Core 2
Trigonometry
Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.
DEGREES are not the only way to measure angles.
A RADIAN is a larger unit which is often used in
trigonometry because it can simplify many
calculations.
P
Consider a circle with radius 1.
The angle POQ in radians is
the same as the distance you
would travel from P to Q along
the circle.
Degrees
360o
180o
90o
45o
30o
Radians
2
/2
/4
/6
1
O
Q
1
How to convert radians into degrees and viceversa:
Degrees
180 Radians
Degrees
180
Radians
Example
Convert to radians
30o
45o
60 o
120 o
Example
Convert to radians
72
315 o
36o
720 o
Example
Convert to degrees
12
5
12
3
4
Practice
Degrees and radians dominoes
Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.
The length of an arc
Q
If the circle has radius 1, the
arc length is the same as the
P angle .
However, if we increase or
decrease the radius, the arc
length will change, but will
remain the same.
If the radius doubles, the arc
length also doubles, so we can
use a simple formula to
calculate the arc length
Arc PQ = r
EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the arc length and perimeter of a sector of
angle 2/3 and radius 6 cm. Leave your answers in
terms of .
6
/3
Arc length = r
Arc length = 6 X 2/3
Arc length = 4
Perimeter = 4 + 6 + 6 = 4 + 12
Area of a sector
Q
The area of the circle is = r2
P
r
This would be a sector with
angle 2
We only want the sector
with angle
So we can use the formula:
Area of sector = 1/2 r2
EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the area of a sector of angle 2/3 and radius
6 cm. Leave your answers in terms of .
/3
Area of sector = 1/2 r2
Area of sector = 1/2 X 62 X
Area of sector = 12
/3
Exercise
Form the cards into a loop in your groups.
Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.
Area of a triangle
1
2
ab sin C
This also works if we measure in radians, but
we need to change the mode of our calculator!
Shift
Mode
Option for Rad (4)
To change back to degrees
Shift
Mode
Option for Deg (3)
Area of a triangle
1
2
ab sin C
e.g. Find the area of this triangle to 3
significant figures
6 cm
2/3
9 cm
Area = absinC
Area = 6 X 9 X sin(2/3)
Area = 23.4cm2
EXAMPLE 1
For this circle, centre O, radius 5 cm and
angle AOB = 3 /4 find the area of the minor
segment to 2 d.p.
Area of sector = 1/2 r2
o
5
Area of sector = 1/2 52X 3/4
Area of sector = 75/8
Area of triangle = absinC
B
A
Area of triangle = 5X5Xsin(3/4)
Area of triangle = 8.838834765
Area of segment = area of sector area of
Area of segment
triangle= 20.61cm 2
Reminder
Convert 150o into radians
Convert into degrees
Exercise
Form the cards into a loop in your groups.
15 minutes
EXAMPLE 2
(work in groups)
The area on a football pitch known as the D
is bounded by the 18yard line and the arc of a
circle, radius 10 yards with its centre at the
penalty spot (P), as shown in the diagram. The
penalty spot is 12 yards from the goal line.
Calculate the area of the D to 2d.p.
10 yds
P
12 yds
18 yds
8 yds
10 yds
8yds
6 yds
10 yds
18 yds
12 yds
Cos=6/10
6
10
=cos1(6/10)
=cos1(6/10)
=0.92729528
Area of sector
16yds
Sector Area = r2
Sector Area = x102x1.85
2
Sector
Area
=
92.5yds
c
10yds 1.85 10yds
Area of triangle
Triangle Area = absinC
Triangle Area = 10x10sin1.85
Triangle Area = 48.06yds2
Area of D
Area of D = Sector Area Triangle Area
Area of D = 92.5 48.06
Area of D = 44.44 yds2 (to 2d.p.)
Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.
Sine rule and cosine rule
Both these rules work in degrees and
radians
a
b
c
SineRule :
sin A sin B sin C
Co sin eRule : a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A
(in formulae booklet)
Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.
Working in radians
Find angle C
Use the sine rule
A
B
1
C
Trigonometry Graphs
Graphs of Trig. Functions
y = sin x
y = cos x
y = tan x
Using trig graphs to solve
equations
Graphs of Trig Functions
y=sinx
Graphs of Trig Functions
y=cosx
Graphs of Trig Functions
y=tanx
Solving Equations
2
x
1
1. Linear equations:
Solve 3x 2 = 0
2
1 solution
x
2
1
Solving Equations
1
2
2. Quadratic equations:
Solve 3x+2x2 = 0
21 solutions
solution
x
360
270
180
90
90
180
270
360
Solving Equations
0.5
1
3. Trig equations:
Solve Sin = 0.5
1.5
many solutions
Solving Trig Equations using
Graphs
1.
Solve Sin = 0.4 for 360 360
i. Use your calculator to find the
PRINCIPAL VALUE. Sin (0.4)=23.58
1
ii. Sketch the graph and mark in the
principal value and other roots
iii. Use the pattern of the graph to
calculate the remaining roots
156.42360=203.58
18023.58=156.42
23.58360=336.42
Principal value =
23.58
For sine, 180 principal value
Sine repeats every 360o, se we can add or subtract
360 from our answers to find more solutions in the
given interval
2. Solve Cos = 0.5 for 360 360
3. Solve Tan = 1.2 for 360 360
Principal value =
120
240360=120
120360=240
For cosine, 360 principal value
360120=240
50.19+180=230.19
50.19360=309.81
50.19180=129.81
Principal value
= 50.19
For tan, 180 + principal value
Now try the following:
Solve the following equations for 0 x 360
giving your answer to the nearest :
a. tan x = 1
45, 225,
b. cos x = 0.5
60, 300,
c. tan x = 1
135, 315
d. cos x = 0.9 154, 206
e. sin x = 0.25 194, 346
180
f. cos x = 1
Radians
We have already seen that we can
measure angles in radians, so we can
solve trig equations using radians.
The graphs look the same.
y=sinx
2
y=cosx
3
2

2
3
2
y=tanx
2
Solving equations in radians
To change the setting on your
calculator, press
Shift
Mode
4 Rad or 3 Deg
Solving Trig Equations using
Graphs
1.
Solve Sin = 0.4 for 2 2
i. Use your calculator to find the
PRINCIPAL VALUE. Sin (0.4)=0.412
1
ii. Sketch the graph and mark in the
principal value and other roots
iii. Use the symmetry of the graph
to calculate the remaining roots
2.732=3.55
2
0.4122 =5.87
0.412=2.73
Principal value =
0.412
For sine, principal value
2. Solve Cos = 0.5 for 2 2
3. Solve Tan = 1.2 for 2 2
Principal value =
2/3
4/3 2=2/3
3
2

2
2/3 2=4/3
3
2
For cosine, 2 principal value
2
2/3=4/3
0.876+ =
4.018
2
0.876  2 =
5.407
0.876 =
2.266
2
Principal value
= 0.876
For tan, + principal value
Now try the following:
Solve the following equations for 0 x 2
giving your answer to 3 s.f.
0.983, 4.12
a. tan x = 1.5
0.927, 5.36
b. cos x = 0.6
c. tan x = 0.8 2.47, 5.61
d. cos x = 0.3 1.88, 4.41
e. sin x = 0.45 3.61, 5.82
0.775, 2.37
f. sin x = 0.7
SOLVING MORE
TRIG EQUATIONS:
A. Quadratic trig equations
B. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax
C. sin (x + a), cos (x + a), tan (x + a)
A. Quadratic trig equations:
Examples:
1. Solve sin2 = for 0 360.
2. Solve cos2 = for 0 360.
3. Solve tan2x tan x = 0 for
 x .
4. Solve 2cos2x + 5cos x + 2 = 0 for
 x .
A. Quadratic trig equations:
Examples:
Solve sin2 = for 0 360.
Square root: sin =
Solve each equation separately
sin =
sin = 
= sin1()
= sin1()
=30o, 150o
=30o,210o,330o
A. Quadratic trig equations:
Examples:
Solve cos2 = for 0 360.
Square root: cos =
Solve each equation separately
cos =
cos = 
= cos1()
= cos1( )
=45o, 315o
=135o,225o
A. Quadratic trig equations:
Examples:
Solve tan2x tan x = 0 for  x .
Factorise (tanx is a common factor)
tanx(tanx1)=0
Solve each equation separately
tanx = 0
tanx = 1
x = tan1(0)
x = tan1(1)
x =, 0,
A. Quadratic trig equations:
Examples:
Solve 2cos2x + 5cos x + 2 = 0 for  x .
Factorise
(2cosx+1)(cosx+2)=0
Solve each equation separately
cosx =
cosx =  2
x = cos1()
No solutions
Now try these:
Solve the following equations in the
interval 0 360.
a. 6sin2 sin 1 = 0
30,150,199.5,340.5
b.
4cos2 + 7cos = 2
c.
6cos2 + cos 1 = 0 70.5, 120,240,289.5
d.
4sin2 + 3sin = 1
75.5, 284.5
14.5, 165.5, 270
A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax
Examples:
Solve cos 2x = for 0 x 360.
Double the domain: 0 2x 720
Solve as normal, then divide by 2 at the end:
cos 2x =
2x = cos1()
2x= 60o, 300o, 420o, 660o
x=30o, 150o, 210o, 330o
A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax
Examples:
Solve 4sin 2x + 3 = 0 for 180 x 180.
Double the domain: 360 2x 360
Solve as normal, then divide by 2 at the end:
2x = 48.6o, 228.6o, 311.4o, 131.4o
x = 24.3o, 114.3o, 155.7o, 65.7o
A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax
Examples:
Solve tan3x=1 for < x <
Treble the domain: 3 < 3x < 3
Solve as normal, then divide by 3 at the end:
tan 3x = 1
3x = tan1(1)
B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)
Example:
Solve sin (x  60) = 0.4 for 180 x 180.
Change the domain 240 x60o 120
Solve as normal, then add 60o at the end:
sin (x  60) = 0.4
x  60 = sin1(0.4)
x  60 = 23.6o, 156.4o, 203.6o, 336.4o
x  60 = 23.6o, 203.6o
x = 83.6o, 143.6o
B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)
Example:
Solve = 0.5 for  x
Change the domain
Solve as normal, then subtract at the end:
= 0.5
= cos1(0.5)
=
=
B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)
Example:
Solve tan (2x  30) = 1 for 180 x 180.
Change the domain 390 2x  30 330
Solve as normal, add 30o and halve at the end:
tan (2x  30) = 1
2x  30 = tan1(1)
2x  30 = 45o, 225o, 135o, 315o
2x = 75o, 255o, 105o, 285o
x=
37.5o, 127.5o, 52.5o, 142.5o
Exercise
Match the cards together in your groups
TRIG IDENTITIES:
True for ALL values of x
Identity 1
There is an identity that links sinx, cosx
and tanx together.
You do not need to know the proof, but
you do need to know the identity!
sinx=opp
hyp
cosx=adj
hyp
tanx=opp
adj
But what is sinx
cosx
opposite
hypotenuse
adjacent
sin x
tan x
cos x
Trig form of Pythagoras
Applying Pythagoras
to the triangle gives:
1
Sin?
sin2 + cos2 = 1
Cos
?
1. Given that
a. find the value of
b. hence solve the equation for 180 x 180.
2. Solve the equation for 0< x < 360.
Use in the form
No solutions!
3.
Show that the equation
Can be written as
Hence show that this can be rewritten as
Hence solve the equation for 0<x<360.
4. Solve the equation for
Use
 < x < .
Exercise
Take a card
Cover up the answer and hints
Try the question, if you get stuck look at
the hints and then check your answer.
Put the card back in the pile and take
another.
Guess Who!
You have 7 minutes to
find the answers for 0<<360
for as many equations
as you can.
The boxes will reveal a
picture of a celebrity.
(You will of heard of them!)
1.
6sin2 sin
1 = 0
6.
sin(330)=0.3
11.
cos2 = 1
16.
4sin+3=0
21.
sin(525)=8
2.
sin = 3
3.
cos = 0.5
4.
Tan2= 1
5.
sin(+30)=0.4
7.
tan(+75) =3
8.
4cos2 +
7cos = 2
9.
cos = 2
10.
13.
cos(210)=0.7
14.
tan 2 = 0
15.
3sin=7cos
19.
sin(tan+4)=
0
20.
12.
tan =4
17.
6cos2 +
cos 1 = 0
22.
8cos=3sin
18.
sin+cos=0
23.
35cos=0
24.
4sin2 +
3sin = 1
(sin3)(tan+3)
=0
25.
8sin3=1
1.
30,150,199.5,
340.5
6.
sin(3x30)=0.3
15.8,136,256
64.2,184,304
2.
No Solutions
7.
tan(+75) =3
177,357
11.
cos2 = 1
180
12.
Tan =4
76.0, 256
16.
4sin+3=0
229,311
17.
70.5, 120,
240,289.5
21.
22.
sin(5 25)=8 8cos=3sin
No solutions
111,291
3.
60, 300
8.
4cos2 +
7cos = 2
75.5, 284.5
13.
cos(2x10)=0.7
27.8,208,
162,342
18.
sin+cos=0
135,315
23.
35cos=0
53.1,307
4.
22.5,112.5,
202.5,292.5
5.
126.4, 353.6
9.
cos = 2
No solutions
41.8, 138
14.
tan 2 = 0
63.4, 243
15.
3sin=7cos
66.8,247
19.
sin(tan+4)=
0
180,104,284
20.
24.
14.5, 165.5,
270
10.
(sin3)(tan+3)
=0
108,288
25.
8sin3=1
30,150
Examples:
1. Find the value of tan when sin = 3/5 and
cos = 4/5.
2. Show that
1 sin
1
tan
cos
cos
3. Show that
2 cos
1
1 sin
2
2
3
sin
2 cos
4. Show that
2 cos
5. Prove that (cosx + sinx)2 + (cosx sinx)2 = 2.