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Chapter 8

Two-Dimensional Problem
Solution
Using Airy Stress Function approach, plane elasticity formulation with zero
body forces reduces to a single governing biharmonic equation.
In Cartesian coordinates it is given by
4
4
4
2 2 2 4 4 0
4
x
x y
y

and the stresses are related to the stress function by

2
2
2
x 2 , y 2 , xy
y
x
xy
We now explore solutions to several specific problems in both
Cartesian and Polar coordinate systems

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Cartesian Coordinate
Solutions
Usingwe Polynomials
In Cartesian coordinates
choose Airy stress function solution of
polynomial form
( x, y )

mn x

y n , Amn Constants to be Determined

m 0 n 0

Method produces polynomial stress distributions, and thus would not


satisfy general boundary conditions. However, using Saint-Venants
principle we can replace a non-polynomial condition with a statically
equivalent polynomial loading. This formulation is most useful for
problems with rectangular domains, and is commonly based on
inverse solution concept where we assume a polynomial solution
form and then try to find what problem it will solve.
Notice that the three lowest order terms with m + n 1 do not
contribute to the stresses and will therefore be dropped. Second
order terms will produce a constant stress field, third-order terms will
give a linear distribution of stress, and so on for higher-order
polynomials.
Terms with m + n 3 will automatically satisfy biharmonic equation
for any
choice
of constants
Amn. However, for higher order terms,
Elasticity
Theory,
Applications
and Numerics
M.H.constants
Sadd , University
Rhodehave
Island to be related in order to have polynomial
A of will

Example 8.1 Uniaxial Tension


of a Beam

Stress
Field (l , y ) T , ( x,c) 0
x
y

Boundary Conditions:
xy (l , y ) xy ( x,c) 0

Since the boundary conditions specify


constant stresses on all boundaries,
try a second-order stress function of
the
2A , 0
form
A y2
02

02

xy

Displacement Field (Plane Stress)


u
1
T
e x ( x y )
x
E
E
v
1
T
e y ( y x )
y
E
E

T
T
x f ( y ) , v y g ( x )
E
E

xy
u v

2e xy
0 f ( y ) g ( x ) 0
y x

f ( y ) o y uo

The first boundary condition implies that


A02 = T/2, and all other boundary
g ( x ) o x vo . . . Rigid-Body Motion
conditions are identically satisfied.
Therefore the stress field solution is
Fixity conditions needed to determine
given by x T , y xy 0
RBM
u (0,0terms
) v(0,0) z (0,0) 0 f ( y ) g ( x) 0

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.2 Pure Bending of


a Beam

Displacement Field (Plane Stress)

Stress
Boundary Conditions:
Field

y ( x, c ) 0 , xy ( x, c ) xy ( l , y ) 0

c
c

x ( l , y )dy 0 ,

c
c

x ( l , y ) ydy M

Expecting a linear bending stress


distribution, try second-order stress
function
3 the form
6A y , 0
A yof
03

03

xy

Moment boundary condition implies that


A03 = -M/4c3, and all other boundary
conditions are identically satisfied. Thus
the stress field
3Mis
x 3 y , y xy 0
2c

Elasticity

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M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

u
3M
3M

yu
xy f ( y )
3
x
2 Ec
2 Ec 3
v
3M
3M 2

yv
y g( x)
3
y
2 Ec
4 Ec 3

u v
3M

0
x f ( y ) g ( x ) 0
y x
2 Ec 3
f ( y ) o y uo

3M 2
x o x vo
4 Ec 3
Fixity conditions to determine RBM
terms:
v ( l ,0) 0 and u( l ,0) 0
g ( x)

uo o 0 , vo 3Ml 2 / 16 Ec 3

Example 8.2 Pure Bending of


a Beam
Solution Comparison of Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of
Materials

I 2c 3 / 3

Elasticity
Solution
M

x
u

Elasticity

y , y xy 0

Mxy
M
,v
[ 4 y 2 4 x 2 l 2 ]
EI
8EI

Mechanics of Materials
Solution
Uses Euler-Bernoulli beam
theory to find bending stress
M
and
beam
xdeflection

y , ofy
xy 0
centerlineI
M
v v ( x,0)
[4 x 2 l 2 ]
8EI

Two solutions are identical, with the exception of


the x-displacements

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.3 Bending of a Beam


by Uniform Transverse Loading

Stress
A
A20 x 2 A21 x 2 y A03 y 3 A23 x 2 y 3 23 y 5
Boundary Conditions: Field
5
xy ( x, c ) 0

2 3
y )
3
y 2 A20 2 A21 y 2 A23 y 3
x 6 A03 y 6 A23 ( x 2 y

y ( x, c ) 0
y ( x, c ) w

Elasticity

c
c
c
c
c
c

xy 2 A21 x 6 A23 xy 2

x ( l , y )dy 0
x ( l , y ) ydy 0
xy ( l , y )dy wl

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

BC
s

3w l 2 2
3w
2
2 y 3 ( x 2 y y 3 )
x
4c c
5
4c
3
w 3w
w
y
y 3 y3
2 4c
4c
3w
3w
xy
x 3 xy 2
4c
4c

Example 8.3 Beam Problem


Stress Solution Comparison of
Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of
Materials

Elasticity
Solution
w 2
w y3
2

c2 y
x
(l x ) y (
)
2I
I 3
5
w y3
2
y
c 2 y c 3
2I 3
3
w
xy
x(c 2 y 2 )
2I

Elasticity

Mechanics of Materials
Solution
My w
x

2I

(l 2 x 2 ) y

y 0
xy

VQ
w

x(c 2 y 2 )
It
2I

Shear stresses are identical, while normal


stresses are not

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.3 Beam Problem


Normal Stress Comparisons of
Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of
Materials
x Stress
at x=0

Maximum differences between two theories


exist at top and bottom of beam, difference in
stress is w/5. For most beam problems (l >>
c), bending stresses will be much greater than
w, and differences between elasticity and
strength of materials will be relatively small.

Elasticity

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M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

y Stress

Maximum difference between two theories is


w and occurs at top of beam. Again this
difference will be negligibly small for most
beam problems where l >> c. These results
are generally true for beam problems with
other transverse loadings.

Example 8.3 Beam Problem


Normal Stress Distribution on Beam Ends
w y 3 c 2 y 3w 1 y 3 1 y

x (l , y )

I 3
5
2 3 c 3 5 c

End stress distribution


does not vanish and is
nonlinear but gives zero
resultant force.
Elasticity

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M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

x (l , y ) / w

Example 8.3 Beam Problem

Displacement Field (Plane Stress)


w
x3
2 y 3 2c 2 y
y3
2c 3
2
2
u
[( l x ) y x (

) x ( c y
)] f ( y )
2 EI
3
3
5
3
3
2
w
y 4 c 2 y 2 2c 3 y
y4 c2 y2
2
2 y
v
[(

) ( l x )
(
)] g ( x )
2 EI 12
2
3
2
6
5
w 4
w 2 8
f ( y ) o y uo , g ( x)
x
[l ( )c 2 ] x 2 o x vo
24 EI
4 EI
5

u (0, y ) v ( l , y ) 0
Choosing Fixity Conditions
w
x3
2 y 3 2c 2 y
y3
2c 3
2
2
u
[( l x ) y x(

) x ( c y
)]
2 EI
3
3
5
3
3
2
w y 4 c 2 y 2 2c 3 y
y4 c2 y 2
2
2 y

[( l x )

]
2 EI 12
2
3
2
6
5

Elasticity

x4
l2
4
5wl 4
12 4 c 2
[ ( )c 2 ]x 2
[1 ( ) 2 ]
12
2
5 2
5 5 2 l
24 EI

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

uo o 0 , vo

5wl 4
12 4 c 2
[1 ( ) 2 ]
24 EI
5 5 2 l

5wl 4
12 4 c 2
v (0,0) v max
[1 ( ) 2 ]
24 EI
5 5 2 l
5wl 4
v max
Strength of Materials:
24 EI

Good match for beams where


l >> c

Cartesian Coordinate Solutions


Using Fourier Methods
Fourier methods provides a more general solution scheme
for biharmonic equation. Such techniques generally use
separation of variables along with Fourier series or Fourier
4
4
4
integrals.
2

0
( x, y ) X ( x )Y ( y )

x 4

x 2 y 2

y 4

i
Choosin X e x , Y e y
g sin x[( A C y ) sinh y ( B Dy ) cosh y ]

cos x[( A C y ) sinh y ( B D y ) cosh y ]


sin y[( E Gx ) sinh x ( F Hx ) cosh x ]
cos y[( E G x ) sinh x ( F H x ) cosh x ]
0 0
0 C0 C1 x C 2 x 2 C3 x 3

0 C 4 y C5 y 2 C6 y 3 C7 xy C8 x 2 y C9 xy 2

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.4 Beam with


Sinusoidal Loading

Stress
Field

Boundary Conditions:
x (0, y ) x (l , y ) 0

sin x[( A C y ) sinh y ( B D y ) cosh y ]

xy ( x, c ) 0

x sin x[( A sinh y C (y sinh y 2 cosh y )

y ( x , c ) 0
y ( x, c ) qo sin( x / l )

xy (0, y )dy qo l /
xy (l , y )dy qo l /

B cosh y D (y cosh y 2 sinh y )]


y 2 sin x[( A Cy ) sinh y ( B Dy ) cosh y ]
xy cos x[( A cosh y C (y cosh y 2 sinh y )
2

B sinh y D(y sinh y 2 cosh y )]

A D ( c tanh c 1)
B C (c coth c 1)
c
l
C
2 c
c
c
2 2
sinh
cosh
l l
l
l
qo sinh

c
l
D
2
c
c
c
2 2
sinh
cosh
l l
l
l
qo sinh

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.4 Beam


Problem
Bending
x 2 sin x[( A sinh y C (Stress
y sinh y 2 cosh y )
B cosh y D( y cosh y 2 sinh y )]

c
c
qo cosh
l
l
C
, D
2
2
c
c
c
c
c
c
2 2
sinh cosh
2 2
sinh cosh
l l
l
l
l l
l
l

A D( c tanh c 1) , B C ( c coth c 1) ,
l

y
y
c
y
y cosh
2l sinh
c tanh
l sinh

q
c
x
l
l
l
l

x o sinh sin
c
c
2
l
l
c l sinh cosh

l
l
qo sinh

y sinh

y
y
c
y
2l cosh
c coth
l cosh
l
l
l
l

c
c

c l sinh cosh

l
l

3qo l 5
, C 0 , A D , B 0
4c 3 5
3q l 3 y
3q l 2
y
y
x
x
x 3o 3
cosh
sinh sin
3o 2 y sin
l
l
l
l
l
4c
2c

For the case l c : D

qo l 2
x
sin
y
2
3q l 2
My
x
Strength of Materials Theory : x
3 l
3o 2 y sin
I
l
2c / 3
2c

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

x l/2

Example 8.4 Beam


Problem

Displacement Field (Plane Stress)

cos x{ A(1 ) sinh y B(1 ) cosh y


E
C[(1 )y sinh y 2 cosh y ]

D[(1 )y cosh y 2 sinh y ]} o y uo


u (0,0) v (0,0) v (l ,0) 0

sin x{ A(1 ) cosh y B(1 ) sinh y


E
C[(1 )y cosh y (1 ) sinh y ]
D[(1 )y sinh y (1 ) cosh y ]} o y vo

o vo 0 , u o

[ B (1 ) 2C ]
E

D
sin x[2 (1 ) c tanh c ]
E
3qo l 4
x
1 c
c
3qo l 5
For the case l
v ( x,0) 3 4 sin
[1
tanh
]
D 3 5
>> c
2c E
l
2 l
l
4c
3qo l 4
x
Strength of Materialsv ( x,0) 3 4 sin
2c E
l
v ( x,0)

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.5 Rectangular


Domain with Arbitrary
Boundary Loading
Must use series representation for
Airy stress function to handle general
boundary
loading.

cos n x[ Bn cosh n y C n n y sinh n y ]


n 1

cos m y[ Fm cosh m x Gm m x sinh m x ] C0 x 2


m 1

x 2n cos n x[ Bn cosh n y C n ( n y sinh n y 2 cosh n y )]


n 1

2m cos m y[ Fm cosh m x Gm m x sinh m x]


m 1

y cos n x[ Bn cosh n y C n n y sinh n y ] 2C 0


n 1

2
n

Boundary Conditions
x ( a, y ) 0 , xy ( a, y ) 0
xy ( x,b) 0 , y ( x,b) p ( x)

2m cos m y[ Fm cosh m x Gm ( m x sinh m x 2 cosh m x)]


m 1

xy 2n sin n x[ Bn sinh n y C n ( n y cosh n y sinh n y )]


n 1

2m sin m y[ Fm sinh m x G m ( m x cosh m x sinh m x)]


m 1

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Using Fourier series theory to


handle general boundary
conditions, generates a doubly
infinite set of equations to solve for
unknown constants in stress
function form. See text for details

Polar Coordinate
Formulation
Airy Stress Function
Approach = (r,)
Airy Representation
1 1 2
r

r r r 2 2
2
2
r
1
r

r r

Biharmonic Governing Equation


2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2

2 2

2 2 0
2
2

r
r

r
r

r
r

r
r

Traction Boundary Conditions

Tr f r ( r, ) , T f ( r, )

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Polar Coordinate
Formulation
Plane Elasticity
Strain-Displacement
Problem
u
er

r
u
1
e u r
r

1 1 u r u u
er


2 r
r
r

Hookes Law
PlaneStress

PlaneStrain
r (er e ) 2er
(er e ) 2e
z (er e ) ( r )
r 2er , z rz 0

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

1
1
( r ) , e ( r )
E
E

e z ( r )
(er e )
E
1
1
er
r , ez erz 0
E
er

General Solutions in Polar Coordinates


Michell Solution
( r , ) f ( r )e

2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2

2 2

2 2 0
2
2

r
r

r
r

r
r

r
r

2
1 2b 2
1 2b 2
b 2 (4 b 2 )
f f
f
f
f 0
r
r2
r3
r4

Choosing the case where b = in, n = integer gives the general Michell solution
a 0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a 3 r 2 log r
( a 4 a5 log r a6 r 2 a7 r 2 log r )
a13
a14 r 3 a15r a16 r log r ) cos
r
b
(b11r b12 r log r 13 b14 r 3 b15 r b16 r log r ) sin
r
( a11r a12 r log r

( a n1r n a n 2 r 2 n a n 3 r n a n 4 r 2n ) cos n
n 2

(bn1r n bn 2 r 2n bn 3 r n bn 4 r 2n ) sin n
n 2

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Will use various


terms from this
general solution to
solve several
plane problems in
polar coordinates

Axisymmetric Solutions
Stress Function
Approach: =(r)
a0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a 3 r 2 log r
a1
a 3 2a 2
r2
a
2a3 log r 21 3a3 2a 2
r
r 0
r 2a3 log r

Displacements - Plane Stress


1 (1 ) Case

ur

Navier Equation Approach:


u=ur(r)er
(Plane
Plane
Strain)
d 2 uStress
1 duor
1
r
r

ur 0
r dr r 2
dr 2
1
ur C1r C 2
r
Gives Stress Forms
A
A
r 2 B , 2 B , r 0
r
r

a1 2(1 )a3r log r (1 )a3r 2a2 (1 )r


E
r

A sin B cos

Underlined terms
represent
rigid-body motion
a3 term leads to multivalued behavior, and is not found
following the displacement formulation approach
Could also have an axisymmetric elasticity problem
using = a4 which gives r = = 0 and r = a4/r 0,
see Exercise 8-15

4r
u
a3 A cos B sin Cr
E

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.6 Thick-Walled Cylinder


Under Uniform Boundary Pressure
General Axisymmetric
Boundary Conditions
Stress Solution
(r ) p , (r ) p
A
r 2 B
r
A
2 B
r

r12 r22 ( p2 p1 )
A
r22 r12
r12 p1 r22 p2
B
r22 r12

r12 r22 ( p2 p1 ) 1 r12 p1 r22 p2


r

r22 r12
r2
r22 r12
r12 r22 ( p2 p1 ) 1 r12 p1 r22 p2

r22 r12
r2
r22 r12

Using Strain
Displacement Relations
and Hookes Law for
plane strain gives the
radial displacement
Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

1
A
r[(1 2 ) B 2 ]
E
r
r12 p1 r22 p2
1 r12 r22 ( p2 p1 ) 1

(1 2 )
E
r22 r12
r
r22 r12

ur

Example 8.6 Cylinder Problem Results


Internal Pressure Only
r1/r2 =
Dimensionless Stress

0.5
/p

r /p

r/r

2
Dimensionless Distance,
r/r2

( ) max ( r12 r22 ) /( r22 r12 ) p (5 / 3) p

Thin-Walled Tube Case:


t r2 r1 1 ro ( r1 r2 ) / 2
Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

pro Matches with Strength


t of Materials Theory

Special Cases of Example 8-6

Stress Free Hole in an


ressurized Hole in an Infinite Medium
Infinite Medium Under Equal
p 2 0 and r2
p1 Loading
0 , p2 T at
, r2

Biaxial
Infinity

r12
r12
r p1 2 , p1 2 , z 0
r
r

1 p1r12
ur
E
r

r12
r12

r T 1 2 , T 1 2
r
r

max ( ) max (r1 ) 2T

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Example 8.7 Infinite Medium


with a Stress Free Hole Under
Uniform Far Field
Loading
Boundary Conditions
r (a, ) r ( a, ) 0

T
(1 cos 2)
2
T
(, ) (1 cos 2)
2
T
r (, ) sin 2
2
r (, )

Try Stress Function

a0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a3 r 2 log r

(a 21r 2 a 22 r 4 a 23 r 2 a 24 ) cos 2
a
6a
4a
r a3 (1 2 log r ) 2a 2 12 (2a 21 423 224 ) cos 2
r
r
r
6a
a
a3 (3 2 log r ) 2a 2 12 (2a 21 12a 22 r 4 423 ) cos 2
r
r
6a
2a
r (2a 21 6a 22 r 2 423 224 ) sin 2
r
r

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

T
a2 T
3a 4 4a 2
r 1 2 1 4 2 cos 2
2
r 2
r
r
T
a2 T
3a 4

1 2 1 4 cos 2
2
r 2
r
T
3a 4 2a 2
r 1 4 2 sin 2
2
r
r

Example 8.7 Stress


Results
T
a2 T
3a 4 4a 2

r 1 2 1 4 2 cos 2
2
r 2
r
r
T
a2 T
3a 4
1 2 1 4 cos 2
2
r 2
r
T
3a 4 2a 2
r 1 4 2 sin 2
2
r
r

(a, ) T (1 2 cos 2)
(a,0) T , (a,30o ) 0

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

max (a, / 2) 3T

Superposition of Example 8.7


Biaxial Loading Cases
T2
T1
T1
T2
Equal Biaxial
Tension Case
2
T1 r1=
T2 = T
r12

r T 1 2 , T 1 2
r
r

max ( ) max (r1 ) 2T

Tension/Compressio
n Case
T1 = 3Ta 4 , T4a2 2=
-T
r T 1 4 2 cos 2
r
r

3a 4
T 1 4 cos 2
r

3a 4 2a 2
r T 1 4 2 sin 2
r
r

(a,0) (a, ) 4T , (a, / 2) (a,3 / 2) 4T

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Review Stress
Concentration Factors
Around Stress Free Holes

K=2

K=3

=
K=4
Elasticity

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M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Stress Concentration Around


Stress Free Elliptical Hole Chapter 10
Maximum Stress Field

max

Elasticity

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M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

S 1 2
a

Stress Concentration Around


Stress Free Hole in Orthotropic
Material Chapter 11

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

2-D Thermoelastic Stress Concentration


Problem Uniform Heat Flow Around
Stress Free Insulated Hole Chapter 12
Stress Field
1 Eqa a a 3
sin
r
2 k r r 3
1 Eqa a a 3
sin

2 k r r 3
1 Eqa a a 3
cos
r
2 k r r 3
Eqa
max (a, )
sin
k

max (a, / 2) Eqa / k

of
/hole
2
Maximum compressive stress on hot side
side
/ 2
Maximum tensile stress on cold

Steel Plate: E = 30Mpsi (200GPa) and = 6.5in/in/oF


(11.7m/m/oC),
qa/k = 100oF (37.7oC), the maximum stress becomes
Elasticity19.5ksi
Theory, Applications
and Numerics
(88.2MPa)
M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Nonhomogeneous Stress Concentration


Around Stress Free Hole in a Plane
Under Uniform Biaxial Loading with
Radial Gradation of Youngs Modulus
Chapter 14

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Three Dimensional Stress Concentration


Problem Chapter 13
Normal Stress on the x,y-plane (z = 0)

z ( r ,0) S

4 5 a 3
9
a5

3
5
2(7 5) r
2(7 5 ) r

z (a,0) ( z ) max

3.5
3
Normalized
Stress in Loading Direction
2.5
Two Dimensional Case: (r,/2)/S

2
1.5
1
0.5

Three Dimensional Case: z(r,0)/S , =

0.3

0
1

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Dimensionless Distance, r/a

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

27 15
S
2(7 5)

0 .3

( z ) max
2.04
S

Wedge Domain
Problems
Use general stress function solution
to include terms that are bounded at
origin and give uniform stresses on
the boundaries
r 2 (a a a cos 2 b sin 2)
2

21

21

r 2a 2 2a 6 2a 21 cos 2 2b21 sin 2


2a 2 2a 6 2a 21 cos 2 2b21 sin 2
r a 6 2b21 cos 2 2a 21 sin 2

Quarter Plane Example ( = 0 and = /2)


S

( 2 cos 2 sin 2)
2 2
2
S

( 2 cos 2 sin 2)
2 2
2
S

r (1 cos 2 sin 2)
2
2
r

(r , / 2) 0
r (r , / 2) S

(r ,0) r ( r ,0) 0

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Half-Space Examples

Uniform Normal Stress Over x 0


Boundary Conditions
(r ,0) r (r ,0) 0
r (r , ) 0 , (r , ) T

Try Airy Stress Function


a6 r 2 b21r 2 sin 2
2a 6 2b21 sin 2
r a 6 2b21 cos 2

Use BCs To Determine Stress Solution


T
(sin 2 2)
2
T

(sin 2 2)
2
T
r
(1 cos 2)
2
r

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Half-Space Under
Concentrated Surface Force
System (Flamant Problem)
Boundary Conditions
(r ,0) r (r ,0) 0
r (r , ) 0 , (r , ) 0

Forces Xe

Ye 2

Try Airy Stress Function


(a12 r log r a15 r) cos
(b12 r log r b15 r) sin

Use BCs To Determine Stress Solution


2
[ X cos Y sin ]
r
r 0
r

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Flamant Solution Stress


Results
2Yx y
Normal Force
Case

cos
2

2Y
r
sin or in Cartesian
r
components
r 0

( x 2 y 2 ) 2

2Yy 3
y r sin
( x 2 y 2 ) 2
2

xy

2Yxy 2
r sin cos
( x 2 y 2 ) 2

y=a

y 2Y / a

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Flamant Solution Displacement


Results
Normal Force Case
u r 1
2Y
( r )
sin
r E
Er
u 1 u 1
2 Y
e r
( r )
sin
r r E
Er
1 u r u u 1
2er

r 0
r r
r
er

On Free Surface y
=0
Y

u r ( r ,0) ur ( r, )

(1 )
2E
Y
u ( r,0) u ( r , )
[(1 ) 2 log r ]
E

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

[(1 )( ) cos 2 log r sin ]


E
2
Y

u
[ (1 )( ) sin 2 log r cos (1 ) cos ]
E
2
ur

Note unpleasant feature of 2-D


model that displacements become
unbounded as r

Comparison of Flamant Results with


3-D Theory - Boussinesqs Problem
u

2R

Corresponding 2-D
P
Results
u (r ,0)
[(1 ) 2 log r ]
E

3-D Solution eliminates


the unbounded far-field
behavior
Elasticity Theory, Applications and Numerics
M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

P
z2

2
(
1

Rz
4R R 2 R z
4R
R 2
z
P 3x 2 z
R
x 2 (2 R z )

x
(1 2)

2
R
R

z
2R 2 R 3
R
(
R

z
)


z
P 3y 2 z
R
y 2 (2 R z )

(
1

R R z R ( R z ) 2
2R 2 R 3


3
3Pz
P 3xyz (1 2)( 2 R z ) xy
z
, xy

5
2R
2R 2 R 3
R( R z ) 2

Px z

4R R 2

Free Surface
P (1 )
Displacements
u z ( R,0)

Cartesian
1 2 Solution
Py z 1 2

,v

yz

, w

3Pyz 2
3Pxz 2

, xz
2R 5
2R 5

Cylindrical
Solution
rz (1 2)r

P
ur

4R R 2
R z
P
z2
uz
2(1 ) 2
4R
R
u 0

3r 2 z (1 2 ) R
3

Rz
R

(1 2) P z
R

2R
R R z
P
r
2R 2

3P rz 2
3Pz 3
z
, rz
2R 5
2R 5

Half-Space Under Uniform


Normal Loading Over a x a
2Y
sin cos 2
r
2Y
y r sin 2
sin 3
r
2Y
xy r sin cos
sin 2 cos
r
x r cos 2

2p
cos 2 d

dY = pdx = prd /sin


2p
d y
sin 2 d

2p
d xy
sin cos d

d x

2 p 2
p
2
cos

[2( 2 1 ) (sin 2 2 sin 21 )]


1
2
2 p 2 2
p
y
sin d [2( 2 1 ) (sin 2 2 sin 21 )]

1
2

2p 2
p
xy
sin cos d
[cos 22 cos 21 ]

1
2
x

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Half-Space Under Uniform


Normal Loading - Results

max Contours

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Generalized Superposition Method


Half-Space Loading Problems

2y
x

2 y3

2y2
xy

Elasticity

p( s )( x s ) 2
2
ds
2
2
2
a [( x s ) y ]

t ( s)( x s ) 3
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

p( s)
2y2
ds

a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

p( s )( x s )
2y
s
2
2
2
a [( x s ) y ]

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

t ( s )( x s)
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

t ( s )( x s) 2
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

Photoelastic Contact Stress Fields

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Notch/Crack Problem

r [ A sin B cos C sin( 2) D cos( 2)]


Try Stress Function:

( 1)r 2 [ A sin B cos C sin( 2) D cos( 2)]


r ( 1)r 2 [ A cos B sin C ( 2) cos( 2) D ( 2) sin( 2)]
Boundary Conditions: (r ,0) r (r ,0) (r ,2) r (r ,2) 0
n
sin 2( 1) 0 1 , n 0,1, 2,
2
nt O (r 1 )
At Crack Tip r Stress O(r 2 ) , Displaceme
0:
Finite Displacements and Singular Stresses at Crack Tip 1< <2 = 3/2

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Notch/Crack Problem Results


3 1
3

3
5

A
(sin

5
sin
)

B
(cos

cos
)
4 r
2
2
2
3
2
3 1
3

3


A
(sin

3
sin
)

B
(cos

cos
)
4 r
2
2
2
2
3 1
3

3
1

r
A(cos cos ) B (sin sin )

4 r
2
2
2
3
2
r

3
2
3

2
3
r
2
r

Transform to
Variable

Elasticity

cos (3 cos )
sin (1 3 cos )
2
2
r
2 r
A

3B

cos (1 cos )
sin (1 cos )
2
2
r
2 r
A

sin (1 cos )
cos (1 3 cos )
2
2
r
2 r

Note special singular behavior of stress field O(1/r)


A and B coefficients are related to stress intensity factors and are
useful in fracture mechanics theory
A terms give symmetric stress fields Opening or Mode I behavior
B terms give antisymmetric stress fields Shearing or Mode II
behavior

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Crack Problem Results


Contours of Maximum Shear Stress

Mode I (Maximum shear stress


contours)

Elasticity

Mode II (Maximum shear


stress contours)

Experimental Photoelastic
Isochromatics
Courtesy of URI Dynamic
Photomechanics Laboratory

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Mode III Crack Problem Exercise 841


z Contours for Mode III Crack Problem

Anti-Plane Strain Case


u v 0 , w w( x, y )

2 w 1 w 1 2 w
w 2
2
0
2
r r r
r
2

w A r sin , z
cos , zr
sin
2
2
2
2 r
2 r

O r
Stresses Again

Elasticity

1 / 2

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

z - Stress Contours

Curved Beam Under End


Moments

r (a ) r (b) 0
r (a ) r (b) 0
b

dr 0
a

rdr M
a

a 0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a3 r 2 log r

4M a 2b2
b
r
a
r
[ 2 log( ) b 2 log( ) a 2 log( )]
N
r
a
b
r
2 2
4M
a b
b
r
a

[ 2 log( ) b 2 log( ) a 2 log( ) b 2 a 2 ]
N
r
a
b
r
r 0

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Curved Cantilever Beam


P

r
a

r ( a, ) r (b, ) 0
r ( a, ) r (b, ) 0

= /2 b/a =
4 Theory of
Elasticity
Strength of
Materials

r ( r ,0)dr P

DimensionlessDistance, r/a

( r,0)dr ( r,0) rdr 0


a

( r, / 2)dr P
( r, / 2) rdr P ( a b) / 2
r ( r , / 2)dr 0

( Ar 3

Elasticity

Dimensionless Stress, a/P

B
Cr Dr log r ) sin
r

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

P
a b
a b2
) sin
(r 3
N
r
r
P
a 2b2 a 2 b2
(3r 3
) sin
N
r
r
P
a 2b2 a 2 b2
r ( r 3
) cos
N
r
r
r

Disk Under Diametrical


Compression
P

P
Flamant
Solution (1)

Flamant
Solution (2)

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Radial Tension
Solution (3)

Disk Problem Superposition


of Stresses
(x1)

2P
cos 1 sin 2 1
r1

(y1)

2P
cos 3 1
r1

(xy1)

2P
cos 2 1 sin 1
r1

(x2)

2P
cos 2 sin 2 2
r2

(y2)

2P
cos 3 2
r2

(xy2 )

2P
cos 2 2 sin 2
r2

(x3) (y3)

2P
, (xy3) 0
D

2P ( R y ) x 2 ( R y ) x 2 1



r14
r24
D

2P ( R y )3 ( R y)3 1
y



r14
r24
D
xy

2P (R y)2 x (R y)2 x


r14
r24

r1, 2 x 2 ( R y ) 2

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Disk Problem Results


x-axis (y = 0)
2P D 2 4x 2
x ( x,0)
D D 2 4 x 2

y-axis (x = 0)
2

2P
4D 4
y ( x,0)
1

2
2 2
D ( D 4 x )

xy ( x,0) 0

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

2P
Constant
D
2P
2
2
1
y (0, y )

D 2 y D 2 y D
x (0, y )

xy (0, y ) 0

Applications to Granular Media


Modeling
Contact Load Transfer Between Idealized Grains

(Courtesy of URI Dynamic


Photomechanics Lab)

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Four-Contact
Grain

Contact Between Two Elastic Solids

Generates:

pc

- Contact Area (w)


- Interface Tractions (pc)
- Local Stresses in Each Body

Creates Complicated Nonlinear


Boundary Condition:
Boundary Condition Changing With
Deformation; i.e. w and pc Depend on
Deformation, Load, Elastic Moduli,
Interfacial Friction Characteristics
Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

2-D Elastic Half-Space


Subjected
to a Rigid Indenter
Local stresses and
deformation determined
from Flamant solution
See Section 8.4.9 and
Exercise 8.38

Rigid Indenter

uy

a
1 x
2 a t ( s ) log x s ds a
p
(
s
)
ds

p
(
s
)
ds
1
E -a
x
2 E -a
a
2 a
1 x
a
uy
p( s ) log x s ds
t
(
s
)
ds

t
(
s
)
ds
2

x
E -a
2 E -a
a1 and a2 are rigid body motion constants

Frictionless Case
(t = 0)

Elasticity

ux

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

du x
1

p ( x)
dx
E
du y
2 a p( s)

ds
dx
E -a x s

2-D Elastic Half-Space


Subjected
Frictionless Flat Rigid Indenter
Rigid Indenter

uy
y

Unbounded
Stresses at
Edges of
Indenter

Max Shear
Stress Contours

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

p( s)
ds 0
xs

-a

p ( x)

Solution

P
a2 x2

1
P sin 1 ( x / a ) , x a
E
1/ 2
x x2

2
uy
log 2 1 u yo , x a
E
a a

ux

2 Py
x 2

2 Py 3
y 2

Elasticity

u y u yo constant

2 Py 2
xy 2

( x s) 2

2 2

a s [( x s ) y ]

ds

a s [( x s ) y ]

( x s)

2 2

2 2

a s [( x s) y ]

ds
ds

2-D Elastic Half-Space


Subjected
Frictionless Cylindrical Rigid
Indenter
p( s)
E

u y proportional to x / 2 R
2

-a

xs

Solution
p ( x)

2P
a 2

a2 x2

4 Py
x 2 2
a
4 Py 3
y 2 2
a
4 Py 2
xy 2 2
a

Max Shear
Stress Contours

Elasticity

Theory, Applications and Numerics


M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

a2

4 PR
E

a 2 s 2 ( x s) 2
ds
[( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

a2 s2
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2
a

a 2 s 2 ( x s)
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

ds

2R