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Definition and Concept of Entropy as Second Law of Thermodynamics

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THERMODYNAMIC DEFINITION OF

ENTROPY

concentrates on the change in entropy, dS, that

occurs as a result of a physical or chemical

change (in general, as a result of .a process)

The definition is motivated by the idea that a

change in the extent to which energy is

dispersed depends on how much energy is

transferred as heat.

THERMODYNAMIC DEFINITION OF

ENTROPY

The

thermodynamic

definition of

entropy is based

on the

expression:

For a measurable

change between

two states i and f

this expression

integrates to:

THERMODYNAMIC DEFINITION OF

ENTROPY

in entropy between any two states of

a system, we find a reversible path

between them, and integrate the

energy supplied as heat at each

stage of the path divided by the

temperature at which heating occurs.

THERMODYNAMIC DEFINITION OF

ENTROPY

surroundings is constant whatever the change, for

a measurable change.

about in the system, reversibly or irreversibly, we

can calculate the change of entropy of the

surroundings by dividing the heat transferred by

the temperature at which the transfer takes place.

surroundings.

change in the surroundings

when 1.00 mol H2O(l) is

formed from its elements

under standard conditions at

298 K, we use H = 286

kJ from Table 2.7. The

energy released a heat is

supplied

to

the

surroundings, now regarded

as

being

at

constant

pressure, so qsur = +286 kJ.

change in the

surroundings

Therefore,

ssur

= 2.86 105

J

298 K

ssur = +960 J

K1

This

strongly

exothermic reaction

results

in

an

increase

in

the

entropy

of

the

surroundings

as

energy is released

as heat into them.

entropy change of the

system

alone.

dStotal = dSsystem +

dSsurroundings

Total heat supplied is:

Total work output is:

U = 0, so Q = W

to the system and heat is extracted from it or W

and Q must be zero.

Thus: W = Q 0, or

Hence:

What if the cycle is reversible?

So: W = Q 0, So:

Hence: In order to be consistent with the first result,

example. Let's say that the room is the

isolated system. The ice will melt and the

total entropy inside the room will increase.

This may seem like a special case, but it's

not. All what I'm really saying is that the

room as whole is not at equilibrium

meaning that the system is exchanging

heat, etc insideitself increasing entropy.

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