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Part II Heat Transfer

Dr. Madhat Abdel-jawad

Mechanical Engineering

The University of Queensland,

Room 45-215 Mansergh Shaw

Off : +617 33654315

m.abdel-jawad@uq.edu.au

Office hours 10-11 am Tue

Except this

week

When its 11-12

WED

Course objectives

Identify the modes of heat transfer

Explain heat transfer mechanisms and

principles.

Solve simple 1D steady state heat transfer

problems.

Learning Resources

Textbook

Incropera, F.P., and DeWitt, D.P., Fundamentals of Heat

and Mass Transfer, 5th Ed., (2002), John Wiley and Sons,

Inc., New York.

Lecture Notes: Course Profile Section 3 online resources.

Tutorial Problem sheet: Course Profile Section 3 online

resources.

Solution to Tutorial Problems: Course Profile Section 3

online resources.

References

Kreith, F., and Bohn, M.S., (2001), Principles of Heat

Transfer, 6th Ed., Harper and Row.

Chapman, A.J., Heat Transfer, 4th Ed, (1984), Macmillan

Pub Co Ltd, London.

Holman, J.P., Heat Transfer, 7th Ed. (1992), McGraw-Hill

Book Co Inc, New York.

Course Structure

General Introduction

Heat transfer and thermodynamics; Modes of heat transfer;

Equations for conduction, convection and radiation

Conduction

The rate equation

1 D steady state conduction without heat generation [chp3]; 1 D steady

state conduction with heat generation [chp3]

Convection

The convection boundary layers [6.1-6.4]; Boundary layer similarity

[6.5-6.10]; External flow [chapter 7]; Internal flow [chapter 8]

Design of Heat Exchangers (Modules 9-11)[Chp11]

Calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient;

Analysis of heat exchangers using the LMTD method;

Analysis of heat exchangers using the effectiveness-NTU method

Combined heat transfer problems (Module 12)

Examples of combined heat transfer problems

Review (Module 13)

Learning Objectives

1.Identify the modes of heat transfer and describe the mechanisms

2.Understand the parameters in the heat transfer equations and use the heat

transfer equations to solve simple problems

3.Be familiar with the procedure of solving a heat transfer problem using the

heat equation

4.Solve one-dimensional steady state conduction problems without heat

generation

5.Solve one-dimensional steady state conduction problems with heat

generation

6.Be familiar with the procedure of calculating the convective heat transfer

coefficient

7.Calculate convective heat transfer coefficient for external flow

8.Calculate the convective heat transfer coefficient for internal flow and free

convection

9.Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient

10.Design and evaluate heat exchanger using the log mean temperature

method

11.Design and evaluate heat exchanger using the effectiveness-NTU method

12.Solve 1D steady state combined modes heat transfer problems

Exam Problem?

o

Assuming the convection

Tambientcoefficient

=23 C

is constant, and the specific heat

and densities of water and milk are

equal, should I:

phone ?

b)Answer the phone then pour the

milk after the 10 minute

200ml of tea 90 C

conversation

is finished? 50ml of milk 4 C

o

Heat Transfer (or heat) is thermal energy

in transit due to a temperature difference.

Whenever there exists a temperature

difference Heat Transfer MUST exist.

Thermal energy: Thermal energy is associated with the

translation, rotation, vibration and electronic states of the

atoms and molecules that comprise matter. It represents

the cumulative effect of microscopic activities and is directly

linked to the temperature of matter.

Incropera and Dewitt

T2 < T1

T1

q k

T2

dT

dx

Flux

q

1-Conduction

Bulk velocity =0

T2 < T1

T1

High T

energy

Low

energy

x

1-Conduction

1-Conduction

1-Conduction

T2 < T1

T1

1-Conduction

Conduction: collision between molecules

or atoms (fluid); lattice waves induced by

atomic and translational motion of the free

electrons (solid)

2-Convection

Convection is comprised of two fundamental phenomena

1-Diffusion

2- Macroscopic motion of molecules

advection

convection

2-Convection

Convection occurs between a moving fluid

and a solid.

2-Convection

Increasing

Advection

U , T

T

u

Ts

Increasing

Diffusion

U(y)

T(y)

Types of Convection

Forced convection

external means

Types of Convection

Chilled water

pipes

Qout

Qin

Natural convection

Driven by buoyancy

3-Phase Change

Boiling, condensation

q

Water

Hot Plate

Prof Gus Plumb will give a 2 hour lecture on heat transfer by boiling.

Mon Apr 21 2008 8am

Convection

q '' h(Ts T )

Flux W/m

Surface

Temp

Convection

coefficient

Freestream

Temp

Radiation

Gas

Gas

T, h

T, h

Surface of emissivity ,

absorptivity , and Temperature

Ts

A and Temperature Ts

Conduction

T2 < T1

T1

q

insulator

x

A

phenomenologically been found to be adequately

represented by:

Temperature gradient

dT

q x kA

dx

Conductivity

Fouriers Law

T2 < T1

T1

q

insulator

x

A

qx

dT

qx ''

k

A

dx

r T r T r T

q '' k T k i

j

k

y

z

x

Conductivity

Thermal conductivity

Solid > liquid > gas

Pure metals > alloys > nonmetallic solids >

insulation systems

Thermal conductivity of liquid increases with

decreasing liquid molecular weight

Liquid metal > nonmetallic liquid

Thermal conductivity of gas increases with

decreasing gas molecular weight

Conduction

A major objective in conduction analysis

the calculation of the temperature field ie

the Temperature distribution : the value of

the temperature scalar as a function of

position.

qz+dz

qy+dy

A homogenous medium in

which

Bulk velocity = 0

&

E& Eg

qx

qx+dx

st

dy

dz

qy

qz

dx

(No advection)

T(x,y,z)

qy+dy

qz+dz

out

&

E&st Eg

qx

qx+dx

dy

dz

qy

qz

dx

in

qx

qx dx qx

dx

x

q y

q y dy q y

dy

y

q

qz dz qz z dz

z

qy+dy

qz+dz

&

E&st Eg

qx

qx+dx

dy

dz

qy

qz

qx

dx

x

q y

q y dy q y

dy

y

q

qz dz qz z dz

z

qx dx qx

dx

&

E&g qdxdydz

T

&

Est c p

dxdydz

t

qx

qx dx qx

dx

x

q y

q y dy q y

dy

y

q

qz dz qz z dz

z

qy+dy qz+dz

qx

E&st

dy

dz

&

E&g qdxdydz

T

E&st c p

dxdydz

t

qx+dx

E&g

qy

qz

dx

qz+dz

qy+dy

E&st

qx

qx+dx

E&g

dy

dz

qy

qz

dx

&

qx q y qz qdxdydz

qx dx q y dy qz dz

T

c p

dxdydz

t

&

qx q y qz qdxdydz

qx dx q y dy qz dz c p

Recall that

qx

qx dx qx

dx

x

q y

q y dy q y

dy

y

qz

qz dz qz

dz

z

T

dxdydz

t

q y

qx

qz

T

&

dx

dy

dz qdxdydz

c p

dxdydz

x

y

z

t

Recall Fouriers Law

Area

T

qx kdydz

x

dz

qx

qx+dx

dy

q y

qx

qz

T

&

dx

dy

dz qdxdydz

c p

dxdydz

x

y

z

t

qx kdydz

q y kdxdz

T

x

T

y

T

qz kdxdy

z

T

T

T

T

&

k

c

p

x x

y y

z

z

t

qy+dy

qz+dz

*dx qx qx dx

&

E&st Eg

qx

qx+dx

dy

dz

qy

qz

dx

If thermal conductivity is constant, you can divide the whole equation by k and

this leads to the simplification

2T 2T 2T q& 1 T

2 2

2

x

y

z

k t

Where is the thermal diffusivity

given by

cp

Under steady state conditions and with no heat generation then the storage

quantity reduces to zero and the heat equation reduces to

T

T

T

k k k q& 0

x x

y y

z

z

For one dimensional steady state heat transfer

T

k 0

x x

i.e the heat flux is constant in the direction of the heat transfer.

q

T2,h2

Ts1

Ts2

T1,h1

x=L

0

T

T

T

T

&

k k k q cp

x x

y y

z

z

t

Q

T2,h2

Ts1

Ts2

T1,h1

x=L

Integrate twice wrt x

T

k 0

x x

T ( x) C1 x C2

T ( x) C1 x C2

apply the BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

@x=0 T=Ts,1

@x=l T=Ts,2

C2=Ts,1

T ( x) C1 x Ts ,1

T ( x) Ts ,2 Ts ,1

x

Ts ,1

L

T ( x) Ts ,2 Ts ,1

x

Ts ,1

L

heat generation and constant thermal conductivity the temperature

varies linearly with x ,

Fouriers law can now be stated as

qx kA

dT

A

k Ts ,1 Ts ,2

dx

L

i.e the flux is

q ''x

k

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

V

q

I

V

R

I

Rt ,cond

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

qx

kA

q hA Ts T

Can be defined as

Rt ,conv

Ts T 1

q

hA

Ts1

Ts2

T2,h2

Ts3

Ts4

T1,h1

KA

KB

x=L

1

h1 A

LA

kA A

KC

LB

kB A

LC

kC A

1

h A

2

T1 T 2

T1 T 2

qx

LC

1

LA

LB

1

h1 A K A A K B A K C A h 2 A

qx

T1 T 2 Ts1 Ts 2 Ts 2 Ts 3 Ts 3 Ts 4

1

LA

LB

LC

h1 A

KAA

KB A

KC A

qx UAT

Where

Rtot

1

L

1

L

L

1

A

A B C

h1 K A K B K C h 2

Contact resistance

qx

qx

qcontact

qgap

R "t ,c

TA TB

q ''x

MEC H3400

Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer

Part II Heat Transfer

Dr. Madhat Abdel-jawad

Mechanical Engineering

The University of Queensland,

Room 45-215 Mansergh Shaw

Off : +617 33654315

m.abdel-jawad@uq.edu.au

Office hours 10-11 am Tue

T

T

T

T

&

k

x x

y y

z

z

t

For a steady state one dimensional heat

transfer and no energy generation

The heat equation for a steady state one

dimensional heat transfer and no energy

generation for a hollow cylinder

T

k 0

x x

1 d

dT

kr

r dr

dr

Fouriers Law

We stated the phenomenologically found

Fouriers law of conduction in one direction

direction namely the radial

direction

qx kA

qx kA

dT

dx

dT

dT

k 2 rL

dr

dr

Steady state conditions with no heat generation

Cold fluid

1 d

dT

kr

r dr

dr

h 2 ,T2

Why is it

curved ?

Ts2

r1

Ts1

Ts2

1 d

dT

kr

r dr

dr

r2

Hot fluid

h 1 ,T1

r1

r2

Ts1

1

h1 2 r1 L

ln r2 / r1

2 Lk

1

h2 2 r1 L

integrate the heat equation twice

1 d

dT

kr

r dr dr

T (r ) C1 ln r C2

Apply the boundary conditions

T(r1) = Ts1

T(r1) = Ts2

Which gives

Ts1 C1 ln r1 C2

Ts2 C1 ln r2 C2

simultaneously gives C1 and

C2 and substituting into the

general solution gives

T (r )

Ts1 Ts2 r

ln Ts2

ln r1 / r2

r2

like the case for the plane wall under the same conditions

Take the derivative of T(r) wrt r and substitute dT/dr in Fouriers

Law in cylindrical form

dT

qr k 2 rL

dr

Which gives

qr 2 kL

Ts1 Ts2 r

ln

ln r2 / r1

r2

dT/dr

qr 2 kL

Ts1 Ts2 r

ln

ln r2 / r1

r2

analogy

Rt ,cond

resistance

Rt ,cond

Ts1 Ts 2

qr

ln r2 / r1

2 Lk

NOT a linear function of

radius but a logarithmic

function of the radius

Rt ,cond

ln r2 / r1

2 Lk

Cold fluid

h 2 ,T2

1

h1 2 r1 L

Ts2

r1

1 d

dT

kr

r dr

dr

r2

Hot fluid

h 1 ,T1

Ts1

ln r2 / r1

2 Lk

1

h2 2 r1 L

Composite cylindrical

wall

1

1

ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 ) ln(r4 / r3 )

h1 2 r1 L 2 k A L 2 k B L 2 kC L h2 2 r4 L

qr

T1 T 2

ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 ) ln(r4 / r3 )

1

1

h1 2 r1 L 2 k A L

2 k B L

2 kC L h2 2 r4 L

We looked at a wall with no heat generation.

Many cases require the consideration of a wall

with heat generation.

One such case is heat generation due to

resistance.

The rate at which energy is generated by by

passing a current I through the resistance R

If you assume the power generated is uniform In

this case

E&g I 2 R

E&g

I 2R

q&

Volume Volume

heat rate equation

0

0

ss

T

T

T

T

&

k k k q cp

x x

y y

z

z

t

Plane wall

Assume conductivity

is constant

The heat rate equation

simplifies to

d 2T q&

0

dx k

q& 2

T

x C1 x C2

2k

Uniform

means this

term is

constant

Solving for C1 and C2

depends on the boundary

conditions

q& 2

T

x C1 x C2

2k

Case 1

T2,h2

T(-L)=Ts,1 and T(L)=Ts,2

Ts1

Ts2

T1,h1

This gives

x=-L

x x=L

generation

q& 2

T

x C1 x C2

2k

C1

Ts ,2 Ts ,1

2L

C2 Ts ,2

&2

Ts ,2 Ts ,1 x Ts ,2 Ts ,1

qL

x 2

T ( x)

1 2

2k

L

2

2

depends on the boundary

conditions

q& 2

T

x C1 x C2

2k

Case 2

Plane wall with uniform heat generation , both sides

maintained at the same temperature

T2,h2

The boundary conditions are

Ts

Ts

This gives a symmetrical

temperature distribution

T1,h1

&2

qL

x 2

T ( x)

1 2 Ts

2k

L

x=-L

x x=L

at the center and is given by

&2

qL

T (0)

Ts

2k

The temperature gradient at this location is

d

T ( x) 0

dx

Which means that no heat crosses the mid-plane

mid-plane

T2,h2

Ts

x x=L

Extended Surfaces

The term extended surface is used to depict an important special case

involving heat transfer by conduction (and/or radiation) from the boundaries

of a solid.

So far the direction of heat transfer from the boundaries has been taken to

be in the same direction as that within the solid

For an extended surface the direction of heat transfer from the boundaries

is perpendicular to the direction of the principle heat transfer in the solid

different temperatures

T2

qx2

x

T,h

T2

qconv

T1

T1>T2> T

qx1

T1

T(x)

Causes the gradient |

dT/dx| to decrease with

increasing x

between the solid and the fluid then the extended surface is called a

FIN

T, h

Increase h

q=hA(Ts-T)

Increase the difference between

Ts and T

Ts, A

T, h

q=hA(Ts-T)

Increase the area !

Examples of fins

Automotive radiator

Inside your computer

In heat exchangers

In A/C evaporators and condensers

Refrigerators

Examples of fins

Types of fins

CSA

CSA

CSA

dAs

dqconv

qx+dx

x

qx

dx

Ac(x)

qx qx dx dqconv

dT

qx kAc

dx

qx dx

Fouriers law

qx dx

Infinitesimal thickness

assumption

dqx

qx

dx

dx

dT

d

dT

kAc k Ac dx

dx

dx

dx

qx qx dx dqconv

dT

qx kAc

dx

qx dx

Substitute

qx dx

dqx

qx

dx

dx

dT

d

dT

kAc k Ac dx

dx

dx

dx

dqconv hdAs T T

d

dT

h As

T T 0

Ac

dx

dx

k dx

d 2T 1 dAc dT

1 h dAs

T T 0

2

dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx

MECH3400

Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer

Part II Heat Transfer

Dr. Madhat Abdel-jawad

Mechanical Engineering

The University of Queensland,

Room 45-215 Mansergh Shaw

Off : +617 33654315

m.abdel-jawad@uq.edu.au

Office hours 10-11 am Tue

Except this

week

When its 10-11

WED

energy equation for a

generic extended

surface

d 2T 1 dAc dT

1 h dAs

T T 0

2

dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx

simplifications on the

energy equation

Solve the differential

equation

Apply the appropriate

boundary conditions

Straight fin- uniform CSA

for rectangular

configuration

Constant

As = Px

is involved for circular

configuration

Equation for

P depends on

configuration

Straight Fin

T,h

qconv

qf

w

Ac=wt

= 2w+2t

Pin Fin

T,h

qconv

qf

D

L

Ac=D2/4

x

P=D

0, Ac = const

=>dAc/dx = 0

Since As =

Px =>dAs/dx

=P

d 2T 1 dAc dT

1 h dAs

T T 0

2

dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx

d 2T hP

T T 0

2

dx Ac k

d T hP

T T 0

2

dx Ac k

2

T ( x) T

i.e

T ( x) T

temperature as :

Substituting

d hP

0

2

dx Ac k

2

gives

d 2

2

m 0

2

dx

Where we

define

hP

m

kAc

2

ODE

is

d 2

2

m

0

2

dx

( x) C1e mx C2e mx

is

(0) Tb T b

end (tip) of the fin.

BOUNDARY CONDITION 2

CASE1- Assume that the heat is convected away from the tip then for

this tip condition

the fin with area Ac and with

convective heat transfer

magnitude

kAc

dT

dx

hAc T ( L) T

xL

i.e.

temperature

dT

hAcT ( L) T kAc

dx

d

hAc ( L) kAc

dx

xL

xL

General solution

( x) C1e mx C2 e mx

Substitute x=0

Then

substitute

gives

The boundary conditions are

(0) b

hAc ( L) kAc

b C1 C2

d

dx

xL

Substitute x=L

General solution

general solution wrt x

( x) C1e mx C2 e mx

d

mC1e mx mC2e mx

dx

Then

substitute

The

second

boundary

condition

is

hAc ( L) kAc

d

dx

(0) b

x L

two resulting B/C

equations are

b C1 C2

and

h C1e mL C2 e mL km C2e mL C1e mL

C1 and C2

Substituting C1 and C2

back into the general

solution gives the excess

temperature distribution

h

sinh m L x

mk

h

cosh mL

sinh mL

mk

cosh m L x

h,T

by

qconv

h

sinh m L x

mk

h

cosh mL

sinh mL

mk

cosh m L x

x

b

gradient decreases with increasing x as

increasing heat is convected away from the

fin with increasing x

0

0

h,T

the fin is by noting that

qf

qf=qb

qf passes through the base of the

fin qb

i.e.

qf qb k

0

0

dT

dx

k

x 0

d

dx

x 0

h

sinh m L x

mk

h

cosh mL

sinh mL

mk

cosh m L x

Substitute in the derivatiave

then substitute the derivative in Fouriers Law

flux for the fin

h

sinh mL

cosh mL

mk

q f hPkAcb

h

cosh mL

sinh mL

mk

for the total flux through

the fin is by noting that

all the flux through the fin

is convected away i.e

Where Af is the total fin Area

= As+Ac

qf

h T ( x) T

Af

or

qf

h ( x)

Af

qf

h ( x)

Af

gives the equation for

the total flux from the

fin

h

sinh m L x

mk

h

cosh mL

sinh mL

mk

b cosh m L x

h

sinh mL

cosh mL

mk

q f hPkAcb

h

cosh mL

sinh mL

mk

BOUNDARY CONDITION 2

CASE 2 - If we assume that the heat convected away from the tip is

negligible then the problem can be approached by assuming that the

area Ac is insulated i.e.

qf

i.e.

d

dx

the derivative of the

general solution with

respect to x

qb

x L

Adiabatic

end

condition

d

mC1e mx mC2 e mx

dx

Then dividing by m gives

C1e mx C2 e mx 0

b C1 C2

C1e C2e

mx

C2 and then substitute

the results in the general

solution which gives the

excess temperature field

transfer rate

mx

cosh m L x

b

cosh mL

q f hPkAcb tanh mL

BOUNDARY CONDITION 2

CASE 3- If we prescribe a temperature at the tip

qf

excess temperature field

in a similar fashion

qb

L

sinh mx sinh m L x

b

b

sinh mL

TL

L L

hPkAcb cosh mL

And the heat

transfer rate

qf

sinh mL

L

b

qf

qb

The excess

temperature

field

e mx

b

transfer rate

q f hPkAcb

performance ?

qf

f

hAc ,bb

Heat transfer from the body if the

fin did not exist

Fin effectiveness

Heuristic

f 2

is difficult to justify

For the very long fin assuming the convection coefficient is the same

with and without the fin the effectiveness is given by

kP

f

hAc

1/ 2

conductivity material although cost must also be

taken into account

Fin Performance is enhanced by using a larger

perimeter to CSA i.e. the thinner and closer the

fins the better

Fins are more effective where the convective

coefficient is smaller which is the reason why

fins are on the air side of an auto mobile radiator.

Because of the infinite length assumption this

equation gives an upper limit for the effectiveness

of a fin.

performance ?

f

qf

hAf b

Heat transfer from the body if the

entire fin was at the base

temperature

Fin efficiency

Rt , f

qf

Convection

have considered convection only as a

boundary condition for conduction

problems. We now investigate convection

in greater detail.

2-Convection

Convection occurs between a moving fluid

and a solid.

2-Convection

Convection is comprised of two fundamental phenomena

1-Diffusion

2- Macroscopic motion of molecules

advection

convection

u()=0.99*U

(x)

U(y)

U , T

Moving but

retarded by

the layer

just below it

layer

(x)

Moving but

severely

retarded by

the bottom

layer

Stationary

In touch and not slipping with the

plate thus must be stationary

No-slip boundary condition

du

s

dy

For a Newtonian fluid

It is useful to

normalise by the

dynamic pressure to

get a local surface

friction coefficient

Cf

s

1

u 2

2

The layers of fluid

exchange energy

which

(x)

T

T()=0.99*T

T(y)

U , T

T(y)

Ts

Bottom

layer with

temperature

= Ts

Heat exchange

between

adjacent layers

diffusion only

Conduction!

conduction then it is given by

Fouriers Law

qs k f

T

y

y 0

qs h Ts T

k f

h

T

y

y 0

Ts T

h

Decreases with

increasing

boundary layer

thickness

Decreases with

increasing distance from

the leading edge of the

plate

T

k f

y

y 0

Ts T

Constant in x

Decreases with

increasing

boundary layer

thickness

q

Suppose you had an arbitrary

shaped body at a constant

temperature Ts and with area

As

and it is approached

by a fluid at T and

velocity V

Depending on the BL

thickness and other

factors the heat

transfer coefficient will

vary around the body

T ,V

from this infinitesimal

part of the body is the

product of the flux and

the infinitesimal area

and is given by

Ts, As

dq h Ts T dAs

dAs

The total heat transfer from

the body is given by

h T

T dAs

As

the body may be expressed in

terms of an average

convection coefficient

Gives the

average

convection

coefficient for

the whole body

q h Ts T As

1

h

As

hdAs

As

T ,V

q

For a flat plate

the convection

coefficient

varies only

with the with

the Length and

is given by

L

1

h hdx

L0

Ts, As

Why are we introducing the

average convection coefficient ?

dAs

average convection coefficient ?

Because the local heat transfer coefficient to many variables

other than the Boundary layer thickness

Surface Roughness

Laminar/Turbulent

Fluid density

Vary with

Temperature

Fluid viscosity

Fluid conductivity

This makes the local heat transfer coefficient not easy to calculate

1 Viscous sublayer

2 Buffer Layer

3

Turbulent region

u

2

1

Laminar

Transition

Turbulent

Velocity profiles in the laminar and

turbulent areas are very different

U

y

y 0, Lam

U

y

y 0,Turb

coefficient must be different

u

Laminar

Transition

Turbulent

flow

Chaotic.

Diffusive. Dissipative.

Heat transfer is increased in turbulent flow.

Continuum phenomenon. The Kolmogorov

scale is much larger than the molecular

scale.

flow is laminar or Turbulent?

Local Reynolds #

u x

Re

Ratio of inertia to

viscous forces

Cp

Pr

hL

Nu f Re L , Pr

k

Ratio of

momentum

diffusivity to

thermal diffusivity

Ratio of

convection to

pure conduction

convection problems

Find the Nu

hL

Use the definition of Nu

k

to solve for h

Solve for the heat

transfer rate q hA T Ts

Experiment

Pr=Pr1

Pr=Pr2

Pr=Pr3

Log ( Nu L )

Log (Re L )

T ,V

P IV hL As Ts T

Ts,As

R

I

V

Log ( NuL )

NuL C Rem Pr n

Log (Re L )

layer vary across the boundary layer hence

we define a film temperature which we will

use in conjunction with the previous

relations

define

Ts T

Tf

2

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