or more, depending on the

letters/characters allowed), one for each

letter plus a blank character

The word-length limit is exactly the number

of bucket sort stages needed

BucketSor

t

Slide 25

Summary

10/02/05

algorithms only because we have imposed

restrictions on the input list to be sorted

Sorting, in general, can be done in

O( n log n ) time

BucketSor

t

Slide 26

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