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Heat and Heat

Measurements

Definition of
Heat

Heat a fundamental form of energy


that can be transformed from one form
to another. It can also be transferred
from one point to another by the virtue
of the motion of the molecules brought
about by the difference in
temperature.
Unit mass a scalar quantity of
magnitude:
Cgs 1 gm, mks 1 kg, fps 1 slug
Units of Heat Conversion

Note:
1 calorie the amount of heat needed to
raise the temperature of 1 gm of
water by 1C .
1 kilocalorie the amount of heat needed to
raise the temperature of 1 kg of
water by 1C .
1 BTU (British Thermal Unit) the amount of
heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1 slug of water by
1F.

2 Common Effects of Heat

1. Change in temperature
2. Change in Phase
Change in Temperature
m

Where:
m = mass of the body
C = specific heat
t = change in
temperature

Heat

Quantity (Q) the total amount


of heat involved to change the
temperature of the total mass of
the substance w/o a change in
phase.
Specific Heat (c) the amount of
heat needed to raise the
temperature of a unit mass of a
substance by 1.

Units and values of Specific


Heat, C

Units

CGS

Cal/g-c

MKS

FPS

Kcal/g-c BTU/slug
-F

Change in Phase
Fixed Points points at which a
substance will have a change
its phase without a change in
temperature.
Freezing Point/Melting Point
ice

or 32F

wate
r

or 32F

(+) heat gained or absorbed


(-) heat lost or
released

Boiling Point/Steam Point

steam

(+) heat gained or absorbed


(-) heat lost or
released

Heat Quantity (Q) the total amount of


heat involved to change the phase
of the entire mass of the substance
w/o a change in temperature.
Latent Heat (L) the amount of heat
needed to change the phase of a
unit mass of a substance when no
change in temperature takes place.
Latent Heat of Fusion (Lf) the
amount of heat needed to change a
unit mass of ice to water or vice-versa
at freezing point or melting point.

Latent Heat of Vaporization (Lv)


the amount of heat needed to
change a unit mass of water to
steam or vice-versa at boiling point
or steam point.
Values of Latent Heat

Values
of L

cgs

mks

fps

80
cal/g

80
kcal/kg

144
BTU/slug

540
cal/g

540
kcal/kg

972
BTU/slug

Calorimetry the measurement of heat


quantities using a calorimeter

At thermal equilibrium (tmix), all bodies


(stirrer, calorimeter, H2O and metal) will have
the same temperature.

Principle of calorimetry
Hotter bodies will give off heat
Colder bodies will absorb heat
By conservation of heat energy
Heat lost by hotter body = heat
gained by
colder bodies

By conservation of heat energy

Q m Q s Qc Q w
Q mct

mm c m t m m s c s t s mc cc t c m w c w t w
t m t mix t m

t s t c t w t mix t w

mm c m (t m t mix ) m s c s mc cc m w c w t mix t w

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
1.How much heat is needed to change 10 g of ice at -20 oC to
steam at 110oC assuming no heat is lost due to the
surrounding? Ans. QT = 7350 cal
2. It is found out that 100 kcal of heat is just sufficient in
changing a certain amount of ice at -20 oC to steam at 130oC.
Determine the mass of the ice. Ans. m = 0.13 kg
3. 100 g of ice at 0oC are dropped into 381.4 gm of water at
30oC contained in a 200 gm copper calorimeter (c = 0.093
cal/gm-Co). The final temperature is 8oC. Find the heat of
fusion of ice.
Ans. Lf = 80 cal/g

4. A beaker of very small mass contains 500 g of water at a


temperature of 80oC. How many grams of ice at a
temperature -20oC must be dropped in the water so that the
final temperature of the system will be 50oC?
Ans. m = 107.14 g
5. A copper calorimeter (c = 0.093) whose mass is 120 g
contains 350 g of water at 20oC. Into these are dropped
simultaneously 200 g of aluminum (c = 0.22) at 70oC and 150
gm of lead (c = 0.031) at 90oC. Find the final temperature of
the mixture.
Ans. tmix = 26.16oC

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

6. A glass containing water is initially of temperature


20C. The mass of the glass is 100 g and of specific
heat 0.16 cal/g-c and water is of mass 200 g. If 4
cubes of ice each of mass 15 g will be added to the
glass of water, solve for
a) The temperature of the mixture
b) The mass of ice remaining if any
7. Determine how many calories of heat must be
removed to change 100g of vapor at 210C to solid
at 10C. Consider the following properties of the
substance: heat of fusion = 1000 cal/g, heat of
vaporization = 200 cal/g, specific heat capacity as a
liquid = 0.75 cal/g, melting point at 10 C and boiling
point of 210C.