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Respiration and

Excretion
Chapter 13
The Respiratory
System
Chapter 13 Section 1
The Respiratory
System
The respiratory system functions to
move oxygen from the outside
environment into the body
It also removes carbon dioxide and
water from the body
Why the Body
Needs Oxygen
Energy releasing chemical reactions
inside the body require oxygen
Respiration- the process in which
oxygen and glucose undergo a
complex series of chemical
reactions inside cells
These chemical reactions release
energy that fuels growth and
cellular processes
The body releases carbon dioxide
and some water through the lungs
The Path of Air
Air travels from the outside
environment to the lungs, it passes
through the nose, pharynx,
trachea, and bronchi
The structures of these organs
enable them to warm and moisten
air and to remove harmful
materials
The Nose
Air travels through the
nostrils into the nasal
cavities

The lining of the nasal


cavities contains many
blood vessels that heat the
air

Cells lining the cavities


produce mucus that
moistens the air and traps
many particles such as dust
and bacteria

Cilia- tiny hair-like extensions


that line the nasal cavities
that move together like
whips to sweep the mucus
into the throat, where you
swallow it.
The Path Continues
The Pharynx

After leaving the


nasal cavities, The Trachea

air enters the


pharynx, or From the pharynx, air moves into the trachea,
throat or windpipe.

The trachea is surrounded by rings of cartilage


Pharynx is the that strengthen and keep it open
only part of the
respiratory The trachea is lined with cilia and mucus
system that is Cilia sweep upward, moving mucus toward the
shared with the pharynx to be swallowed
digestive system If the trachea is irritated, you cough
The Bronchi and
Lungs
Air moves from the trachea to the
bronchi
Bronchi are the passages that direct
air into the lungs
Lungs are the main organs of the
respiratory system
At the end of the smallest tubes are
alveoli
Alveoli-tiny sacs of lung tissue who
structure is specialized for the
movement of gases between air and
blood
Alveoli are surrounded by capillaries
that pick up oxygen from the air
Structure and
Function in Gas
Exchange
After air enters an
alveolus, oxygen
passes through the wall
of the alveolus and
then through the
capillary wall into the
blood.
Carbon dioxide and
water pass from the
blood into the alveoli
Alveoli have a huge
surface area enabling
them to absorb large
amounts of oxygen
How You Breathe
Breathing is controlled by muscles and surrounded by the ribs
Diaphragm- a large, dome-shaped muscle that plays an important
role in breathing
When you breathe in, the rib muscles contract, lifting the chest
wall upward and outward.
The diaphragm contracts and moves downward.
This makes the chest cavity larger, providing extra space for the
lungs to expand
For a moment there is no extra air to fill the space; the same
amount of air now occupies a larger space & the air pressure
inside the lungs decreases
The pressure of air inside the chest cavity is lower than the
atmosphere, therefore air rushes into your chest
How You Speak
Larynx- voice box located at the top part of the
trachea beneath the epiglottis
Vocal chords- strands of connective tissue that
stretch across the larynx and produce the voice
When you speak, muscles make the vocal chords
contract, narrowing the opening
Air from the lungs vibrates as it moves past the
chords and produces sound
When vocal chords contract and shorten, your voice
becomes higher
Vocal chords that lengthen and relax produce a
lower voice
Review
List the functions of the respiratory system.

How does the structure of the nose enable it to warm and


moisten air and remove particles?
Explain what happens to carbon dioxide in the blood that flows
through capillaries in the alveoli.
Why does air rush into your body when you inhale?
When there is a lot of dust in the air, people often cough and
sneeze. Why?