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Core 2

Trigonometry

Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

DEGREES are not the only way to measure angles.


A RADIAN is a larger unit which is often used in
trigonometry because it can simplify many
calculations.

P
Consider a circle with radius 1.
The angle POQ in radians is
the same as the distance you
would travel from P to Q along
the circle.

Degrees
360o
180o
90o
45o
30o

Radians
2

/2
/4
/6

1
O

Q
1

How to convert radians into degrees and vice-versa:

Degrees

180 Radians

Degrees

180

Radians

Example
Convert to radians
30o

45o

60 o

120 o

Example
Convert to radians
72

315 o

36o

720 o

Example
Convert to degrees

12

5
12

3
4

Practice
Degrees and radians dominoes

Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

The length of an arc


Q

If the circle has radius 1, the


arc length is the same as the
P angle .
However, if we increase or
decrease the radius, the arc
length will change, but will
remain the same.
If the radius doubles, the arc
length also doubles, so we can
use a simple formula to
calculate the arc length

Arc PQ = r

EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the arc length and perimeter of a sector of
angle 2/3 and radius 6 cm. Leave your answers in
terms of .
6

/3

Arc length = r
Arc length = 6 X 2/3
Arc length = 4

Perimeter = 4 + 6 + 6 = 4 + 12

Area of a sector
Q

The area of the circle is = r2

P
r

This would be a sector with


angle 2
We only want the sector
with angle
So we can use the formula:
Area of sector = 1/2 r2

EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the area of a sector of angle 2/3 and radius
6 cm. Leave your answers in terms of .

/3

Area of sector = 1/2 r2


Area of sector = 1/2 X 62 X
Area of sector = 12

/3

Exercise
Form the cards into a loop in your groups.

Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

Area of a triangle

1
2

ab sin C

This also works if we measure in radians, but


we need to change the mode of our calculator!
Shift
Mode
Option for Rad (4)
To change back to degrees
Shift
Mode
Option for Deg (3)

Area of a triangle

1
2

ab sin C

e.g. Find the area of this triangle to 3


significant figures

6 cm

2/3

9 cm

Area = absinC
Area = 6 X 9 X sin(2/3)
Area = 23.4cm2

EXAMPLE 1

For this circle, centre O, radius 5 cm and


angle AOB = 3 /4 find the area of the minor
segment to 2 d.p.
Area of sector = 1/2 r2

o
5

Area of sector = 1/2 52X 3/4


Area of sector = 75/8

Area of triangle = absinC


B
A
Area of triangle = 5X5Xsin(3/4)
Area of triangle = 8.838834765
Area of segment = area of sector area of
Area of segment
triangle= 20.61cm 2

Reminder
Convert 150o into radians
Convert into degrees

Exercise
Form the cards into a loop in your groups.

15 minutes

EXAMPLE 2

(work in groups)

The area on a football pitch known as the D


is bounded by the 18-yard line and the arc of a
circle, radius 10 yards with its centre at the
penalty spot (P), as shown in the diagram. The
penalty spot is 12 yards from the goal line.
Calculate the area of the D to 2d.p.

10 yds

P
12 yds

18 yds

8 yds
10 yds

8yds
6 yds
10 yds

18 yds
12 yds

Cos=6/10
6

10

=cos-1(6/10)
=cos-1(6/10)
=0.92729528

Area of sector
16yds
Sector Area = r2
Sector Area = x102x1.85
2
Sector
Area
=
92.5yds
c
10yds 1.85 10yds
Area of triangle
Triangle Area = absinC
Triangle Area = 10x10sin1.85
Triangle Area = 48.06yds2
Area of D
Area of D = Sector Area -Triangle Area
Area of D = 92.5 48.06
Area of D = 44.44 yds2 (to 2d.p.)

Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

Sine rule and cosine rule


Both these rules work in degrees and
radians
a
b
c
SineRule :

sin A sin B sin C


Co sin eRule : a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A
(in formulae booklet)

Lesson Objectives
Convert between radians and degrees
Find the length of an arc and the area of a
sector
Find the area of a triangle and a segment
Use the sine and cosine rules.

Working in radians
Find angle C
Use the sine rule
A

B
1
C

Trigonometry -Graphs
Graphs of Trig. Functions
y = sin x
y = cos x
y = tan x

Using trig graphs to solve


equations

Graphs of Trig Functions


y=sinx

Graphs of Trig Functions


y=cosx

Graphs of Trig Functions


y=tanx

Solving Equations
2

x
1

1. Linear equations:
Solve 3x 2 = 0
-2

1 solution

x
-2

-1

Solving Equations
-1

-2

2. Quadratic equations:
Solve 3x+2x2 = 0

21 solutions
solution

x
-360

-270

-180

-90

90

180

270

360

Solving Equations
-0.5

-1

3. Trig equations:
Solve Sin = 0.5
-1.5

many solutions

Solving Trig Equations using


Graphs
1.

Solve Sin = 0.4 for 360 360


i. Use your calculator to find the
PRINCIPAL VALUE. Sin (0.4)=23.58
-1

ii. Sketch the graph and mark in the


principal value and other roots
iii. Use the pattern of the graph to
calculate the remaining roots

156.42-360=-203.58

180-23.58=156.42
23.58-360=-336.42

Principal value =
23.58

For sine, 180 principal value


Sine repeats every 360o, se we can add or subtract
360 from our answers to find more solutions in the
given interval

2. Solve Cos = -0.5 for 360 360


3. Solve Tan = 1.2 for 360 360

Principal value =
120

240-360=-120

120-360=-240

For cosine, 360 principal value

360-120=240

50.19+180=230.19

50.19-360=-309.81

50.19-180=-129.81
Principal value
= 50.19

For tan, 180 + principal value

Now try the following:


Solve the following equations for 0 x 360
giving your answer to the nearest :
a. tan x = 1
45, 225,
b. cos x = 0.5
60, 300,
c. tan x = -1
135, 315
d. cos x = -0.9 154, 206
e. sin x = -0.25 194, 346
180
f. cos x = -1

Radians
We have already seen that we can
measure angles in radians, so we can
solve trig equations using radians.
The graphs look the same.

y=sinx

-2

y=cosx

-3
2

-
2

3
2

y=tanx

-2

Solving equations in radians


To change the setting on your
calculator, press
Shift
Mode
4 Rad or 3 Deg

Solving Trig Equations using


Graphs
1.

Solve Sin = 0.4 for 2 2


i. Use your calculator to find the
PRINCIPAL VALUE. Sin (0.4)=0.412
-1

ii. Sketch the graph and mark in the


principal value and other roots
iii. Use the symmetry of the graph
to calculate the remaining roots

2.73-2=-3.55

-2

0.412-2 =-5.87

-0.412=2.73

Principal value =
0.412

For sine, principal value

2. Solve Cos = -0.5 for 2 2


3. Solve Tan = 1.2 for 2 2

Principal value =
2/3

4/3- 2=2/3

-3
2

-
2

2/3- 2=-4/3

3
2

For cosine, 2 principal value

2
-2/3=4/3

0.876+ =
4.018

-2

0.876 - 2 =
-5.407

0.876 =
-2.266

2
Principal value
= 0.876

For tan, + principal value

Now try the following:


Solve the following equations for 0 x 2
giving your answer to 3 s.f.
0.983, 4.12
a. tan x = 1.5
0.927, 5.36
b. cos x = 0.6
c. tan x = -0.8 2.47, 5.61
d. cos x = -0.3 1.88, 4.41
e. sin x = -0.45 3.61, 5.82
0.775, 2.37
f. sin x = 0.7

SOLVING MORE
TRIG EQUATIONS:

A. Quadratic trig equations


B. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax
C. sin (x + a), cos (x + a), tan (x + a)

A. Quadratic trig equations:


Examples:
1. Solve sin2 = for 0 360.
2. Solve cos2 = for 0 360.
3. Solve tan2x tan x = 0 for
- x .
4. Solve 2cos2x + 5cos x + 2 = 0 for
- x .

A. Quadratic trig equations:


Examples:
Solve sin2 = for 0 360.
Square root: sin =
Solve each equation separately
sin =
sin = -
= sin-1()
= sin-1(-)
=30o, 150o
=-30o,210o,330o

A. Quadratic trig equations:


Examples:
Solve cos2 = for 0 360.
Square root: cos =
Solve each equation separately
cos =
cos = -
= cos-1()
= cos-1(- )
=45o, 315o
=135o,225o

A. Quadratic trig equations:


Examples:
Solve tan2x tan x = 0 for - x .
Factorise (tanx is a common factor)
tanx(tanx-1)=0
Solve each equation separately
tanx = 0
tanx = 1
x = tan-1(0)
x = tan-1(1)
x =-, 0,

A. Quadratic trig equations:


Examples:
Solve 2cos2x + 5cos x + 2 = 0 for - x .
Factorise
(2cosx+1)(cosx+2)=0
Solve each equation separately
cosx =-
cosx = - 2
x = cos-1(-)
No solutions

Now try these:


Solve the following equations in the
interval 0 360.
a. 6sin2 sin -1 = 0
30,150,199.5,340.5
b.

4cos2 + 7cos = 2

c.

6cos2 + cos 1 = 0 70.5, 120,240,289.5

d.

4sin2 + 3sin = 1

75.5, 284.5

14.5, 165.5, 270

A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax


Examples:
Solve cos 2x = for 0 x 360.
Double the domain: 0 2x 720
Solve as normal, then divide by 2 at the end:
cos 2x =
2x = cos-1()
2x= 60o, 300o, 420o, 660o
x=30o, 150o, 210o, 330o

A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax


Examples:
Solve 4sin 2x + 3 = 0 for -180 x 180.
Double the domain: -360 2x 360
Solve as normal, then divide by 2 at the end:

2x = -48.6o, 228.6o, 311.4o, -131.4o


x = -24.3o, 114.3o, 155.7o, -65.7o

A. Sin ax, cos ax and tan ax


Examples:
Solve tan3x=1 for < x <
Treble the domain: 3 < 3x < 3
Solve as normal, then divide by 3 at the end:
tan 3x = 1
3x = tan-1(1)

B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)


Example:
Solve sin (x - 60) = 0.4 for -180 x 180.
Change the domain -240 x-60o 120
Solve as normal, then add 60o at the end:
sin (x - 60) = 0.4
x - 60 = sin-1(0.4)
x - 60 = 23.6o, 156.4o, -203.6o, -336.4o
x - 60 = 23.6o, -203.6o
x = 83.6o, -143.6o

B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)


Example:
Solve = 0.5 for - x
Change the domain
Solve as normal, then subtract at the end:
= 0.5
= cos-1(0.5)
=
=

B. sin(x + a), cos(x + a), tan(x + a)


Example:
Solve tan (2x - 30) = 1 for -180 x 180.
Change the domain -390 2x - 30 330
Solve as normal, add 30o and halve at the end:
tan (2x - 30) = 1
2x - 30 = tan-1(1)
2x - 30 = 45o, 225o, -135o, -315o
2x = 75o, 255o, -105o, -285o
x=
37.5o, 127.5o, -52.5o, -142.5o

Exercise
Match the cards together in your groups

TRIG IDENTITIES:

True for ALL values of x

Identity 1
There is an identity that links sinx, cosx
and tanx together.
You do not need to know the proof, but
you do need to know the identity!

sinx=opp
hyp
cosx=adj
hyp
tanx=opp
adj
But what is sinx
cosx

opposite

hypotenuse

adjacent

sin x
tan x
cos x

Trig form of Pythagoras


Applying Pythagoras
to the triangle gives:
1

Sin?

sin2 + cos2 = 1

Cos
?

1. Given that
a. find the value of
b. hence solve the equation for -180 x 180.

2. Solve the equation for 0< x < 360.


Use in the form

No solutions!

3.
Show that the equation
Can be written as

Hence show that this can be rewritten as

Hence solve the equation for 0<x<360.

4. Solve the equation for


Use

- < x < .

Exercise
Take a card
Cover up the answer and hints
Try the question, if you get stuck look at
the hints and then check your answer.
Put the card back in the pile and take
another.

Guess Who!

You have 7 minutes to


find the answers for 0<<360
for as many equations
as you can.
The boxes will reveal a
picture of a celebrity.
(You will of heard of them!)

1.
6sin2 sin
-1 = 0
6.
sin(330)=0.3

11.
cos2 = 1
16.
4sin+3=0

21.
sin(5-25)=8

2.
sin = 3

3.
cos = 0.5

4.
Tan2= 1

5.
sin(+30)=0.4

7.
tan(+75) =3

8.
4cos2 +
7cos = 2

9.
cos = 2

10.

13.
cos(210)=0.7

14.
tan 2 = 0

15.
3sin=7cos

19.
sin(tan+4)=
0

20.

12.
tan =4
17.
6cos2 +
cos 1 = 0

22.
8cos=-3sin

18.
sin+cos=0

23.
3-5cos=0

24.
4sin2 +
3sin = 1

(sin-3)(tan+3)
=0

25.
8sin3=1

1.
30,150,199.5,
340.5
6.
sin(3x30)=0.3
15.8,136,256
64.2,184,304

2.
No Solutions
7.
tan(+75) =3
177,357

11.
cos2 = 1
180

12.
Tan =4
76.0, 256

16.
4sin+3=0
229,311

17.
70.5, 120,
240,289.5

21.
22.
sin(5 -25)=8 8cos=-3sin
No solutions
111,291

3.
60, 300
8.
4cos2 +
7cos = 2
75.5, 284.5
13.
cos(2x10)=0.7
27.8,208,
162,342
18.
sin+cos=0
135,315
23.
3-5cos=0
53.1,307

4.
22.5,112.5,
202.5,292.5

5.
126.4, 353.6

9.
cos = 2
No solutions

41.8, 138

14.
tan 2 = 0
63.4, 243

15.
3sin=7cos
66.8,247

19.
sin(tan+4)=
0
180,104,284

20.

24.
14.5, 165.5,
270

10.

(sin-3)(tan+3)
=0

108,288

25.
8sin3=1
30,150

Examples:
1. Find the value of tan when sin = 3/5 and
cos = -4/5.
2. Show that

1 sin
1

tan
cos
cos

3. Show that

2 cos
1
1 sin
2

2
3

sin
2 cos
4. Show that
2 cos

5. Prove that (cosx + sinx)2 + (cosx sinx)2 = 2.