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- p6
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Measurements

Definition of

Heat

that can be transformed from one form

to another. It can also be transferred

from one point to another by the virtue

of the motion of the molecules brought

about by the difference in

temperature.

Unit mass a scalar quantity of

magnitude:

Cgs 1 gm, mks 1 kg, fps 1 slug

Units of Heat Conversion

Note:

1 calorie the amount of heat needed to

raise the temperature of 1 gm of

water by 1C .

1 kilocalorie the amount of heat needed to

raise the temperature of 1 kg of

water by 1C .

1 BTU (British Thermal Unit) the amount of

heat needed to raise the

temperature of 1 slug of water by

1F.

1. Change in temperature

2. Change in Phase

Change in Temperature

m

Where:

m = mass of the body

C = specific heat

t = change in

temperature

Heat

of heat involved to change the

temperature of the total mass of

the substance w/o a change in

phase.

Specific Heat (c) the amount of

heat needed to raise the

temperature of a unit mass of a

substance by 1.

Heat, C

Units

CGS

Cal/g-c

MKS

FPS

Kcal/g-c BTU/slug

-F

Change in Phase

Fixed Points points at which a

substance will have a change

its phase without a change in

temperature.

Freezing Point/Melting Point

ice

or 32F

wate

r

or 32F

(-) heat lost or

released

steam

(-) heat lost or

released

heat involved to change the phase

of the entire mass of the substance

w/o a change in temperature.

Latent Heat (L) the amount of heat

needed to change the phase of a

unit mass of a substance when no

change in temperature takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion (Lf) the

amount of heat needed to change a

unit mass of ice to water or vice-versa

at freezing point or melting point.

the amount of heat needed to

change a unit mass of water to

steam or vice-versa at boiling point

or steam point.

Values of Latent Heat

Values

of L

cgs

mks

fps

80

cal/g

80

kcal/kg

144

BTU/slug

540

cal/g

540

kcal/kg

972

BTU/slug

quantities using a calorimeter

(stirrer, calorimeter, H2O and metal) will have

the same temperature.

Principle of calorimetry

Hotter bodies will give off heat

Colder bodies will absorb heat

By conservation of heat energy

Heat lost by hotter body = heat

gained by

colder bodies

Q m Q s Qc Q w

Q mct

mm c m t m m s c s t s mc cc t c m w c w t w

t m t mix t m

t s t c t w t mix t w

mm c m (t m t mix ) m s c s mc cc m w c w t mix t w

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1.How much heat is needed to change 10 g of ice at -20 oC to

steam at 110oC assuming no heat is lost due to the

surrounding? Ans. QT = 7350 cal

2. It is found out that 100 kcal of heat is just sufficient in

changing a certain amount of ice at -20 oC to steam at 130oC.

Determine the mass of the ice. Ans. m = 0.13 kg

3. 100 g of ice at 0oC are dropped into 381.4 gm of water at

30oC contained in a 200 gm copper calorimeter (c = 0.093

cal/gm-Co). The final temperature is 8oC. Find the heat of

fusion of ice.

Ans. Lf = 80 cal/g

temperature of 80oC. How many grams of ice at a

temperature -20oC must be dropped in the water so that the

final temperature of the system will be 50oC?

Ans. m = 107.14 g

5. A copper calorimeter (c = 0.093) whose mass is 120 g

contains 350 g of water at 20oC. Into these are dropped

simultaneously 200 g of aluminum (c = 0.22) at 70oC and 150

gm of lead (c = 0.031) at 90oC. Find the final temperature of

the mixture.

Ans. tmix = 26.16oC

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

20C. The mass of the glass is 100 g and of specific

heat 0.16 cal/g-c and water is of mass 200 g. If 4

cubes of ice each of mass 15 g will be added to the

glass of water, solve for

a) The temperature of the mixture

b) The mass of ice remaining if any

7. Determine how many calories of heat must be

removed to change 100g of vapor at 210C to solid

at 10C. Consider the following properties of the

substance: heat of fusion = 1000 cal/g, heat of

vaporization = 200 cal/g, specific heat capacity as a

liquid = 0.75 cal/g, melting point at 10 C and boiling

point of 210C.

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