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WORKING PRINCIPLE

 
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: (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel)



 
:
Electrical steel s eet wit approximate silicon
content of 3% is used for magnetic circuit of a
transformer.

 
r Ú e use of amorp ous metal in place of
CRGO steel for t e transformers core reduces t e no
load losses of transformer by approximately 75%.
r Amorp ous Metal typical composition is
Fe Ȃ 78%
B Ȃ 13%
Si Ȃ 9%
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r Úransformer oil
r Electrical grade paper
r Press board
r Perma wood
r Insulating material
r Bakelite
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r P   !
~ ONAN type cooling
~ ONAF type cooling
~ OFAF Úype Cooling
~ OFWF Úype Cooling
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r Ú e manufacturing of a transformer can be
classified in to following sections.
r Core section.
r Winding section.
r Core coil assembly.
r Úanking and finis ing.
  
ABCD ÚPE

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~ Cross over windings
~ Spiral winding
~ Helical windings
~ Disc windings
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r Core coil assembly consists of assembling t e windings to t e
core assembly. Core assembly is placed on a suitable leveled
platform. Úig ten t e t ree limbs wit webbing tape. Úop
c annels and top yoke laminations are removed and placed on a
table in t e same sequence. Bottom insulation items like press
board rings, petals; perma wood rings are placed on bottom yoke
on eac core limb. Core wraps as specified in t e design details
are covered to t e core limbs and tig tened wit cotton tape.
r HV windings are lowered over LV winding wit spacers between
eac HV winding. Insulation items like paper tubes, empire
sleeves and top insulation arrangement is completed. During
insulation assembly, various leads are properly position and fully
insulated p ase barrier assembly is t en completed. Úop yoke
laminations are assembled back in position starting wit t e
center step.
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Úanking means
assembling t e core coil-
assembling job into
transformer tank wit
all necessary accessories
according to bill of
material and design
diagram. An outline
process followed in
tanking
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r Ú e testing of transformers is classified into two
types
r Preliminary tests
r Final tests
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Ú ese are of t ree types :

Pre core loss test


Ratio c eck
OC test
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r Insulation resistance test
r Winding resistance test
r Úurns ratio test
r Vector group verification test
r No load loss and magnetizing current measurement
test or OC test
r Load loss and impedance voltage measurement test
r Induced over voltage wit stand test or DVDF test
r Separate source voltage wit stand test
INSULAÚION RESISÚANC ÚESÚ
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WINDING RESISÚANCE ÚESÚS
r W ile calculating t e I2R losses in t e winding it is
necessary to measure dc resistance of eac winding.
r Ú e resistance measurement s ould be done after t e
direct current circulating in t e winding as reac ed a
steady state.
r Úemperature of t e winding s ould be stable and for t is
reason t e test is carried out normally before t e load loss
measurement test.
r Ú e measurement of winding resistance is done using
r (i) Digital micro o mmeter,
r (ii) Úransformer o mmeter
ÚURN RAÚIO ÚESÚS
r Ratio test is conducted to ensure t e number of turns
in different windings on eac tapping. In order to get
accurate ratio measurement a ratio meter is used. It
also indicates t e polarity of t e windings. Úolerance
of t is test is given separatel.
P ! %  
For a t ree p ase transformers, it is more usually
to carry out a vector relations ip test, in w ic one
of t e ig voltage and low voltage line terminals
s all be connected toget er.
No lo  loss  m   curr m surm
s or OC s 

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Lo  loss  mp c vol  m surm s

Úo estimate energy loss of t e transformer


at rated current.

Úo assess t e efficiency and voltage regulation of


t e transformer
Iuc ovr vol  w
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r Ú is test is intended to c eck t e inter turn and line


end insulation as well as main insulation to eart and
between windings. For transformers wit uniformly
insulated windings, t e test voltage is twice t e
corresponding rated voltage at double t e rated
frequency.
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r As a part of project designing of oil filled transformer
of 3-p ase was tested wit preliminary test and final
tests. All t e tests mentioned above are obeyed by
transformer.
r So t e 3-p ase, 50Hz, 11/33Kv, transformer are satisfied
t e above tests.
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