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BRUSH-LESS DC MOTOR

Group Members
SYED AHMED SHAH SP12-BCE-052
M.UMAR IFTIKHAR
SP12-BCE-034
FAREEHA AZAM
SP12-BCE-033
AHSAN RAZA
SP12-BCE-009

INTRODUCTION:

What is Brushless DC motor?


Why we use brushless DC motor?

Structure

Components of BLDC
Working of BLDC
Uses
Advantages
Disadvantages

WHAT IS BLDC MOTOR?

As its name indicates, it runs on DC


power source but dont have
commutator and Brushes.
Brushes and commutator are removed
in BLDC motor.

WHY WE USE BLDC?


When our power source is DC like that of automobiles and
aircraft we use DC motor.
For e.g. in aircraft, on high altitude, we experience low air
pressure, which cause brush wear that is very bad which
results in maintenance of brushes even after less than one
hour.
superior efficiency, long life, smooth torque delivery, and high
speed operation

DIFFERENCE B/W BLDC AND DC


Excessive sparking and brush wear.
Small in size so compensating poles cannot be placed
to minimize armature reaction which causes sparking
which is dangerous.
High speed DC motors causes increased brush wear.
No brushes in BLDC so no Sparking and no brush wear
and no replacement of brushes .

COMPONENTS OF BLDC

A permanent magnet rotor.


A stator with a three-four or more phase windings.
A rotor position sensor.
An electronic circuit to control the phases of the rotor
winding.

STRUCTURE OF BRUSHLESS MOTOR

DIAGRAM:

WORKING OF BLDC
A BLDC motor functions by energizing one stator coil at
a time with a constant dc voltage.
When a coil is turned on it produces a stator magnetic
field Bs and a torque is produced on the rotor given by
T(ind)=kBr x Bs
Which tends to align the rotor with the stator magnetic
field. The stator magnetic field Br points up producing a
counter clockwise torque on the rotor. As a result the
rotor will turn to the left.

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

WORKING PRINCIPLE

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

WORKING OF BLDC
If the coil a remained energized all the time , the rotor
would turn until the two magnetic field were aligned,
then it would stop , just like a stepper motor.
The key to the operation of a brushless dc motor is that
it includes a position sensor , so that the control will
know when rotor is almost aligned with the stator
magnetic field.

WORKING OF BLDC
The position sensor is used to switch the energized
stator coil whenever the rotor is almost aligned with it ,
keeping the rotor rotating a speed set by the control
electronics.
Electronic control controls speed and direction of the
motor.

WORKING OF BLDC
Salient pole rotors are used in application with speeds
from 100 to 1500rpm. They are alternative known as
"projected pole" type of rotors.
Non-salient pole rotors are generally used in application
which operate at higher speeds, 1500rpm and above. The
prime movers in these
applications are generally gas or steam turbines.

USES
Because a computer controls the motor instead of
mechanical brushes, it's more precise. The computer
can also factor the speed of the motor. This makes
brushless motors more efficient.
There is no sparking and much less electrical noise.
There are no brushes to wear out.
With the electromagnets on the stator, they are very
easy to cool.
You can have a lot of electromagnets on the stator
for more precise control.

ADVANTAGES

Relatively high efficiency.


Long life and high reliability.
Little or no maintenance .
Less RF noise as compare with the dc motor.
Very high speeds are possible (greater than 50,000
rpm)

DISADVANTAGES
The only disadvantage of a brushless motor is its
higher initial cost as compare with the brush dc motor
but you can often recover that cost through the greater
efficiency over the life of the motor
Blushless DC motor are available only in small size ,up
to 20W.

RELATION B/W SPEED AND TORQUE