You are on page 1of 48

PROJECTIONS

AND
CYLINDRIC EXTENSIONS

PROJECTIONS

Beginning with an example

There are three sets:
X1={0,1},X2={0,1},X3={0,1,2}
Cartesian product:

X1 X 2 X 3 X i
iN 3

Xi

iN 3

x x1 , x2 , x3
xi i N 3

Given the fuzzy 3-ary relation R(X1,X2,X3)

If Y { X 1 , X 2 }
R12 [ R Y] [ R { X 1 , X 2 }]
R12 is a projection of R.
membership function of R12 :
[ R Y]( y ) max R( x)
xy

NOTATION DESCRIPTION

Projection R12 of R

Calculation of the projection

Calculate R12(x1,x2)
if x1 x2 0,
R12 ( x1 , x2 ) R12 (0,0)
max{R(0,0,0), R(0,0,1), R(0,0,2)}
max{0.4, 0.9, 0.2}
0.9

10

Projection R13 of R

11

Calculation of the projection

Calculate R13(x1,x3)

if x1 1, x3 2,
R13 ( x1 , x3 ) R13 (1,2)
max{R(1,0,2), R(1,1,2)}
max{0.1, 1.0}
1.0

12

Projection

R23 of R

13

Calculation of the projection

Calculate R23(x2,x3)

if x2 0, x3 2,
R23 ( x2 , x3 ) R23 (0,2)
max{R(0,0,2), R(1,0,2)}
max{0.2, 0.1}
0.2

14

Projection R1 of R

15

Calculation of the projection

Calculate R1(x1)
if x1 0
R1 ( x1 ) R1 (0)
max{R(0,0,0), R(0,0,1), R(0,0,2)
R(0,1,0), R(0,1,1), R(0,1,2)}
max{
0.4,
0.9, 0.2,
1.0,
0.0, 0.8 }
1.0

16

Projection R2 of R

17

Calculation of the projection

Calculate R2(x2)
if x2 1
R2 ( x2 ) R2 (1)
max{R(0,1,0), R(0,1,1), R(0,1,2)
R(1,1,0), R(1,1,1), R(1,1,2)}
max{
1.0,
0.0, 0.8,
0.0,
0.5, 1.0 }
1.0

18

Projection R3 of R

19

Calculation of the projection

Calculate R3(x3)
if x3 2
R3 ( x3 ) R3 (2)
max{R(0,0,2), R (0,1,2), R(1,0,2), R(1,1,2)}
max{

0.2,

0.8,

0.1,

1.0 }

1.0

20

CYLINDRIC EXTENSIONS

21

Problem Description
Based on partial relation,we
conjecture the whole relation.

22

Notation Description
If X={X1,X2,X3},Y={X1,X3}
then X-Y={X2}

[ R ]( x) R( y )
for each x such that x y.

23

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R12(x1,x2)

24

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x1 =0, x2 =0, R12(0,0)=0.9.
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=x2 =0)
have the same inferred relations:
R(0,0,0)=0.9
R(0,0,1)=0.9
R(0,0,2)=0.9

25

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R13(x1,x3)

26

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x1 =0, x3 =2, R13(0,2)=0.8.
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=0,
x3 =2) have the same inferred
relations:
R(0,0,2)=0.8
R(0,1,2)=0.8

27

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R23(x2,x3)

28

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x2 =1, x3 =1, R23(1,1)=0.5.
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=1,
x3 =1) have the same inferred
relations:
R(0,1,1)=0.5
R(1,1,1)=0.5

29

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
To infer R(x1,x2,x3)from R1(x1)

[ R ]( x) [ R1 { X 2 , X 3 }]( x) R1 ( y )

30

An example of cylindric extension

(following previous example)
If x1 =1, R1(1)=1.0
All the 3-ary sequences(with x1=1)
have the same inferred relations:
R(1,0,0)=1.0 R(1,1,0)=1.0
R(1,0,1)=1.0 R(1,1,1)=1.0
R(1,0,2)=1.0 R(1,1,2)=1.0

31

Cylindric Closures

32

Concept Description
Cylindric closure:
-to infer a relation from several of its
projections by taking the set
intersection of their cylindric
extensions

33

An example of cylindric closure

(following previous example)

34

An example of cylindric closure

(following previous example)

35

EXERCISE

36

EX.5.1
The fuzzy relation R is defined on sets
X1={a,b,c},X2={s,t},X3={x,y},X4={i,j}.
R(X1,X2,X3,X4)=0.4/b,t,y,i
+0.6/a,s,x,i
+0.9/b,s,y,i
+ 1/b,s,y,j
+0.6/a,t,y,j
+0.2/c,s,y,i
37

EX.5.1
(a) Compute the projections
R4.

R124,R13,and

(b) Compute the cylindric extensions

[ R124 { X 3 }], [ R13 { X 2 , X 4 }], [ R4 { X 1 , X 2 , X 3 }]

(c) Compute the cylindric closure from the

three cylindric extensions in (b).

38

To express R(X1,X2,X3,X4)
in membership matrix

39

R(X1,X2,X3,X4)=0.4/b,t,y,i +0.6/a,s,x,i +0.9/b,s,y,i

+ 1/b,s,y,j +0.6/a,t,y,j +0.2/c,s,y,i
Is equal to:

40

Projection R124
R

R124

41

Projection R13
R

R13

42

Projection R4
R

R4

43

R124

44

R13

45

R4

46

The cylindric closure of R124 , R13 , R4

47

END
OF
PROJECTIONS AND EXTENSIONS

48