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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

5. TEORI PEMECAHAN BATU

5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Fn

Fc

Pendahuluan
1. Pemecahan batu dengan pick

tergantung kepada keberhasilan


penembusan pick kedalam batu

2. Pertama kali mesin gali potong


batubara operasi di Tambang

Direction of cutting

Batubara Bawah Tanah Inggris


1761 (Stack, 1982)
3. Penjelasan akademik kinerja drag
pick pada penggalian batubara
dimulai 1962
4. Evans (1962): teori rock cutting
dengan pick berbentuk pasak
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Teori Evans - 1962

1. Sebuah gigi gali dapat mulai masuk kedalam batu karena


adanya konsentrasi tegangan pada titik kontak yang tajam.
2. Konsentrasi tegangan terjadi sebagai hasil dari interaksi
antara gaya-gaya potong dengan sifat-sifat mekanik
batuan yang sedang digali potong.
3. Tegangan pada awalnya menyebabkan peremukan gesek
dan deformasi elastik sampai tegangan kerja melebihi kuat
tekan batuan dan akhirnya batuan akan runtuh.

5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Fungsi Ujung Gigi Gali Saat


Menembus Batuan Brittle
1. Merusak muka batuan tepat dibawah gigi gali.
2. Rekahan utama akibat awal ini membongkar batuan menjadi
pecahan-pecahan berbentuk sendok di kedua belah sisinya serta ke
arah muka gigi gali menyudut landai.
3. Gigi gali membersihkan jalur sisanya sesaat gigi gali menembus
lebih dalam (Hurt & Evans, 1980).
4. Continuous miner/drum shearers, coal ploughs dan roadheaders
menggunakan picks atau plough cutters yang proses
penembusannya sesuai dengan prinsip tsb.

5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Energi Potong (Hughes, 1972)


1. Energi potong: kerja persiapan & kerja produktif
2. Energi terbesar: kerja persiapan membongkar batu karena dipakai untuk
kehilangan gesek, efek panas dan merobek.
3. Drag pick: penembusan pick & jarak antara pick energi yang diserap .
4. Energi potong [1 fraksi bongkaran (luas permukaan baru)].
5. Kerja produktif dimulai saat pick selesai membongkar batuan dalam bentuk
regangan elastik.
6. Griffith: bila energi regangan pada ujung rekahan Griffith (pre-existing cracks)
sudah berlebih rekahan berpropagasi & batuan merekah (Bieniawski, 1967).
7. Jaeger & Cook (1979): saat perekahan , batuan mengalami perilaku brittle
(batuan tidak melakukan yield yang berlebihan).
8. Perekahan awal pada propagasi rekahan tidak sama dengan UCS, karena
perekahan awal tidak selamanya harus berakibat keruntuhan total.
9. Propagasi rekahan bisa menyebabkan perubahan struktur material.
keruntuhan total pembentukan rekahan
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Perekahan Awal
Hipotesis Griffith berguna untuk menjelaskan kriteria inisiasi fraktur.
Kebanyakan material pada kondisi tertentu menunjukkan proses
tertentu untuk propagasi fraktur, & strength failure-nya tdk dapat
diperkirakan dari kriteria inisiasi fraktur.
keruntuhan total inisiasi fraktur dalam kondisi kompresi.
Karena sebuah rekahan tdk akan propagasi di dalam bidangnya,
seperti halnya yang terjadi dalam kondisi tarik
Stabilisasi sebuah propagasi fraktur bisa terjadi dalam kondisi2
tegangan. Maka, kriteria insisiasi fraktur tidak dapat dipakai untuk
menduga UCS batuan.

5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Kriteria Griffith Untuk Brittle Fracture

1. Stress field near the tip of a pre-existing


crack
2. Energy balance for a pre-existing crack

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1. The Stress Field Theory Approach


Daftar Pustaka: Bieniawski (1967), Jaeger & Cook (1976), Paterson
(1978), Bawils (1984), Gramberg (1989), Farmer (1986) & Rogers
(1991)
Awal Abad 20 perkembangan teknologi mengalami kesulitan besar
dalam brittle fracture, ie. machine parts like piston rods of engines
Ketidakmenentuan yg menyebabkan fenomena ini berakhir di 1920,
saat fisikawan A.A. Griffith (Gramberg, 1929), berhasil
mengembangan teori brittle fracture.
Griffith hipotesa: kehadiran fraktur2 kecil/flaws pada material apa saja
menyebabkan konsentrasi tegangan tarik besar pada ujung fraktur
(Griffith cracks) ketika material diberi tegangan.
Griffith menggunakan batang gelas, glass threads dan glass balloons
untuk eksperimentasinya.
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Extrinsic fracture in compression initiated from a large


crack comparable in size to the dimensions of the part

a. stresses are concentrated at the ends of a shearing crack,


b. microcracks extend from the shear crack parallel to the principal compression direction

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Signatures of microcrack accumulation & evolution of a nucleus of a shear


fault. (a) dependence of compressive volumetric strain on net compressive
stress (1-3), showing the increased inelastic dilation due to microcracking
along path AB & the unloading upon faulting along path BC &, (b)
dependence of net compressive stress (1-3) & dilation on compressive
displacement u

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

The Stress Field Theory Approach


Nilai tegangan kritis saat insiasi rekahan dinyatakan dalam
sebuah persamaan yang berhubungan dengan Tegangan
Utama maksimum dan minimum (1-maximum, 3minimum) dan tegangan tarik (t) pada ujung rekahan.

1 3
1 3

8 t

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

The Stress Field Theory Approach


Kriteria ini mengacu kepada kondisi rekahan terbuka. It does not make
provision for the effect that closure of the crack might have on the
tensile stress at the crack tip. Sehingga kriteria ini tidak berlaku utk
kondisi tegangan tekan. Sekitar 40 tahun kemudian, McClintok dan
Walsh (1963) memasukkan parameter sudut gesek dalam antara
permukaan rekahan ()

4 t

3
3
2
1
1 1

1
1

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

The Stress Field Theory Approach


Penentuan UCS jauh lebih mudah daripada UTS.
Koefisien sudut gesek dalam ditentukan dari serangkaian uji triaksial
dengan variasi confining pressure.
Walaupun Hipotesa modified Griffith sudah diadopsi oleh banyak
pihak dalam mekanika batuan sebagai phenomenological strengthfailure criterion, kriteria ini tidak membentuk hypothesis utk
mekanisme brittle fracture propagation yang dilanjutkan dengan
strength failure (Bieniawski, 1967).

1 3

1
1

c
2

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

2. The Energy Balance Approach

Kriteria Griffith dpt juga diturunkan dari energy balance for a pre-existing (Griffith)
crack. Konsep asli Griffith hypotheses didasarkan pada kondisi bahwa energy (W) yg
digunakan pada pembebanan struktur diseimbangkan oleh elastic strain energy (We)
yang disiimpan didalam struktur itu sendiri dan surface energy (Ws) pada permukaan
bebasnya pre-existing crack sehingga
W = We + Ws

Bila beban bertambah, kenaikan dW dalam applied energy (W) diseimbangkan oleh
(a) kenaikan dWe dlm strain energy (We) saja atau (b) kenaikan dWs dlm crack Ws
saja atau (c) sebagian oleh kenaikan dWe & sebagian kenaikan dWs.

Kasus pertama (dW = dWe, dWs = 0) rekahan tidak memanjang. Pada kedua kasus
lainnya (dWs 0) energi rekahan permukaan hanya dapat menaik jika rekahannya
memanjang, yaitu setengah panjang rekahan awal dari c menjadi (c + dc).

Maka keseimbangan untuk kenaikan energi adalah,

dW dWe dWs

dc
dc
dc

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

The Energy Balance Approach


For a thin plate subjected to uniaxial tension under plane stress
conditions the elastic strain energy stored is (Griffith, 1921),

E
2

Energi permukaan rekahan persatuan panjang sebuah bidang adalah,


Ws = 4 c
= applied uniaxial tensile stress
E = Modulus of elasticity
= SE permukaan per-unit length of crack surface
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

The Energy Balance Approach

2 E

IN
c
Persamaan diatas merupakan hasil diferensiasi kedua persamaan
sebelumnya terhadap c & substitusi.
Persamaan tersebut adalah kriteria mulainya crack extension (fracture
initiation).

< IN
> IN

the crack does not extend


fracture propagation
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Fracture Propagation

Although stress to start crack growth can be calculated from Griffith theory, the
subsequent history of growing cracks is not given by the theory (Brace &
Bombalakis, 1962). For uniaxial tension the subsequent history is fairly obvious,
whereas in compression it is not.

Wells & Post (1958): in tension, a single crack will grow by lengthening in the
direction of its long axis and it will enlarge continuously until a free surface is
reached. The growing critical crack in compression curves out of the direction of
its initial long axis, approaches the direction of compression, and finally stops
after having travelled the distance of a few crack lengths or less (Brace &
Bombalakis, 1962).

Thus, as fracture has been initiated, the stage of fracture propagation is


reached. Experiments and experience have shown that fracture propagation
consists of stable and unstable fracture propagation (Bieniawski, 1976).

Providing the condition of > IN is maintained, fracture propagation is stable


when there is a definite relationship between the half-length c of the crack and
the applied stress.
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Development of intrinsic fracture behaviour by


initiation and propagation of shear fault in
compression

a.the beginning of an echelon action adjacent microcracks producing a zone of increased shear
compliance
b.b. the idealised spread of the compliance zone across the part resulting in a shear fault

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

The relationship for the stable propagation of brittle fracture of metals was
proposed by Irwin (1960),

= {GE/-c}

When a critical condition occurs around the crack, and to result in the
extension of this crack in its own plane, then the ability of a body containing
this crack to resist load would diminish with continued crack growth. This
situation is unstable fracture propagation, this happens very fast and can
not be ceased although the load is removed. Thus, the conditions become
unstable when the energy released per-unit crack surface (G) attains a
critical value (Gc), which is a characteristics property of the material.

c = {GcE/-cc}

This energy conservation concept proposed by Irwin, however, made no


attempt to specify the form of energy released would be converted to.

According to the energy balance concept from Griffith, the movement of the
faces of the extending crack requires an amount of elastic strain energy
transformed into kinetic energy (Wk). Thus, the equation of energy balance
concept can be rewritten as follows,

dWe dWs dWk

dc
dc
dc

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Jaeger & Cook (1976) suggest the kinetic energy dissipated during
crack extension from crack length c to ci, under an applied tension
(ti) remain constant including the surface energy of the crack (4ac i)
can be calculated using the following,
c
c
c 2 2 (1 i )[1 (n 1) i ]
c
c
Wk =
E

n = (4aE/ciTi2)

According to Mott (1948) the kinetic energy in uniaxial tension under


plane stress conditions can be evaluated as follows,

kc 2c2 2
Wk =
2E 2
k = a constant proportionality factor
c = crack-half length

= applied stress

= density of material
c = crack velocity
E = modulus of elasticity

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Hubungan Tegangan & Regangan Pada


Bidang Berkondisi Elastik Linear & ISotrop

Regangan bidang (plane strain)


Tegangan bidang (plane stress)
Symmetrical revolution

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Regangan Bidang (Plane Strain)

xy

(1 )E
(1 )(1 2 )
E
(1 )(1 2 )

E
(1 )(1 2 )
(1 )E
(1 )(1 2 )

x

y

xy

2(1 )

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Tegangan Bidang (Plane Stress)


Pada tegangan bidang maka seluruh
tegangan pada salah satu sumbu sama
dengan nol.
z = 0, xz = 0, yz = 0

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Berdasarkan kedua persamaan tsb the velocity of crack extension


which is attained for large c,

Vc2

2E
c
c
(1 i )[1 (n 1) i ]
k
c
c

Sesaat penjalaran crack mendekati terminal velocity, maka KE yg


menyebabkan crack extension akan mencapai suatu nilai konstan.
Namun, begitu released energy menaik crack-pun memanjang, &
untuk menghilangkan energy tambahan, cracknya akan
memperluas permukaannya dengan bercabang membentuk crack
tambahan yg bersudut dari crack awal
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Energy Based On Rock Characterisation


Strain Energy Concept

The limitations of strength in describing rock


behaviour can be illustrated very simply by
considering two types of rock, rock A and
rock B.

Rock A has a very high strength and high


modulus of 1 and E1 (=1/1) respectively,
but rock B is relatively low strength, 2, and
modulus, E2 (= 2/2). However, although
the strength of the rock B may be double the
strength of the rock A, the strain energy at
fracture will be approximately the same. The
strain energy at fracture can be defined as
(Farmer, 1986),

1
2

1 x 1 = 2 x 2
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Strain Energy = Fracture Toughness = Fracture Index


Wf = (/E)
The concept of strain energy characterisation can be applied most
usefully in the case of rock cutting, - specifically, rock cutting machine.
Energi utk membongkar sejumlah volume batu adalah SE (MJ/m 3;
Teale, 1965) & merupakan ukuran utk menilai drillability & cuttability
massa batuan
Rogers (1991), karena tidak ada metode penggalian sempurna, SE
teoritdk dapat diukur secara langsung. Maka, SE kemampugalian
massa batuan utk sebuah metode penggalian diduga melalui ukuran
efisiensi sebuah proses rock cutting
SE dapat dinyatakan oleh ukuran laju Specific Production (kW/m3) yg
dgn mudah diperoleh dari eksperimen lapangan
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

All tools behave in an essentially similar way, albeit with different degrees of efficiency.
They create a fracture surface in the rock by concentrating sufficient strain energy at a
point in the rock to satisfy the fracture surfaces formed beneath that point (Farmer, 1986).

The strain energy available to fracture the rock will be equal to { x (DV/V)}/volume of rock
or (2 /E) in linear terms. This can be related to the energy input of the rock face from the
cutting machine which can be expressed as the cutting energy per unit volume of rock
excavated or,

Energy Input = PC/Q =2/E

P = power, MW or MJ/s C = efficiency

Q = production m3/hr

Volume excavation rate is directly proportional to the energy input and inversely
proportional to the rock fracture toughness. If the modulus is high in relation to strength,
the rock is brittle and a proportionately lower strain energy level will be required to fracture
the rock.

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

A suggested Scheme for Assessing


Cuttability of Rocks (Farmer, 1986)
1.25

rocks at the top of the strength


range for most generic groups,
some weaker tough rocks

1.00

basalts, weaker igneous rocks,


mudstone, generally brittle rocks

chalks, brittle
weak rocks, weak
limestone, sandstones

0.75
Effi cient cutting stiff machine
water jet assisted

0.50

Average cutting performance


Ineffi cient cutting ; blunt tools ;
low energy transfer

0.25

0.00

4 kW
2 kW
1 kW
0

20

40
60
PRODUC TION (BC M/Hr)

80

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Specific Energy Concept

To excavate a certain volume of rock by any means, energy must be supplied


from a source to the rock mass. The energy required to remove a unit volume of
rock is defined as Specific Energy (SE Teale, 1965) as a quick measures of
assessing rock drivability.
Teale (1965): "it is axiomatic that, to excavate a given volume of rock, a certain
theoretically attainable minimum quantity of energy will be required". Its amount
will depend entirely on the nature of the rock mass. Real mechanical processes
might or might not approach this theoretical minimum: the difference between
actual and theoretical requirements would be a measure of work dissipated in,
for example, breaking the excavated rock into smaller fragments than necessary,
in friction between tools and rock.
The actual SE increases considerably as the particle size is reduced it must
level off at some finite value, & the SE of a particular excavation method may be
deduced, offering a measures of mechanical efficiency. However, the mechanical
efficiency of a rock working process can not be measured directly. The volume of
rock broken must therefore provide an index. The (volume/energy input) of rock
broken is the reciprocal of the SE as already defined, so that mechanical
efficiency is a maximum when the SE is a minimum.
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

SE = 0.14 (CI)2 + 3.3 ()0.33+ 18 E-6 (SH)3 + 0.0057 (CC)3 - 4.38


SE = specific energy (MJ/m3)
CI = NCB cone indentor number
= UCS (MPa)
SH = shore rebound hardness
CC = cementation coefficient (McFeat-Smith, 1977)
Cementation coefficients of sedimentary rock types
(McFeat-Smith, 1977).
CC

Remarks

Non cmented rocks or those having greater than 20%

Ferruginuous cement

Ferruginuous and clay cement

Clay cement

Clay & clacite cement

Clacite (or halite) cement

Silt, clay or calcite with quartz over-growths

Silt with quartz over-growths

Quartz cement, quartz mozai-cements

10

Quartz cement with less than 2% voids

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Application of Roadheaders
(McFeat-Smith, 1978)
Upper values of laboratory SE
that machines can cut (MJ/m3)

Heavy weight
machines

Generalised cutting performance

Medium weight
machines

20

Machines can only cut these rocks at economic rates if they occur in
thin beds (less than 0.3 m). Specialist advice should be obtained and
modification for cutting hard rock may help.

25

15

Poor cutting performance. Regular changes of slightly worn picks will


improve energy requirements and reduce component wear. Point
attack tools may be more beneficial and low speed cutting motors
and side steels will improve stability.

20

12

Moderate to good cutting performance. For abrasive rocks picks must


be inspected frequently as sharp picks will increase performance.

Moderate to good cutting performance with low wear of machine


components. Picks must be changed regularly when excavating
abrasive rocks.

Machines well suited to these rocks. High advance rates. Mudstones


in lower end category may be ripped rather than cut and very high
cutting rates can be achieved.

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

According to Rittinger, the energy absorbed in comminution is proportional to the


increase in the surface area of the fragments; the surface area of a given rock
mass of rock increases inversely as the size of the fragments, assuming the
shape of the fragments to be similar for different sizes,

WR = W {(1/P) - (1/F)}

WR = the energy required to comminute a unit volume of solid rock, or a unit rock
mass, from a nominal feed size F to a nominal product size P.

W = a constant, relating the surface energy of fragments to their normal size, times
the comminution efficiency.

This law has been criticised on theoretical grounds, because the energy
absorbed in comminution is many orders of magnitude greater than the increase
in true surface energy, and on practical grounds, because the actual energy
requirements for fine grinding are less than those indicated by it.
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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

In essence, Kick (1885) assumed that particles of any size


break at a constant value of the specific strain energy, that
is, the particles have a constant strength, independent of
their size. From this it follows that
WK = WS log (F/P)

WK = the energy required to comminute a unit volume of solid rock,


or a unit rock mass, from a nominal feed size F to a nominal product
size P = F/10.

WS = a constant, representing the strain energy required to effect a


size reduction of one tenth, times the comminution efficiency.

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Both the Rittinger and Kick hypotheses have been superseded in


practice by Bond's (1952) proposal that the energy required for crushing
and grinding can be found from,
WB = Wi {(10/P0.5) (10/F0.5)}

P & F are the size of aperture in microns through which 80% of the product
and feed will pass, respectively, and Wi is the work index.

It has been found that Wi has a value of 10 kWh/ton to 20 kWh/ton for


grinding most rocks to 80% passing through a square mesh aperture of 0.1
mm (Johnson, 1968).

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100000
1

5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

I
10000

2
3

1000
II
III

11

100

*
10

10

0.1

10

100

1000

NOMINAL FRAGMENT SIZ E (mm)


Specific energy as a function of nominal particle size for different methods of breaking hard rock with uniaxial compressive strength of 200 MPa.
1. Flame jet piercing; 2. Water erosion; 3. Diamond cutting or drilling; 4. Percussive drilling; 5. Drag bit cutting; 6. Roller bit boring; 7 Impact-driven
wedge; 8. Explosive blasting; 9. Jaw-crusher; 10. Gyratory crusher; 11. Milling. Line I for methods of excavation, corresponds to Rittinger's hypothesis
using an effective surface energy of 0.27 MJ/m2; Line II for methods of comminution corresponds to Bond's relationship using work index of 200 MJ/m3
or about 25 kWh/ton, and Line III to Kick's hypothesis using a strength of 100 MJ/m3 or 100 MPa (after Jaeger & Cook, 1976).
direct mechanical techniques of rock breaking used for excavation tend to follow Rittinger relationships and those for comminution that proposed by
Bond. Indirect techniques such as flame and water jets appear to require about an order of magnitude more energy, presumably because of low value
for the coefficient of transfer of energy in the jet to that used for breaking the rock

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

Relationship Normalised Specific Energy or


Performance Index & Debris Size
(Hughes, 1972).
EXCAVATION METHOD

/SE

SIZE (mm)

Laboratory drill test

0.25

Dust

Rotary drill, blast hole

1.00

Tunnelling machine (roller bits)

2.00

25

Tunnelling machine (disc cutter)

3.00

50-75

Rotary impact heading machine

8.00

125

Selective impact heading machine

20.00

300

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5 # Pemboran Penggalian SK Departemen Teknik Pertmbangan ITB

100

10
2

1
3
0.1
0.003

0.02

0.1

1
SPEC IFIC POWER - MW/m2

10

100

A comparison of the characteristics of various devices for breaking rock showing the
relationship between that rate of excavation, the specific power and the specific energy.
(1) Percussive drills (small); (2) Rotary drills; (3) Drill & blast tunnelling; (4) Raise-tunnel
boring machine; Flame jets (after Jaeger & Cook, 1976).

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