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Aggregate and Bitumen

Testing
CE 303 Transportation
Engineering
University of Peradeniya
Department of Civil
Engineering
By
Dr G S Gurusinghe
3rd November 2008.

Desired Quality of
Aggregates
Hard (strength) enough to

withstand the load of traffic and


rolling equipment.
Resistant to abrasion and
weathering
Non slipping (skid resistance)
Angular (friction between particles)
Well graded (packing)
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Effects of Production
Process on Quality of
Aggregate

Source of aggregates

Decomposed or inferior rock passing through


crusher.

Overloading the screens cause excess


of undersize materials.
Higher reduction of the crushing plant
can result in flaky or elongated particles
Flaky and elongated aggregates can
contain more fines (undersize) than the
cubical aggregates.
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Aggregate Tests
There are four main types
Descriptive tests
Visual examination

Non destructive tests


Gradation and shape

Durability tests
Abrasion and toughness

Specific gravity tests


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Descriptive tests (descriptive evaluation


of mineral aggregates by particle shape)
Classifica
tion
Rounded
Irregular
Flaky

Description

Examples

Fully water-worn or
completely shaped by
attrition
Naturally irregular, or partly
shaped by attrition and
having rounded edges
Material of which the
thickness id small relative to
the other two dimensions

River or seashore
gravel; desert, seashore
and wind blown sand.
Other gravel; land or
dug flint
Laminated rock, parent
jointed rock

Classifica
tion

Description

Possessing well-defined
edges formed at the
Angular
intersection of roughly
planar faces
Material, usually angular, in
which the length is
Elongated
considerably larger than the
other two dimensions
Material having the length
considerably larger than the
Flaky and
width, and the width
elongated
considerably larger than the
thickness

Examples
Crushed rocks of all
types; talus: crushed
slag
Laminated rock, parent
jointed rock with a
system of joints
Laminated rock, parent
jointed rock with a
system of joints

Descriptive tests (Descriptive evaluation of mineral


aggregates by surface texture)
Gro Surface
up texture
1 Glassy

Characteristics
Conchoidal fracture

Water-worn or smooth
due to fracture of
2 Smooth
laminated or finegrained rock.
Fracture showing more
3 Granular or less uniform
rounded grains

Examples
Black flint,
vitreous slag
Gravels, chert,
slate, marble,
some rhyolites
Sandstone, oolite

Surface
texture

Characteristics

Examples

Rough

Rough fracture of
fine-or mediumgrained rock
containing no easily
visible crystalline
constituents

Mudstone,
Non
crystalline
limestone

Crystalline

Containing easily
visible crystalline
constituents

Granite,
gabbro, gneiss

Honey
With visible pores
combed and
and cavities
porous

Brick, pumice,
foamed slag,
clinker,
expanded clay

Group

Non Destructive Tests


Gradation tests
Sieve analysis

Shape tests
Flakiness index
Elongation index
Angularity number
(Tested particles grater than
6.35mm in size. )
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Flakiness index is the % by weight of


.
particles whose least thickness is less than
three fifths of their mean dimension.
3 ai bi
ti 5 *

Sieves and
template for
flakiness test

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Elongation index is the % by weight of


particles whose greatest length is greater than
1.8 times their mean dimension.

ai bi

i 1.8 *

Sieves and pins


(pegs) for
elongation test

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Angularity number = %voids 33


(Expressed as the nearest whole No)

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Example: Flakiness and elongation index


Weight passing
Sieve Weight
through
size retained
Flakiness
(mm)
(gm)
template (gm)
63
50
37
28
20
14
10
6.3

0
214
267
195
154
108
89
75

65
47
40
28
23
21

Weight not
passing through
elongation pin
gaps (gm)
40
51
34
29
21
16
15
13

= 888 gm
Weight
passing
through
template
For flakiness
index
consider
weight retained in sieve size
50 mm and below
The total weight retained
=214+267+195+154+108+89+75 = 1102 gm
=65+47+40+28+23+21
224 gm
Weight passing through =template
Flakiness
index
=40+51+34+29+21+16+15
= 224/888*100 = 25%
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Durability tests Abrasion test

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Durability tests Accelerated


Polishing test
Abrasive Dust Feed

Pneumatic Rubber tyred wheel (200 mm dia.)

Lever arm

Segments fixed to road wheel


(bolted on)
Load applied
to wheel (40 kg)

Rotating Wheel (406 mm dia.)

motor
Specimen prepaired
for testing

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Skid resistance testing equipment


Carrying Handle
Retaining Catch

0
Scale
Pendulum Arm
50
Max. Swing
Indicator

100

Height Adjustment
Friction
Plate
Shoe

150

Levelling Screws(Three)

Contact gauge

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Toughness tests - Aggregate


crushing test

Aggregates passing through 14


mm and retained on the 10 mm
sieve.
The aggregate is placed in a
standard mould using a specified
procedure, and then subjectedto a
load of 40 tonnes gradually
applied on the material for a
period of ten minutes.
The load is then released and the
amount of material passing
through the 2.36mm sieve is
determined.
This weight expressed as the total
weight of the sample gives the 18

Toughness tests - Ten percent fines


test

The procedyre is the same as


for Agrregate crushing test.
But different samples are
subject to different loads.
The load which gives 10 % of
fines is reported as Ten Percent
Fines Value (TPV)
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Toughness tests - Aggregate impact


test
The test is carried out by subjecting
aggregate which has passed the 14 mm and
retained on the 10 mm sieve to 15 blows of
a 13.6 14.1 kg hammer falling through a
height of 381mm. After impact the material
passing the 2.36mm sieve is expressed as a
% of the total weight of the original sample
and is termed the aggregate impact value
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Specific gravity test is normally carried


out in conjunction with a water absorption
test. It consists of soaking a sample of the
aggregate in distilled water for 24 hours and
then weighing it in water. The sample is
surface dried, weighed in air and then weighed
in air again after oven drying for 24 hours.
The bulk specific gravity is obtained by
dividing the difference between the weights of
the saturated sample in air and in water.
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Bitumen Testing

Penetration test
Ductility test
Softening point test
Flash and fire point test
Viscosity test

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Penetration test
At (25C), load (100 g) and time (5 sec).
Penetration is expressed as 1 pen = 1/10
mm of penetration
Penetration

Weight
Weight
Bitumen

Bitumen

Start

After 5 sec.

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Penetration Specification

Five Grades
40 - 50
60 - 70
85 - 100
120 - 150
200 - 300

3.2 mm dia. maximum

Brass
Sleeve

20 to 25 mm

Dial for measuring


penetration

Highly polished
steel needle

Weight

Details of
Penetratio
n needle

50 mm approx.

Spirit Level
0.14 to 0.16 mm

Sample

Manually
operated
penetrati
on test
apparatu
s

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Stand
Penetration
Indicating Gauge

Carrier for Needle(100 g. weight)

Penetration Needle

Automatic
penetration
test
apparatus
Automatic
5 second timer

Bitumen Sample
Base

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Ductility test
Measures the amount of
elongation of a bitumen sample
Tension is applied to the sample
of penetration grade bitumen held
between two metal jaws.
The sample is kept in a water bath
at a temperature of 25C during
the test.

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Water bath at 25C

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110 1
75 0.5

10 0.1

20 0.2

32 0.5

15 0.5

5 0.5

30 0.3

7 0.2

All dimensions are in mm

Ductility test
sample mould
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Softening Point Test


Thermometer

Beaker

9.5 mm Ball

Ring

Shelf to retain
ball after falling

Ball
Stirrer
Holder

Guider
Ring
Holder
Cross section

Tripod

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Ring and ball


holder
assembly
25 mm

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Softening Point Test


A 9.3 mm diameter steel ball is placed in a
penetration grade bitumen sample held in a
steel ring. The ring, specimen and ball are
placed in a water. The temperature of the
water bath is brought down to 7C. The
temperature is then allowed to rise by placing
the beaker in another water bath where the
water is heated gradually. The temperature at
which the bitumen melts and allows the ball
to reach the shelf of the holder 25 mm below
is recorded as the softening point.
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Flash and Fire Point Test


Flash and Fire point testing cup and
burner

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Flash and fire points give an indication


of the presence of volatiles in the
bitumen. This information is also
necessary for safe handling and storage
of bitumen. A bitumen sample is taken
in a metal cup with a handle The sample
is heated gradually over a burner. A thin
flame is passed over the surface of the
hot bitumen once in two seconds.
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The temperature at which a short lived


blue flash occurs at the surface of the
bitumen is called the flash point. If the
procedure is continued the temperature
rises to a point when the flash
continues to remain on the bitumen
surface. In other words the bitumen has
caught fire. This temperature at which
the bitumen catches fire is known as
the fire point.

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Viscosity test
The Standard Tar Viscometer is used
to evaluate both tar and bitumen
viscosities. It measures the time in
seconds for a fixed quantity of the
bitumen substance to flow from a
vessel through a standard orifice
under an initial standard head and at a
known temperature
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Orific
e

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Standard Tar Viscometer


Thermometer

Stopper
Level
peg
Water
bath
Stirrer
Heating tube

Draw
off cock
Standard orifice
Mineral oil or
soft soap solution

Bitumen
Graduated measuring jar

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Equiviscous Temperature (evt)

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