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SOUQ

SOUQ
Souq or Souk is an open-air
marketplace or commercial
quarter in an Arab, or Berber
city.

The term is often used to


designate the market in any
Arabized or Muslim city, but in
modern times it appears in
Western cities too.
It may also refer to the weekly
market in some smaller towns
where neutrality from tribal
conflicts would be declared to
permit the exchange of surplus
goods.

Historically, souqs were


held outside of cities in the
location where a caravan
loaded with goods would
stop and merchants would
display their goods for
sale.
Souqs were held when
there was a caravan or
more available.
At that time, souqs were
more than just a market to
buy and sell goods; they
were also major festivals
and many cultural and
social activities took place
in them.

Types

Seasonal souq
A seasonal souq is held
at a set time, yearly,
monthly or weekly.
The
oldest
type
is
annually which usually
included more activities
than others and was held
outside cities.
Changes
in
political,
economic
and
social
styles have left only the
small seasonal souqs
outside villages and small
towns, selling livestock

Permanent souq

These are far more common but


much less famous as they focus on
the commercial activity and do not
have much interest in entertainment.
Until the Umayyad era, those
markets were only an open space
where the merchants would bring in
their movable stands during the day
and remove them during the night;
no one had a specific right to a spot
in the market and it was usually firstcome first-serve.
During the Umayyad era the
governments started leasing the
land to the merchants and then
selling them
The merchants then began to build
shops on those small lots to store
their goods during the night. That is
when the Arab traditional experience
of a souq evolved.

CAHAR SOUQ
This bazaar was the entrance to the fatehpur sikri
state provision.
The bazaar was famous as the meena bazaar
commissioned by Akbar.
The bazaar has an three arched gateway.
This bazaar is an seasonal bazaar.
According to the tales of history every week queens of
Akbar used to set up stalls in this bazaar.
The bazaar was famous for perfumes, and ladies
shopping.

THREE GATEWAYS

SHOPS

SUQ COURTYARD

GATEWAY
MEENA BAZAR

PLAN

Souq Waqif

MATERIALS
Local building materials were utilized
throughout the construction of the
different souqs. In Isfahan Bazaar,
mudbrick is the material of which the
seemingly endless domes, supported by
pointed arches, are constructed.
It is laid in imaginative and sometimes
highly intricate patterns, especially where
streets cross and a higher dome crowns
the intersection.
In other regions where it is available,
such as in Syria and Turkey, stone was
the predominant building material. It
was used in Aleppo souq and Istanbul
Bazaar. The
interior walls
were either
plastered with
mud or
decorated with
locally produced ceramic tile.

HAMMAM

HAMMAM
General term used to describe both private
and public bath houses.
Public hammams are found throughout the
Islamic world and together with the mosque
are regarded as one of the essential features of
an Islamic city.
They existed from the early Islamic period
where they have been found in palaces such
as Qasr al-Hayr and Ukhaidhir.
Hammams
developed
directly
out
of
Byzantine bath houses such as those
discovered at Avdat, and Yotvata in the Negev.
One of the earliest and certainly the most
famous early Islamic bath house is Qusayr
Amra located in the north-eastern Jordanian
desert. The building was heated by a
hypocaust system supported on short brick

Qusayr Amra, north-eastern


Jordanian desert

Cooling-room

Hot room

Warm room
The hammam of Roxelene, Istanbul

A person taking a Turkish bath first relaxes in a room (known as


thewarm room) that is heated by a continuous flow of hot, dry
air, allowing the bather to perspire freely.
Bathers may then move to an even hotter room (known as
thehot room) before splashing themselves with cold water. After
performing a full body wash and receiving amassage, bathers
finally retire to thecooling-roomfor a period of relaxation.

ARCHITECTURE
A typical hammam consists of three basic,
interconnected rooms:
THESICAKLIK(HOT ROOM)
The hotroom usually has a large dome
decorated with small glass windows that
create a half-light.
It also contains a large marble stone
calledgbek ta(tummy stone) at the
center that the customers lie on, and niches
with fountains in the corners.
This room is for soaking up steam and
getting scrub massages.

EPIDARIUM (WARM ROOM)


It is the intermediate room.
The warm room is used for washing up with
soap and water and the soukluk is to relax,

Yalbugha Baths
Restoration, Aleppo,
Syria

FRIGIDARIUM
ROOM).

(COOL

Thefrigidarium included a quite cold


water pool in which patrons would
immerse themselves before moving on
to the warmer rooms.
Also the sequence of rooms was
revised so that people generally used
the cool room after the warmer rooms
and
Themassages,
Ottomans rather
also used
for refreshment (drinks and snacks are
than itbefore.
served) and recovery.
A few of the hamams in Istanbul also containmikvehs, ritual
cleansing baths forJewishwomen.
On many occasions they became
places of entertainment (e.g. dancing
and food, especially in the women's
quarters) and ceremonies, such as
before
weddings,
high-holidays,
celebrating newborns, beauty trips.

Like other early Islamic baths Qusayr Amra


does not have the frigidarium common in baths
although it does have an enlarged reception
room, decorated with frescoes in late Antique
style.
Other early Islamic bath houses such as
Hammam al-Sarakh, 'Ayn al-Sinu and Jabal
Usays have the same arrangement as Qusayr
Amra with no frigidarium.
The one exception to this pattern is the bath
house at Khirbet al-Mafjar where the heated
rooms are approached via a large hall (30 m
square) resembling the classical frigidarium
with a long pool approached by steps and a
mosaic floor.

YALBUGHA BATHS RESTORATION, ALEPPO,


SYRIA

Architecture
Thestructure is based on a typical floor plan
with
three
sections,
thefrigidarium,tepidariumandcaldariu
m.
Each of these three parts has a large central
domed area surrounded by fouriwans.
The
monumental
streetfaadeis
symmetrically built, with an entrance portal
in the middle.
The walls displayablaqdecoration with

Exterior
view
from
southeast, looking towards
the domed tepidarium
(sogukluk) of the men's
section with lower level
entry at center

PLAN

Iwans

caldarium

tepidarium

frigidarium

Front
facade
Of
Yalbugha
Baths
Restoration
,
Aleppo,
the Syria

Domed
roofs
of
hammam; the Citidel is
seen in the background

Interior
details
Of
Yalbugha
Baths
Restoration,
Aleppo,
Syria

The difference between


Islamic hammams and
Victorian Turkish bath
Islamic hammam Victorian turkish
bath.
The air is often
steamy

The hot air in the


Victorian Turkish
bath is dry

The Islamic
hammam usually
does not have a
pool unless the
water is flowing
from a spring

The bather will


often take a
plunge in a cold
pool after the hot
rooms

In the Islamic
hammams the
bathers splash
themselves with
cold water.

SHAH JAHANS
TOMB

INTRODUCTION

Taj Mahal is referred to in contemporary


Mughal texts as Rauza-i Munavvara, or
Luminous Tomb.
The rectangular reflecting pool mirrors
the pools in each of the four gardens and
makes your eyes follow along parallel
lines to the tomb's entrance.
The intersecting perpendicular lines
continue to create right angles in each of
the four sections which are subdivided
into another four squares.
The doorways are rectangular in design
with semi-octagonal angles.
The room that the tombs are placed is
octagonal. As we look at the Taj Mahal,
there are multiple lines of symmetry.
The total effect combines to make one of

ARCHITECTURE

The mausoleum is set at the northern


end of the main axis of vast oblong
walled complex which descends in
hardly noticeable terraced steps
towards the river Yamuna.
The overall composition is formed of
two major components:
The mausoleum
Garden
and two subsidiary courtyard
complexes to the south
The main entrance is from the west,
but there are two other entrances -from the east and from the south.
The main gateway is a large threestorey sandstone structure with an
octagonal
central
chamber
with
smaller rooms on each side.
The Makrana white marble of the Taj

The gates
Mosque

Gardens
Mausoleum

ELEVATION DETAIL

1. Lotus decoration: Lotus is the prominent


Hindu symbol used in Taj Mahal
2. Final: Ornamental terminating part
3. Onion dome
4. Drum: cylindrical base of the onion dome
5. Chattri: domed and columned kiosk
6. Minarets: 40 m tall cylindrical columns
with bevelled angles

7. Guldasta: tall decorative spire


8. Arch: also called Pishtaq
9. Spandrel: space between an arch and
a rectangular enclosure
10. Calligraphy on large Pishtaq
11. Dado: decorated frames with pietra
dura
12. Base

CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

The base structure is essentially a large,


multi-chambered cube with chamfered
corners, forming an unequal octagon that
is approximately 180 feet on each of the
four long sides.
On each of these sides, a massive
pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the
iwan with two similarly shaped, arched
balconies stacked on either side.
This motif of stacked pishtaqs is
replicated on the chamfered corner
areas, making the design completely
symmetrical on all sides of the building.
Four minarets frame the tomb, one at
each corner of the plinth facing the
chamfered corners.
The main chamber houses the false
sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah
Jahan; the actual graves are at a
lower level.
The podium is raised on a low sandstone

TOMB

There is the graves of Mumtaz Mahal


(in the centre) and Shah Jahan (to its
side).
The floor is paved in a geometrical
pattern consisting of octagonal stars
alternating with pointed cruciform
shapes, formed by black marble inlaid
in white.
Around the whole is a border of lobed
cartouches of alternating size.
Luxurious vases filled with flowers
appear here instead of the individual
flowering plants of the pishtaq halls
outside. The flowers follow botanical
species more closely, and one can
identify the Mughal favourites, irises,
tulips, daffodils and narcissus.
All vases have the same general shape
and all are set on little hills with small
flowering plants in mirror symmetry on
each side.

MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE
TOMBS

Introduction to Islamic
tombs

Atombis a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally


any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of
varying sizes.
Mughal tombs encompass broad range of architectural types, best
illustrated by the memorials to Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir as well
the
as
Taj, all common
situated in
A feature
to or
all near
thesethe three major imperial centres of
Delhi,
Agra and is
Lahore.
monuments
the
spatial
separation of the actual grave,
which is accommodated in a
domed crypt at ground level deep
within the podium, and the
cenotaph, which is raised at a
higher level directly above.

This idea was introduced to


India by the Mughals in emulation
of Timurid family tombs, which
had subterranean crypts such as
that
of
Timur
himself
in
Samarqand dating from 1405.

Typology of tombs
Five specific Indo-Islamic, general tomb may be identified. They
are derived, in part from the six tomb types noted by Hillenbrand.

1.The canopy tomb


This tomb type is characterized by an open plan in which the roof
and dome, where applicable, is supported by a series of columns or
piers. An example is seen in the Sayyid Usman Rauza.

Four column grid

Sixteen column grid

Eight column grid

2. Enclosed square tomb with one, two, three


or four entrances

It may be surrounded by a covered veranda of one or two aisles ( a Qibla


wall being the feature of the one and three entranced square tomb). This
type is characterized by solid masonry walls covered by a dome without a
surrounding verandah. Generally, it consists of a single storey. An
example is seen in the Tomb of Sultan Iltutmish .

Single entrance

Double entrance

Three entrances with

Three entrances

Four entrances with

Four entrances

3. Square plan with four corner minarets


The towers at the four corners extend at 45 degree beyond the
corners of the square, or incorporated as part of a square plan.
Generally this type is shown with a qibla wall. As a rule, this
possesses multi-storeys, although there may be a single storey.
Example are seen in the Tomb of Sultan Ghari or Tomb of
Muhammad Ghaus.

Circular minaret
projecting outside the
structure

Square base minaret


projecting outside the
structure

Square base minaret


Incorporated in the structure

4. Enclosed octagon or an enclosed octagon


within an octagonal verandah
This type of planning was practiced from the 14th through the 16th
.
through
the 16th Centuries, C.E. It may be found with one, three, four,
seven or eight entrances to the central area. The latter variation - i.e., the
octagon with an octagonal verandah - generally is characterized by three
open arches on each face of the verandah amounting to twenty-four
arches. Example of this type are seen in the Tomb of Shah Rukn-i 'Alam or
Tomb of Sher

Octagonal plan
form of tomb

Octagonal plan form


of tomb with eight
entrance

Octagonal plan form


of tomb with seven
entrance

5. Tomb with square and octagon combination


It is a combination generally of square and octagon. Particularly,
this type is characterized by the employment of a Muthamman
Baghadi, and incorporates the nine fold plan - i.e., the plan in which
a central chamber is surrounded by eight smaller chambers or
areas, four at the cardinal points and four at the intercardinal
points. As a rule, this type possesses multi-storeys and are often set
upon a podium and within a chaar-bagh, and is the most developed
of the various tomb plans. Examples are seen in the Tomb of
Humayun or the Taj Mahal.

Central chamber surrounded by eight smaller


chambers, four at the cardinal points and four at the

Humayun tomb

Elements of tomb
Gardens
Mausoleum
The gates

Site plan of Tajmahal

Geometry And Ornamentation

Four types of ornamentation can be


found in Islamic art:
1. Calligraphy,
2. Vegetal motifs and
3. Geometric patterns.
Geometry is one the most
important elements of Islamic art.
Star shapes and polygons appear
in all the arts and provide a source
of much architectural decoration.
Geometric shapes are highly
versatile and can be extremely
complicated.
From the simple polygons and
rectangles used as framing devices
to the highly complex interlaces of
stars and irregular polygons.

Geometrical pattern in
Akbars tomb

Vegetal pattern in
Jahangirs tomb

Geometry in
plan of
Shahjahans

Calligraphy in
Shahjahans
tomb

The four basic shapes, or "repeat units," from which the more
complicated patterns are constructed are:
circles and interlaced circles;
squares or four-sided polygons;
the star pattern, ultimately derived from squares and triangles
inscribed in a circle;
multisided polygons.

The repeating patterns also


demonstrate that in the small v can
find the infinite ... a single element of
the pattern implies the infinite total.

The repeated geometric


patterns often make use of plant
motifs, and these are called
arabesques.

Basis Of Geometry
Circle. it is centre The basic methods by which 3, 4,
5, 6, 8 and 10 point patterns can
at which all Islamic
be constructed using only a
patterns begin. It
emphasizes one
straight edge and compass.
god.
The triangle
symbolises
human and the
principles of
harmony.
The square is the
FIVE POINT
symbol of physical THREE POINT
GEOMETRY
GEOMETRY
experience and
the physical world
or materiality.
The hexagon
symbolises
heaven.
The star
symbolises the
spread of Islam.

FOUR POINT GEOMETRY

SIX POINT GEOMETRY

Other simple pattern based on six pointed geometry might be


developed and has been turned 30 counterclockwise and a number
of straight construction lines selected on which the pattern has
been produced.

Comparative analysis

HUMAYUNS
TOMB

AKBARS TOMBJAHANGIRS
TOMB

SHAHJAHANS
TOMB

N
N

SYMMETRY AND
BALANCE

ZONING

HUMAYUNS
TOMB

JAHANGIRS
AKBARS TOMB
TOMB

The gates
Mosque

SHAHJAHANS
TOMB

Gardens
Mausoleum

GEOMETRY

GRID

HUMAYUNS
TOMB

AKBARS TOMB JAHANGIRS SHAHJAHANS


TOMB
TOMB

PROPORTIO
N

SKYLIN
E

OPENING
S

HUMAYUNS
TOMB

AKBARS TOMBJAHANGIRS
TOMB

SHAHJAHANS
TOMB

ADITYA JOSHI 14
MASOOM LAKDWALA 20
MITALI MAIWALA 22
HETALI PATEL 23
RAJVI MANDLEWALA 24
SOHAM PAREKH - 29

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