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# PROJECTIONS

AND
CYLINDRIC EXTENSIONS

PROJECTIONS

## Beginning with an example

There are three sets:
X1={0,1},X2={0,1},X3={0,1,2}
Cartesian product:

X1 X 2 X 3 X i
iN 3

Xi

iN 3

x x1 , x2 , x3
xi i N 3

## Given the fuzzy 3-ary relation R(X1,X2,X3)

If Y { X 1 , X 2 }
R12 [ R Y] [ R { X 1 , X 2 }]
R12 is a projection of R.
membership function of R12 :
[ R Y]( y ) max R( x)
xy

NOTATION DESCRIPTION

Projection R12 of R

## Calculation of the projection

Calculate R12(x1,x2)
if x1 x2 0,
R12 ( x1 , x2 ) R12 (0,0)
max{R(0,0,0), R(0,0,1), R(0,0,2)}
max{0.4, 0.9, 0.2}
0.9

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Projection R13 of R

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## Calculation of the projection

Calculate R13(x1,x3)

if x1 1, x3 2,
R13 ( x1 , x3 ) R13 (1,2)
max{R(1,0,2), R(1,1,2)}
max{0.1, 1.0}
1.0

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Projection

R23 of R

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## Calculation of the projection

Calculate R23(x2,x3)

if x2 0, x3 2,
R23 ( x2 , x3 ) R23 (0,2)
max{R(0,0,2), R(1,0,2)}
max{0.2, 0.1}
0.2

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Projection R1 of R

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## Calculation of the projection

Calculate R1(x1)
if x1 0
R1 ( x1 ) R1 (0)
max{R(0,0,0), R(0,0,1), R(0,0,2)
R(0,1,0), R(0,1,1), R(0,1,2)}
max{
0.4,
0.9, 0.2,
1.0,
0.0, 0.8 }
1.0

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Projection R2 of R

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## Calculation of the projection

Calculate R2(x2)
if x2 1
R2 ( x2 ) R2 (1)
max{R(0,1,0), R(0,1,1), R(0,1,2)
R(1,1,0), R(1,1,1), R(1,1,2)}
max{
1.0,
0.0, 0.8,
0.0,
0.5, 1.0 }
1.0

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Projection R3 of R

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## Calculation of the projection

Calculate R3(x3)
if x3 2
R3 ( x3 ) R3 (2)
max{R(0,0,2), R (0,1,2), R(1,0,2), R(1,1,2)}
max{

0.2,

0.8,

0.1,

1.0 }

1.0

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CYLINDRIC EXTENSIONS

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Problem Description
Based on partial relation,we
conjecture the whole relation.

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Notation Description
If X={X1,X2,X3},Y={X1,X3}
then X-Y={X2}

[ R ]( x) R( y )
for each x such that x y.

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R12(x1,x2)

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x1 =0, x2 =0, R12(0,0)=0.9.
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=x2 =0)
have the same inferred relations:
R(0,0,0)=0.9
R(0,0,1)=0.9
R(0,0,2)=0.9

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R13(x1,x3)

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x1 =0, x3 =2, R13(0,2)=0.8.
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=0,
x3 =2) have the same inferred
relations:
R(0,0,2)=0.8
R(0,1,2)=0.8

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R23(x2,x3)

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x2 =1, x3 =1, R23(1,1)=0.5.
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=1,
x3 =1) have the same inferred
relations:
R(0,1,1)=0.5
R(1,1,1)=0.5

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R1(x1)

[ R ]( x) [ R1 { X 2 , X 3 }]( x) R1 ( y )

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## An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x1 =1, R1(1)=1.0
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=1)
have the same inferred relations:
R(1,0,0)=1.0 R(1,1,0)=1.0
R(1,0,1)=1.0 R(1,1,1)=1.0
R(1,0,2)=1.0 R(1,1,2)=1.0

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Cylindric Closures

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Concept Description
Cylindric closure:
-to infer a relation from several of its
projections by taking the set
intersection of their cylindric
extensions

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## An example of cylindric closure

(following previous example)

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## An example of cylindric closure

(following previous example)

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EXERCISE

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EX.5.1
The fuzzy relation R is defined on sets
X1={a,b,c},X2={s,t},X3={x,y},X4={i,j}.
R(X1,X2,X3,X4)=0.4/b,t,y,i
+0.6/a,s,x,i
+0.9/b,s,y,i
+ 1/b,s,y,j
+0.6/a,t,y,j
+0.2/c,s,y,i
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EX.5.1
(a) Compute the projections
R4.

R124,R13,and

## (b) Compute the cylindric extensions

[ R124 { X 3 }], [ R13 { X 2 , X 4 }], [ R4 { X 1 , X 2 , X 3 }]

## (c) Compute the cylindric closure from the

three cylindric extensions in (b).

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To express R(X1,X2,X3,X4)
in membership matrix

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## R(X1,X2,X3,X4)=0.4/b,t,y,i +0.6/a,s,x,i +0.9/b,s,y,i

+ 1/b,s,y,j +0.6/a,t,y,j +0.2/c,s,y,i
Is equal to:

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Projection R124
R

R124

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Projection R13
R

R13

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Projection R4
R

R4

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R124

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R13

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R4

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## The cylindric closure of R124 , R13 , R4

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END
OF
PROJECTIONS AND EXTENSIONS

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