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An Innovative Mathematics magazine

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Algebra?

Cartesian Graphs?

?

Golden Ratio

Calculator Precision?

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Created by Maths Rep of 104

Published in April 2010

Issue no. 2

Maths is Great PTE LTD

Golden Ratio-----------------------pg3

Cartesian Graphs-----------------pg4

Coordinates & Linear Graphs--pg5

Estimation & Approximation----pg6

Calculator Precision--------------pg7

Test your Calculator--------------pg8

Algebra------------------------------pg9

Hall Of Fame: Al-Khwarizimi-pg10

Mathematics Quiz---------------pg11

Smaller quantity

Larger quantity

in the golden ratio if the ratio of (the sum of

the quantities: the larger quantity) is = to the

ratio of (the larger quantity: the smaller one).

The golden ratio is an irrational mathematical

constant, approximately 1.6180339887.

Other names frequently used for the golden

ratio are the golden section (Latin: sectio

aurea) and golden mean. Other terms

encountered include extreme and mean ratio,

medial section, divine proportion, divine

section (Latin: sectio divina), golden

proportion, golden cut, golden number, and

mean of Phidias. The golden ratio is often

denoted by the Greek letter phi, usually lower

case (φ).

In the previous issue, we mention Rene Descartes. He was

the on who invented the Cartesian Coordinate Graphs.

Once, there was a fly on the ceiling, he wanted to describe

the position of the fly. So, that is why he had invented the

Cartesian Coordinate Graphs.

Cartesian Coordinate Graphs is useful for locating

something .This graph is the combination of number lines,

algebra and geometry.

There are two types of axis: the x axis & the y axis.

The x axis goes horizontally but the y axis goes vertically.

However, there is also a z axis. (not commonly used)

The place where the x axis & the y axis intersect, it’s the

origin, (O)

There are four quadrilaterals in a linear

graph.

The 1st quadrilateral has (+) x coordinates

&(+) y coordinates.

The 2nd quadrilateral has (-) x coordinates

&(+) y coordinates.

The 3rd quadrilateral has (-) x coordinates

&(-) y coordinates.

The 4th quadrilateral has (+) X

coordinates&(-) Y coordinates.

Coordinate is a point.

By joining two coordinates together, you will get a line.

The line on the graph has a function (an algebra statement).

A function is a relationship that expresses a dependant

variable in terms of an independent variable and each value

of the independent variable will produce a unique value for

the dependant variable.E.g. y=2x+3

Gradient of a line can be derived by the formula: rise/run

A negative gradient is a gradient sloping downwards from

left to right.

A positive gradient is a gradient sloping upwards from left

to right.

A horizontal line has a gradient 0

A vertical line has a gradient, which is undefined.

We apply estimation in our daily lives and in

measurements.

We can round off very big or very small numbers by

rounding off to significant numbers or decimal place or

the nearest integer. This makes things easier for us.

We approximate a measurement since there is no exact

or precise measurement.

We estimate a value as is easier to calculate.

certain number of significant figures as it is easier for us

to say it. For example, it is easier to read out the

approximate value of the price of a housing estate than

to read out the exact price.

In measurements, like for example measuring the

amount of water in the beaker. From the reading below

the meniscus, we might say the water level is about

6.5ml. If we wanted to read out the exact value, then we

will expect to see lots of numbers.

Calculator Precision

Now, we’ll look into the precision of calculators. Hmmmm… one

might rely on calculator to do numeric computation, but calculators

are also very limited, they don’t show exact and precise value.

The degree of precision of a calculator depends on the type of

calculator you are using. There are 2 different types: four-function

calculator and the scientific calculator.

With the extensive use of calculators, we might notice that different

types of calculators give different type of answers. Instead, they

round off the value as calculator can also display at most ten digits

on the screen.

The number of digits stored and used also depends on the capacity

of calculator Any number has exited the limit of the number of

digits, the calculator will round off the value. These approximations

result in rounding and truncation errors especially in working very

large or very small values.

0.666666667(rounding error).

If you multiply 2/3 by 4, your mental sum gives you 8/3. However,

the calculator will either give you 2.666666667 or 2.666666664.

In conclusion, don’t rely too much on calculators. Instead, trust your

mental sum. Surprisingly, your mental sum may be more precise and

accurate.

Get a calculator. Let’s test its precision.

Divide 100 by 3:

Then, multiply the

answer by 3:

Then square the answer

three times:

Then cube the answer six

times:

Different types of calculator gives you different

types of answer due to truncation errors and

rounding errors

Algebra is a branch of Mathematics, which used

letters and symbols to represent numbers or

variables.

Algebra can be applied in almost any branch of

Mathematics. Once you mastered it, no problem

is too hard for you!

Algebra is invented by a Muslim Mathematician,

Al-Khwarizimi.

BIDMAS rule.

We add or subtract the like terms by adding or

subtracting the coefficients. We do not add or

subtract the coefficients of unlike terms.

If an expression within brackets is multiplied by

a number, each term within the brackets must

be multiplied by that number when the brackets

are removed.

Factorizing of algebraic expressions can be done

by extracting common factors from all terms of

the expression or grouping terms such that the

new terms obtained have a common factor.

Hall Of Fame: Al-Khwarizimi

Al-Khwarizimi (c.780-c.850 CE) was a Persian

mathematician, astronomer and geographer.

representing unknown values using alphabet.

south of the river Oxus in present day Uzbekistan.

system, several arithmetical procedures including

operations on fractions, details of Trigonometric tables

containing Sine functions and tangent functions, calculus

of two errors, which led him to the concept of

differentiation.

computers, and the creation of encryption.

The modern technology industry would not exist without

the contributions of Muslim mathematicians like Al-

Khwarizmi.

The top scorer of the quiz on the previous issue

is() with the score of ().

Mathematics Quiz

There are 4 Quiz to solve.

(a) y=3x+5-4z-1x+5z

(b) z=3a2 x 5a2 x 4a3

coordinates (3,5) and (-2,10). What is the gradient

of the line?

coordinates (-8,-6) and (0,36). What is the gradient

of the line?

to the acceptable form.

(a) 2.3456N+2345.6N

(b) 6.5432m/s x 6.543.2m/s x 36kg

Tommy. The highest score for the Mathematics Quiz will be

displayed on the next issue of the magazine. The deadline of

the quiz is 30th of April 2010.(Prizes will also be awarded by

the welfare department.)

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