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BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

OF AGRARIAN REFORM

CHAPTER 17

This chapter presents the


history of the Philippine land
and agrarian reform

WHAT IS AGRARIAN
REFORM?
Government- initiated or
government backed redistribution of
agricultural land

WHY IS THIS CHAPTER


IMPORTANT?
To know the history of the agrarian
reforms in the country to be more
aware of the problem of land
redistribution.

WHY IS THIS CHAPTER


IMPORTANT?
To understand the present CARP
(Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Program)

CARP
This is a law that aims to stabilize
the imbalanced landownership
arrangement brought about by the
oppressive colonial regimes and past
governments land laws and policies.

PRE-SPANISH ERA

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Land was not distributed during the
pre-colonial period in the Philippines.
The notion of private property was
unknown until the Spanish era.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
the land was communal.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Historical Records during this period
remain virtually non-existent.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Nevertheless, there are historical
accounts that show these following
types of land patterns in the
Philippines:

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Historical accounts:
1.Those who engaged in shifting
cultivation regarded all land as their
public domain.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Historical accounts:
2. A rudimentary form of private
ownership was followed by those
who practiced a type of sedentary
culture.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Historical accounts:
3. The pre-Spanish social classes
determined the landownership
system.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Practices of land ownership system:
1. The nobles were free from paying
tributes, and could own land and pay few
exactions to the chief, although they
were responsible to fight for the latter in
times of inter-barangay warfare.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Practices of land ownership system:
2. The freemen were entitled to
cultivate certain lands, but were
required to pay an annual fee of onehalf of the yield of their crops to the
datu.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
Practices of land ownership system:
3. The dependents simply served the
datus. They were owned by the
datus and could be sold or traded.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
At the close of the pre-Spanish era,
the Filipinos were highly scattered
into small groups and were ruled by
powerful chieftains who claimed the
best arable agricultural lands.

PRE-SPANISH ERA
The nobles who engaged in farming
paid tribute to the datus. Thus,
during the Spanish regime, land
titles were issued to secure the
Filipinos of their landholdings.

SPANISH PERIOD
(1521-1898)

SPANISH PERIOD
One of Legazpis major policies was
to recognize all lands as part of
public domain, regardless of local
customs (PH)

SPANISH PERIOD
Communal ownership of land
gradually disappeared

SPANISH PERIOD
Private property was introduced

SPANISH PERIOD
Ecomienda system introduced
lands as reward to Spanish
officials and friars

SPANISH PERIOD
Intermarriage gave birth to a new
class known as Mestizos

SPANISH PERIOD
The Cacique system became more
oppressive brought about uprisings from
agricultural areas such as Central Luzon.
The major sources of conflict or rebellion
were tribute (tribute), polo (forced labor)
and encomienda (land grant).

SPANISH PERIOD
The Spanish government issued a
decreto realengo (royal decrees) which
urged landowners to secure a legal title
of their lands since the Spaniards did
not levy a land tax or cedula (head tax)
and only few records of land ownership
were kept.

SPANISH PERIOD
The Maura law
issued in 1894
granted landholders 1 year to secure
a legal title to the land or suffer its
forfeiture

SPANISH PERIOD
The landowners took advantage of the
ignorance of the Filipino peasants by
arrogating peasant lands adjacent to
their own holdings. Hence, most
Filipino landed peasants ended up as
tenants in their own lands.

SPANISH PERIOD
Other strategies of dispossessing
peasants of their landholdings:
outright purchases of real estates at
low prices by a Spaniard or a cacique
and Pacto de Retroventa (similar to
todays pagsasangla).

SPANISH PERIOD
One means of keeping mortgaged
lands:
imposing high interest rates for
loans.

SPANISH PERIOD
Friar Lands
Land related conflict in the 19th century
the Dominican, Augustinian, and recollect
orders were given large tracts of land
tenants (aka inquilinos) paid a tax called
canon to the friars

SPANISH PERIOD
Friar Lands
one of these tenants was Don
Francisco Mercado, Rizal's father
the most extensive friar holdings
were located in Cavite, Laguna,
Rizal, and Bulacan

SPANISH PERIOD
Friar Lands
Total acres of land in Philippines
during the said time: 73,000,000
Privately owned: 5,000,000 acres
Total extent of religious corporations'
property (friar land holdings): 403,
000 acres

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY(1898-1899)
GOVERNMENT

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT

After the establishment of the First


Philippine Republic in 1898, the
Emilio Aguinaldo administration
declared its intention to confiscate
large estates, especially the friar
lands.

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT
Malolos Constitution

all estates and properties possessed


by the religious corporations shall be
restored to the Philippine state as of
May 24, 1898.

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT
During this period, there were 4
classes of estate-proprietors:
Religious orders

Spanish officials and proprietors


Mestizos
Principalia ( ruling class)

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT

Their questionable ownership and


continued possession of large
estates aroused the interest of the
land deprived native farmers. This
became a predisposing factor of the
1898 Philippine revolution

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT

the Aguinaldo government believed


that it had the authority to reclaim
these questionable lands.

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT

By the end of the Spanish era, the


friars possessed about one-fifteenth
of the land under cultivation.

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT

The largest of the friar hacienda was


in Calamba with 16,414 hectares,
and the next largest was in Pandi
with 9,303 hectares.

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY
GOVERNMENT

Unfortunately, the revolutionary


movement was cut short and the
Aguinaldo government was aborted
with the capture of Aguinaldo by the
American Soldiers headed by Col.
Frederick Funston at Palanan,
Isabela.

AMERICAN RULE
(1898-1935)

AMERICAN RULE
Americans, initially considered by
Filipino revolutionists as liberators
from the Spanish Colonial Rule

AMERICAN RULE
Treaty of Paris
December 10, 1898
Spain ceded the Philippines, Guam
and Puerto Rico to the United States
of America.

AMERICAN RULE
Unscrupulous big landowners were
able to wrest control of the land
away from small landholders so
much that a number of caciques kept
and even further strengthened their
positions under the Americans.

AMERICAN RULE
Land disputes resurfaced and
Agrarian troubles worsen

AMERICAN RULE
Torrens land of Registration
system of land title registration in thePhilippines,
rendersindefeasibleproof of ownership to those
who are included in the register.
Land ownership is transferred through
registration of title instead of using deeds. It's
main purpose is to simplify land transactions and
to certify to the ownership of an absolute title to
realty.

AMERICAN RULE
Torrens land of Registration
did not solve the problem, where
majority of the farmers werent able to
avail anything from this system.

AMERICAN RULE
Torrens land of Registration
Increase of tenancy rate and a
decrease of land ownership by
Filipino farmers.

LAND RELATED LAWS THAT WAS


INTRODUCED BY THE US TO THE
PHILIPPINES

LAND LAWS
The Registration Act of 1902
sought to determine the extent of
private landholdings in the country.
Landlords expanded their
landholdings by simply registering
and acquiring Torrens titles to
untilled lands.

LAND LAWS
The Public Land Act of 1903
offered plots not exceeding 16 hectares to
families who had occupied and cultivated
the land they were residing on since
August 1, 1898. This law was supposed to
favor the landless Filipinos, but in reality,
they did not take advantage of it because
they were not aware of the said law.

LAND LAWS
The Cadastral Act of 1903
required cadastral surveys for new
land titles. The government
classified the lands as private or
public.

LAND LAWS
The Friar Lands Act of 1904
This act specifically stated that the
preference to buy or lease would be
given to the actual settlers of the
land acquired by the government.

LAND LAWS
The Friar Lands Act of 1904
By 1919, about 69% of all Friar lands
were bought and disposed by the U.S
civil government in the Philippines
Religious orders remained the
biggest landholders in the country
until 1977

LAND LAWS
Friar Lands Act failed because not all
friar lands were purchased and most of
the lands bought went back to tenancy.
Selling price was beyond the reach of
the occupant; there were no credit
facilities available for the poor farmers.

LAND LAWS
The demand for export crops
motivated the landed or hacienderos
to acquire more lands, intensify
production and exploit the peasants.
Tenancy worsened and persisted.

GROUP 2

13, Casia, Kloie


18, Hernandez, Benjhu
22, Lipatan, Jethro
27, Naoe, Jemavel
29, Pineda Christine