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# Core 2

Trigonometry

Lesson Objectives
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

## DEGREES are not the only way to measure angles.

A RADIAN is a larger unit which is often used in
trigonometry because it can simplify many
calculations.

P
Consider a circle with radius 1.
The angle POQ in radians is
the same as the distance you
would travel from P to Q along
the circle.

Degrees
360o
180o
90o
45o
30o

2

/2
/4
/6

1
O

Q
1

## How to convert radians into degrees and vice-versa:

Degrees

Degrees

180

Example
30o

45o

60 o

120 o

Example
72

315 o

36o

720 o

Example
Convert to degrees

12

5
12

3
4

Practice

Lesson Objectives
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

Q

## If the circle has radius 1, the

arc length is the same as the
P angle .
However, if we increase or
length will change, but will
remain the same.
If the radius doubles, the arc
length also doubles, so we can
use a simple formula to
calculate the arc length

Arc PQ = r

EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the arc length and perimeter of a sector of
terms of .
6

/3

Arc length = r
Arc length = 6 X 2/3
Arc length = 4

Perimeter = 4 + 6 + 6 = 4 + 12

Area of a sector
Q

P
r

## This would be a sector with

angle 2
We only want the sector
with angle
So we can use the formula:
Area of sector = 1/2 r2

EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the area of a sector of angle 2/3 and radius

/3

## Area of sector = 1/2 r2

Area of sector = 1/2 X 62 X
Area of sector = 12

/3

Exercise
Form the cards into a loop in your groups.

Lesson Objectives
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

Area of a triangle

1
2

ab sin C

## This also works if we measure in radians, but

we need to change the mode of our calculator!
Shift
Mode
To change back to degrees
Shift
Mode
Option for Deg (3)

Area of a triangle

1
2

ab sin C

## e.g. Find the area of this triangle to 3

significant figures

6 cm

2/3

9 cm

Area = absinC
Area = 6 X 9 X sin(2/3)
Area = 23.4cm2

EXAMPLE 1

## For this circle, centre O, radius 5 cm and

angle AOB = 3 /4 find the area of the minor
segment to 2 d.p.
Area of sector = 1/2 r2

o
5

## Area of sector = 1/2 52X 3/4

Area of sector = 75/8

## Area of triangle = absinC

B
A
Area of triangle = 5X5Xsin(3/4)
Area of triangle = 8.838834765
Area of segment = area of sector area of
Area of segment
triangle= 20.61cm 2

Reminder
Convert into degrees

Exercise
Form the cards into a loop in your groups.

15 minutes

EXAMPLE 2

(work in groups)

## The area on a football pitch known as the D

is bounded by the 18-yard line and the arc of a
circle, radius 10 yards with its centre at the
penalty spot (P), as shown in the diagram. The
penalty spot is 12 yards from the goal line.
Calculate the area of the D to 2d.p.

10 yds

P
12 yds

18 yds

8 yds
10 yds

8yds
6 yds
10 yds

18 yds
12 yds

Cos=6/10
6

10

=cos-1(6/10)
=cos-1(6/10)
=0.92729528

Area of sector
16yds
Sector Area = r2
Sector Area = x102x1.85
2
Sector
Area
=
92.5yds
c
10yds 1.85 10yds
Area of triangle
Triangle Area = absinC
Triangle Area = 10x10sin1.85
Triangle Area = 48.06yds2
Area of D
Area of D = Sector Area -Triangle Area
Area of D = 92.5 48.06
Area of D = 44.44 yds2 (to 2d.p.)

Lesson Objectives
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

## Sine rule and cosine rule

Both these rules work in degrees and
a
b
c
SineRule :

## sin A sin B sin C

Co sin eRule : a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A
(in formulae booklet)

Lesson Objectives
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

Find angle C
Use the sine rule
A

B
1
C

Trigonometry -Graphs
Graphs of Trig. Functions
y = sin x
y = cos x
y = tan x

equations

y=sinx

y=cosx

## Graphs of Trig Functions

y=tanx

Solving Equations
2

x
1

1. Linear equations:
Solve 3x 2 = 0
-2

1 solution

x
-2

-1

Solving Equations
-1

-2

Solve 3x+2x2 = 0

21 solutions
solution

x
-360

-270

-180

-90

90

180

270

360

Solving Equations
-0.5

-1

3. Trig equations:
Solve Sin = 0.5
-1.5

many solutions

Graphs
1.

## Solve Sin = 0.4 for 360 360

i. Use your calculator to find the
PRINCIPAL VALUE. Sin (0.4)=23.58
-1

## ii. Sketch the graph and mark in the

principal value and other roots
iii. Use the pattern of the graph to
calculate the remaining roots

156.42-360=-203.58

180-23.58=156.42
23.58-360=-336.42

Principal value =
23.58

## For sine, 180 principal value

Sine repeats every 360o, se we can add or subtract
360 from our answers to find more solutions in the
given interval

## 2. Solve Cos = -0.5 for 360 360

3. Solve Tan = 1.2 for 360 360

Principal value =
120

240-360=-120

120-360=-240

## For cosine, 360 principal value

360-120=240

50.19+180=230.19

50.19-360=-309.81

50.19-180=-129.81
Principal value
= 50.19

## Now try the following:

Solve the following equations for 0 x 360
a. tan x = 1
45, 225,
b. cos x = 0.5
60, 300,
c. tan x = -1
135, 315
d. cos x = -0.9 154, 206
e. sin x = -0.25 194, 346
180
f. cos x = -1

We have already seen that we can
measure angles in radians, so we can
The graphs look the same.

y=sinx

-2

y=cosx

-3
2

-
2

3
2

y=tanx

-2

To change the setting on your
calculator, press
Shift
Mode

Graphs
1.

## Solve Sin = 0.4 for 2 2

i. Use your calculator to find the
PRINCIPAL VALUE. Sin (0.4)=0.412
-1

## ii. Sketch the graph and mark in the

principal value and other roots
iii. Use the symmetry of the graph
to calculate the remaining roots

2.73-2=-3.55

-2

0.412-2 =-5.87

-0.412=2.73

Principal value =
0.412

## 2. Solve Cos = -0.5 for 2 2

3. Solve Tan = 1.2 for 2 2

Principal value =
2/3

4/3- 2=2/3

-3
2

-
2

2/3- 2=-4/3

3
2

2
-2/3=4/3

0.876+ =
4.018

-2

0.876 - 2 =
-5.407

0.876 =
-2.266

2
Principal value
= 0.876

## Now try the following:

Solve the following equations for 0 x 2
0.983, 4.12
a. tan x = 1.5
0.927, 5.36
b. cos x = 0.6
c. tan x = -0.8 2.47, 5.61
d. cos x = -0.3 1.88, 4.41
e. sin x = -0.45 3.61, 5.82
0.775, 2.37
f. sin x = 0.7

SOLVING MORE
TRIG EQUATIONS:

B. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax
C. sin (x + a), cos (x + a), tan (x + a)

Examples:
1. Solve sin2 = for 0 360.
2. Solve cos2 = for 0 360.
3. Solve tan2x tan x = 0 for
- x .
4. Solve 2cos2x + 5cos x + 2 = 0 for
- x .

Examples:
Solve sin2 = for 0 360.
Square root: sin =
Solve each equation separately
sin =
sin = -
= sin-1()
= sin-1(-)
=30o, 150o
=-30o,210o,330o

Examples:
Solve cos2 = for 0 360.
Square root: cos =
Solve each equation separately
cos =
cos = -
= cos-1()
= cos-1(- )
=45o, 315o
=135o,225o

Examples:
Solve tan2x tan x = 0 for - x .
Factorise (tanx is a common factor)
tanx(tanx-1)=0
Solve each equation separately
tanx = 0
tanx = 1
x = tan-1(0)
x = tan-1(1)
x =-, 0,

Examples:
Solve 2cos2x + 5cos x + 2 = 0 for - x .
Factorise
(2cosx+1)(cosx+2)=0
Solve each equation separately
cosx =-
cosx = - 2
x = cos-1(-)
No solutions

## Now try these:

Solve the following equations in the
interval 0 360.
a. 6sin2 sin -1 = 0
30,150,199.5,340.5
b.

4cos2 + 7cos = 2

c.

d.

4sin2 + 3sin = 1

75.5, 284.5

## A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax

Examples:
Solve cos 2x = for 0 x 360.
Double the domain: 0 2x 720
Solve as normal, then divide by 2 at the end:
cos 2x =
2x = cos-1()
2x= 60o, 300o, 420o, 660o
x=30o, 150o, 210o, 330o

## A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax

Examples:
Solve 4sin 2x + 3 = 0 for -180 x 180.
Double the domain: -360 2x 360
Solve as normal, then divide by 2 at the end:

## 2x = -48.6o, 228.6o, 311.4o, -131.4o

x = -24.3o, 114.3o, 155.7o, -65.7o

## A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax

Examples:
Solve tan3x=1 for < x <
Treble the domain: 3 < 3x < 3
Solve as normal, then divide by 3 at the end:
tan 3x = 1
3x = tan-1(1)

## B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)

Example:
Solve sin (x - 60) = 0.4 for -180 x 180.
Change the domain -240 x-60o 120
Solve as normal, then add 60o at the end:
sin (x - 60) = 0.4
x - 60 = sin-1(0.4)
x - 60 = 23.6o, 156.4o, -203.6o, -336.4o
x - 60 = 23.6o, -203.6o
x = 83.6o, -143.6o

## B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)

Example:
Solve = 0.5 for - x
Change the domain
Solve as normal, then subtract at the end:
= 0.5
= cos-1(0.5)
=
=

## B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)

Example:
Solve tan (2x - 30) = 1 for -180 x 180.
Change the domain -390 2x - 30 330
Solve as normal, add 30o and halve at the end:
tan (2x - 30) = 1
2x - 30 = tan-1(1)
2x - 30 = 45o, 225o, -135o, -315o
2x = 75o, 255o, -105o, -285o
x=
37.5o, 127.5o, -52.5o, -142.5o

Exercise
Match the cards together in your groups

TRIG IDENTITIES:

## True for ALL values of x

Identity 1
There is an identity that links sinx, cosx
and tanx together.
You do not need to know the proof, but
you do need to know the identity!

sinx=opp
hyp
hyp
tanx=opp
But what is sinx
cosx

opposite

hypotenuse

sin x
tan x
cos x

## Trig form of Pythagoras

Applying Pythagoras
to the triangle gives:
1

Sin?

sin2 + cos2 = 1

Cos
?

1. Given that
a. find the value of
b. hence solve the equation for -180 x 180.

## 2. Solve the equation for 0< x < 360.

Use in the form

No solutions!

3.
Show that the equation
Can be written as

## 4. Solve the equation for

Use

- < x < .

Exercise
Take a card
Cover up the answer and hints
Try the question, if you get stuck look at
Put the card back in the pile and take
another.

Guess Who!

## You have 7 minutes to

for as many equations
as you can.
The boxes will reveal a
picture of a celebrity.
(You will of heard of them!)

1.
6sin2 sin
-1 = 0
6.
sin(330)=0.3

11.
cos2 = 1
16.
4sin+3=0

21.
sin(5-25)=8

2.
sin = 3

3.
cos = 0.5

4.
Tan2= 1

5.
sin(+30)=0.4

7.
tan(+75) =3

8.
4cos2 +
7cos = 2

9.
cos = 2

10.

13.
cos(210)=0.7

14.
tan 2 = 0

15.
3sin=7cos

19.
sin(tan+4)=
0

20.

12.
tan =4
17.
6cos2 +
cos 1 = 0

22.
8cos=-3sin

18.
sin+cos=0

23.
3-5cos=0

24.
4sin2 +
3sin = 1

(sin-3)(tan+3)
=0

25.
8sin3=1

1.
30,150,199.5,
340.5
6.
sin(3x30)=0.3
15.8,136,256
64.2,184,304

2.
No Solutions
7.
tan(+75) =3
177,357

11.
cos2 = 1
180

12.
Tan =4
76.0, 256

16.
4sin+3=0
229,311

17.
70.5, 120,
240,289.5

21.
22.
sin(5 -25)=8 8cos=-3sin
No solutions
111,291

3.
60, 300
8.
4cos2 +
7cos = 2
75.5, 284.5
13.
cos(2x10)=0.7
27.8,208,
162,342
18.
sin+cos=0
135,315
23.
3-5cos=0
53.1,307

4.
22.5,112.5,
202.5,292.5

5.
126.4, 353.6

9.
cos = 2
No solutions

41.8, 138

14.
tan 2 = 0
63.4, 243

15.
3sin=7cos
66.8,247

19.
sin(tan+4)=
0
180,104,284

20.

24.
14.5, 165.5,
270

10.

(sin-3)(tan+3)
=0

108,288

25.
8sin3=1
30,150

Examples:
1. Find the value of tan when sin = 3/5 and
cos = -4/5.
2. Show that

1 sin
1

tan
cos
cos

3. Show that

2 cos
1
1 sin
2

2
3

sin
2 cos
4. Show that
2 cos