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# Chapter 8

Two-Dimensional Problem
Solution
Using Airy Stress Function approach, plane elasticity formulation with zero
body forces reduces to a single governing biharmonic equation.
In Cartesian coordinates it is given by
4
4
4
2 2 2 4 4 0
4
x
x y
y

## and the stresses are related to the stress function by

2
2
2
x 2 , y 2 , xy
y
x
xy
We now explore solutions to several specific problems in both
Cartesian and Polar coordinate systems

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Cartesian Coordinate
Solutions
Usingwe Polynomials
In Cartesian coordinates
choose Airy stress function solution of
polynomial form
( x, y )

mn x

m 0 n 0

## Method produces polynomial stress distributions, and thus would not

satisfy general boundary conditions. However, using Saint-Venants
principle we can replace a non-polynomial condition with a statically
problems with rectangular domains, and is commonly based on
inverse solution concept where we assume a polynomial solution
form and then try to find what problem it will solve.
Notice that the three lowest order terms with m + n 1 do not
contribute to the stresses and will therefore be dropped. Second
order terms will produce a constant stress field, third-order terms will
give a linear distribution of stress, and so on for higher-order
polynomials.
Terms with m + n 3 will automatically satisfy biharmonic equation
for any
choice
of constants
Amn. However, for higher order terms,
Elasticity
Theory,
Applications
and Numerics
M.H.constants
Rhodehave
Island to be related in order to have polynomial
A of will

## Example 8.1 Uniaxial Tension

of a Beam

Stress
Field (l , y ) T , ( x,c) 0
x
y

Boundary Conditions:
xy (l , y ) xy ( x,c) 0

## Since the boundary conditions specify

constant stresses on all boundaries,
try a second-order stress function of
the
2A , 0
form
A y2
02

02

xy

## Displacement Field (Plane Stress)

u
1
T
e x ( x y )
x
E
E
v
1
T
e y ( y x )
y
E
E

T
T
x f ( y ) , v y g ( x )
E
E

xy
u v

2e xy
0 f ( y ) g ( x ) 0
y x

f ( y ) o y uo

## The first boundary condition implies that

A02 = T/2, and all other boundary
g ( x ) o x vo . . . Rigid-Body Motion
conditions are identically satisfied.
Therefore the stress field solution is
Fixity conditions needed to determine
given by x T , y xy 0
RBM
u (0,0terms
) v(0,0) z (0,0) 0 f ( y ) g ( x) 0

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

a Beam

## Displacement Field (Plane Stress)

Stress
Boundary Conditions:
Field

y ( x, c ) 0 , xy ( x, c ) xy ( l , y ) 0

c
c

x ( l , y )dy 0 ,

c
c

x ( l , y ) ydy M

## Expecting a linear bending stress

distribution, try second-order stress
function
3 the form
6A y , 0
A yof
03

03

xy

## Moment boundary condition implies that

A03 = -M/4c3, and all other boundary
conditions are identically satisfied. Thus
the stress field
3Mis
x 3 y , y xy 0
2c

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

u
3M
3M

yu
xy f ( y )
3
x
2 Ec
2 Ec 3
v
3M
3M 2

yv
y g( x)
3
y
2 Ec
4 Ec 3

u v
3M

0
x f ( y ) g ( x ) 0
y x
2 Ec 3
f ( y ) o y uo

3M 2
x o x vo
4 Ec 3
Fixity conditions to determine RBM
terms:
v ( l ,0) 0 and u( l ,0) 0
g ( x)

uo o 0 , vo 3Ml 2 / 16 Ec 3

## Example 8.2 Pure Bending of

a Beam
Solution Comparison of Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of
Materials

I 2c 3 / 3

Elasticity
Solution
M

x
u

Elasticity

y , y xy 0

Mxy
M
,v
[ 4 y 2 4 x 2 l 2 ]
EI
8EI

Mechanics of Materials
Solution
Uses Euler-Bernoulli beam
theory to find bending stress
M
and
beam
xdeflection

y , ofy
xy 0
centerlineI
M
v v ( x,0)
[4 x 2 l 2 ]
8EI

## Two solutions are identical, with the exception of

the x-displacements

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Example 8.3 Bending of a Beam

Stress
A
A20 x 2 A21 x 2 y A03 y 3 A23 x 2 y 3 23 y 5
Boundary Conditions: Field
5
xy ( x, c ) 0

2 3
y )
3
y 2 A20 2 A21 y 2 A23 y 3
x 6 A03 y 6 A23 ( x 2 y

y ( x, c ) 0
y ( x, c ) w

Elasticity

c
c
c
c
c
c

xy 2 A21 x 6 A23 xy 2

x ( l , y )dy 0
x ( l , y ) ydy 0
xy ( l , y )dy wl

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

BC
s

3w l 2 2
3w
2
2 y 3 ( x 2 y y 3 )
x
4c c
5
4c
3
w 3w
w
y
y 3 y3
2 4c
4c
3w
3w
xy
x 3 xy 2
4c
4c

## Example 8.3 Beam Problem

Stress Solution Comparison of
Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of
Materials

Elasticity
Solution
w 2
w y3
2

c2 y
x
(l x ) y (
)
2I
I 3
5
w y3
2
y
c 2 y c 3
2I 3
3
w
xy
x(c 2 y 2 )
2I

Elasticity

Mechanics of Materials
Solution
My w
x

2I

(l 2 x 2 ) y

y 0
xy

VQ
w

x(c 2 y 2 )
It
2I

stresses are not

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Example 8.3 Beam Problem

Normal Stress Comparisons of
Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of
Materials
x Stress
at x=0

## Maximum differences between two theories

exist at top and bottom of beam, difference in
stress is w/5. For most beam problems (l >>
c), bending stresses will be much greater than
w, and differences between elasticity and
strength of materials will be relatively small.

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

y Stress

## Maximum difference between two theories is

w and occurs at top of beam. Again this
difference will be negligibly small for most
beam problems where l >> c. These results
are generally true for beam problems with

## Example 8.3 Beam Problem

Normal Stress Distribution on Beam Ends
w y 3 c 2 y 3w 1 y 3 1 y

x (l , y )

I 3
5
2 3 c 3 5 c

## End stress distribution

does not vanish and is
nonlinear but gives zero
resultant force.
Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

x (l , y ) / w

## Displacement Field (Plane Stress)

w
x3
2 y 3 2c 2 y
y3
2c 3
2
2
u
[( l x ) y x (

) x ( c y
)] f ( y )
2 EI
3
3
5
3
3
2
w
y 4 c 2 y 2 2c 3 y
y4 c2 y2
2
2 y
v
[(

) ( l x )
(
)] g ( x )
2 EI 12
2
3
2
6
5
w 4
w 2 8
f ( y ) o y uo , g ( x)
x
[l ( )c 2 ] x 2 o x vo
24 EI
4 EI
5

u (0, y ) v ( l , y ) 0
Choosing Fixity Conditions
w
x3
2 y 3 2c 2 y
y3
2c 3
2
2
u
[( l x ) y x(

) x ( c y
)]
2 EI
3
3
5
3
3
2
w y 4 c 2 y 2 2c 3 y
y4 c2 y 2
2
2 y

[( l x )

]
2 EI 12
2
3
2
6
5

Elasticity

x4
l2
4
5wl 4
12 4 c 2
[ ( )c 2 ]x 2
[1 ( ) 2 ]
12
2
5 2
5 5 2 l
24 EI

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

uo o 0 , vo

5wl 4
12 4 c 2
[1 ( ) 2 ]
24 EI
5 5 2 l

5wl 4
12 4 c 2
v (0,0) v max
[1 ( ) 2 ]
24 EI
5 5 2 l
5wl 4
v max
Strength of Materials:
24 EI

l >> c

## Cartesian Coordinate Solutions

Using Fourier Methods
Fourier methods provides a more general solution scheme
for biharmonic equation. Such techniques generally use
separation of variables along with Fourier series or Fourier
4
4
4
integrals.
2

0
( x, y ) X ( x )Y ( y )

x 4

x 2 y 2

y 4

i
Choosin X e x , Y e y
g sin x[( A C y ) sinh y ( B Dy ) cosh y ]

## cos x[( A C y ) sinh y ( B D y ) cosh y ]

sin y[( E Gx ) sinh x ( F Hx ) cosh x ]
cos y[( E G x ) sinh x ( F H x ) cosh x ]
0 0
0 C0 C1 x C 2 x 2 C3 x 3

0 C 4 y C5 y 2 C6 y 3 C7 xy C8 x 2 y C9 xy 2

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Example 8.4 Beam with

Stress
Field

Boundary Conditions:
x (0, y ) x (l , y ) 0

xy ( x, c ) 0

## x sin x[( A sinh y C (y sinh y 2 cosh y )

y ( x , c ) 0
y ( x, c ) qo sin( x / l )

xy (0, y )dy qo l /
xy (l , y )dy qo l /

## B cosh y D (y cosh y 2 sinh y )]

y 2 sin x[( A Cy ) sinh y ( B Dy ) cosh y ]
xy cos x[( A cosh y C (y cosh y 2 sinh y )
2

## B sinh y D(y sinh y 2 cosh y )]

A D ( c tanh c 1)
B C (c coth c 1)
c
l
C
2 c
c
c
2 2
sinh
cosh
l l
l
l
qo sinh

c
l
D
2
c
c
c
2 2
sinh
cosh
l l
l
l
qo sinh

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Example 8.4 Beam

Problem
Bending
x 2 sin x[( A sinh y C (Stress
y sinh y 2 cosh y )
B cosh y D( y cosh y 2 sinh y )]

c
c
qo cosh
l
l
C
, D
2
2
c
c
c
c
c
c
2 2
sinh cosh
2 2
sinh cosh
l l
l
l
l l
l
l

A D( c tanh c 1) , B C ( c coth c 1) ,
l

y
y
c
y
y cosh
2l sinh
c tanh
l sinh

q
c
x
l
l
l
l

x o sinh sin
c
c
2
l
l
c l sinh cosh

l
l
qo sinh

y sinh

y
y
c
y
2l cosh
c coth
l cosh
l
l
l
l

c
c

c l sinh cosh

l
l

3qo l 5
, C 0 , A D , B 0
4c 3 5
3q l 3 y
3q l 2
y
y
x
x
x 3o 3
cosh
sinh sin
3o 2 y sin
l
l
l
l
l
4c
2c

## For the case l c : D

qo l 2
x
sin
y
2
3q l 2
My
x
Strength of Materials Theory : x
3 l
3o 2 y sin
I
l
2c / 3
2c

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

x l/2

Problem

## cos x{ A(1 ) sinh y B(1 ) cosh y

E
C[(1 )y sinh y 2 cosh y ]

## D[(1 )y cosh y 2 sinh y ]} o y uo

u (0,0) v (0,0) v (l ,0) 0

## sin x{ A(1 ) cosh y B(1 ) sinh y

E
C[(1 )y cosh y (1 ) sinh y ]
D[(1 )y sinh y (1 ) cosh y ]} o y vo

o vo 0 , u o

[ B (1 ) 2C ]
E

D
sin x[2 (1 ) c tanh c ]
E
3qo l 4
x
1 c
c
3qo l 5
For the case l
v ( x,0) 3 4 sin
[1
tanh
]
D 3 5
>> c
2c E
l
2 l
l
4c
3qo l 4
x
Strength of Materialsv ( x,0) 3 4 sin
2c E
l
v ( x,0)

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Example 8.5 Rectangular

Domain with Arbitrary
Must use series representation for
Airy stress function to handle general
boundary

n 1

m 1

n 1

m 1

## y cos n x[ Bn cosh n y C n n y sinh n y ] 2C 0

n 1

2
n

Boundary Conditions
x ( a, y ) 0 , xy ( a, y ) 0
xy ( x,b) 0 , y ( x,b) p ( x)

m 1

n 1

m 1

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Using Fourier series theory to

handle general boundary
conditions, generates a doubly
infinite set of equations to solve for
unknown constants in stress
function form. See text for details

Polar Coordinate
Formulation
Airy Stress Function
Approach = (r,)
Airy Representation
1 1 2
r

r r r 2 2
2
2
r
1
r

r r

2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2

2 2

2 2 0
2
2

r
r

r
r

r
r

r
r

## Traction Boundary Conditions

Tr f r ( r, ) , T f ( r, )

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Polar Coordinate
Formulation
Plane Elasticity
Strain-Displacement
Problem
u
er

r
u
1
e u r
r

1 1 u r u u
er

2 r
r
r

Hookes Law
PlaneStress

PlaneStrain
r (er e ) 2er
(er e ) 2e
z (er e ) ( r )
r 2er , z rz 0

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

1
1
( r ) , e ( r )
E
E

e z ( r )
(er e )
E
1
1
er
r , ez erz 0
E
er

## General Solutions in Polar Coordinates

Michell Solution
( r , ) f ( r )e

2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2

2 2

2 2 0
2
2

r
r

r
r

r
r

r
r

2
1 2b 2
1 2b 2
b 2 (4 b 2 )
f f
f
f
f 0
r
r2
r3
r4

Choosing the case where b = in, n = integer gives the general Michell solution
a 0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a 3 r 2 log r
( a 4 a5 log r a6 r 2 a7 r 2 log r )
a13
a14 r 3 a15r a16 r log r ) cos
r
b
(b11r b12 r log r 13 b14 r 3 b15 r b16 r log r ) sin
r
( a11r a12 r log r

( a n1r n a n 2 r 2 n a n 3 r n a n 4 r 2n ) cos n
n 2

(bn1r n bn 2 r 2n bn 3 r n bn 4 r 2n ) sin n
n 2

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Will use various

terms from this
general solution to
solve several
plane problems in
polar coordinates

Axisymmetric Solutions
Stress Function
Approach: =(r)
a0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a 3 r 2 log r
a1
a 3 2a 2
r2
a
2a3 log r 21 3a3 2a 2
r
r 0
r 2a3 log r

1 (1 ) Case

ur

## Navier Equation Approach:

u=ur(r)er
(Plane
Plane
Strain)
d 2 uStress
1 duor
1
r
r

ur 0
r dr r 2
dr 2
1
ur C1r C 2
r
Gives Stress Forms
A
A
r 2 B , 2 B , r 0
r
r

## a1 2(1 )a3r log r (1 )a3r 2a2 (1 )r

E
r

A sin B cos

Underlined terms
represent
rigid-body motion
following the displacement formulation approach
Could also have an axisymmetric elasticity problem
using = a4 which gives r = = 0 and r = a4/r 0,
see Exercise 8-15

4r
u
a3 A cos B sin Cr
E

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Example 8.6 Thick-Walled Cylinder

Under Uniform Boundary Pressure
General Axisymmetric
Boundary Conditions
Stress Solution
(r ) p , (r ) p
A
r 2 B
r
A
2 B
r

r12 r22 ( p2 p1 )
A
r22 r12
r12 p1 r22 p2
B
r22 r12

## r12 r22 ( p2 p1 ) 1 r12 p1 r22 p2

r

r22 r12
r2
r22 r12
r12 r22 ( p2 p1 ) 1 r12 p1 r22 p2

r22 r12
r2
r22 r12

Using Strain
Displacement Relations
and Hookes Law for
plane strain gives the
Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

1
A
r[(1 2 ) B 2 ]
E
r
r12 p1 r22 p2
1 r12 r22 ( p2 p1 ) 1

(1 2 )
E
r22 r12
r
r22 r12

ur

## Example 8.6 Cylinder Problem Results

Internal Pressure Only
r1/r2 =
Dimensionless Stress

0.5
/p

r /p

r/r

2
Dimensionless Distance,
r/r2

## Thin-Walled Tube Case:

t r2 r1 1 ro ( r1 r2 ) / 2
Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## pro Matches with Strength

t of Materials Theory

## Stress Free Hole in an

ressurized Hole in an Infinite Medium
Infinite Medium Under Equal
p 2 0 and r2
0 , p2 T at
, r2

Biaxial
Infinity

r12
r12
r p1 2 , p1 2 , z 0
r
r

1 p1r12
ur
E
r

r12
r12

r T 1 2 , T 1 2
r
r

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Example 8.7 Infinite Medium

with a Stress Free Hole Under
Uniform Far Field
Boundary Conditions
r (a, ) r ( a, ) 0

T
(1 cos 2)
2
T
(, ) (1 cos 2)
2
T
r (, ) sin 2
2
r (, )

## Try Stress Function

a0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a3 r 2 log r

(a 21r 2 a 22 r 4 a 23 r 2 a 24 ) cos 2
a
6a
4a
r a3 (1 2 log r ) 2a 2 12 (2a 21 423 224 ) cos 2
r
r
r
6a
a
a3 (3 2 log r ) 2a 2 12 (2a 21 12a 22 r 4 423 ) cos 2
r
r
6a
2a
r (2a 21 6a 22 r 2 423 224 ) sin 2
r
r

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

T
a2 T
3a 4 4a 2
r 1 2 1 4 2 cos 2
2
r 2
r
r
T
a2 T
3a 4

1 2 1 4 cos 2
2
r 2
r
T
3a 4 2a 2
r 1 4 2 sin 2
2
r
r

## Example 8.7 Stress

Results
T
a2 T
3a 4 4a 2

r 1 2 1 4 2 cos 2
2
r 2
r
r
T
a2 T
3a 4
1 2 1 4 cos 2
2
r 2
r
T
3a 4 2a 2
r 1 4 2 sin 2
2
r
r

(a, ) T (1 2 cos 2)
(a,0) T , (a,30o ) 0

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

max (a, / 2) 3T

T2
T1
T1
T2
Equal Biaxial
Tension Case
2
T1 r1=
T2 = T
r12

r T 1 2 , T 1 2
r
r

## max ( ) max (r1 ) 2T

Tension/Compressio
n Case
T1 = 3Ta 4 , T4a2 2=
-T
r T 1 4 2 cos 2
r
r

3a 4
T 1 4 cos 2
r

3a 4 2a 2
r T 1 4 2 sin 2
r
r

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Review Stress
Concentration Factors
Around Stress Free Holes

K=2

K=3

=
K=4
Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Stress Concentration Around

Stress Free Elliptical Hole Chapter 10
Maximum Stress Field

max

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

S 1 2
a

## Stress Concentration Around

Stress Free Hole in Orthotropic
Material Chapter 11

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## 2-D Thermoelastic Stress Concentration

Problem Uniform Heat Flow Around
Stress Free Insulated Hole Chapter 12
Stress Field
1 Eqa a a 3
sin
r
2 k r r 3
1 Eqa a a 3
sin

2 k r r 3
1 Eqa a a 3
cos
r
2 k r r 3
Eqa
max (a, )
sin
k

## max (a, / 2) Eqa / k

of
/hole
2
Maximum compressive stress on hot side
side
/ 2
Maximum tensile stress on cold

## Steel Plate: E = 30Mpsi (200GPa) and = 6.5in/in/oF

(11.7m/m/oC),
qa/k = 100oF (37.7oC), the maximum stress becomes
Elasticity19.5ksi
Theory, Applications
and Numerics
(88.2MPa)
M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Nonhomogeneous Stress Concentration

Around Stress Free Hole in a Plane
Chapter 14

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Three Dimensional Stress Concentration

Problem Chapter 13
Normal Stress on the x,y-plane (z = 0)

z ( r ,0) S

4 5 a 3
9
a5

3
5
2(7 5) r
2(7 5 ) r

z (a,0) ( z ) max

3.5
3
Normalized
2.5
Two Dimensional Case: (r,/2)/S

2
1.5
1
0.5

0.3

0
1

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

27 15
S
2(7 5)

0 .3

( z ) max
2.04
S

Wedge Domain
Problems
Use general stress function solution
to include terms that are bounded at
origin and give uniform stresses on
the boundaries
r 2 (a a a cos 2 b sin 2)
2

21

21

## r 2a 2 2a 6 2a 21 cos 2 2b21 sin 2

2a 2 2a 6 2a 21 cos 2 2b21 sin 2
r a 6 2b21 cos 2 2a 21 sin 2

## Quarter Plane Example ( = 0 and = /2)

S

( 2 cos 2 sin 2)
2 2
2
S

( 2 cos 2 sin 2)
2 2
2
S

r (1 cos 2 sin 2)
2
2
r

(r , / 2) 0
r (r , / 2) S

(r ,0) r ( r ,0) 0

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Half-Space Examples

## Uniform Normal Stress Over x 0

Boundary Conditions
(r ,0) r (r ,0) 0
r (r , ) 0 , (r , ) T

## Try Airy Stress Function

a6 r 2 b21r 2 sin 2
2a 6 2b21 sin 2
r a 6 2b21 cos 2

T
(sin 2 2)
2
T

(sin 2 2)
2
T
r
(1 cos 2)
2
r

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Half-Space Under
Concentrated Surface Force
System (Flamant Problem)
Boundary Conditions
(r ,0) r (r ,0) 0
r (r , ) 0 , (r , ) 0

Forces Xe

Ye 2

## Try Airy Stress Function

(a12 r log r a15 r) cos
(b12 r log r b15 r) sin

2
[ X cos Y sin ]
r
r 0
r

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Flamant Solution Stress

Results
2Yx y
Normal Force
Case

cos
2

2Y
r
sin or in Cartesian
r
components
r 0

( x 2 y 2 ) 2

2Yy 3
y r sin
( x 2 y 2 ) 2
2

xy

2Yxy 2
r sin cos
( x 2 y 2 ) 2

y=a

y 2Y / a

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Flamant Solution Displacement

Results
Normal Force Case
u r 1
2Y
( r )
sin
r E
Er
u 1 u 1
2 Y
e r
( r )
sin
r r E
Er
1 u r u u 1
2er

r 0
r r
r
er

On Free Surface y
=0
Y

u r ( r ,0) ur ( r, )

(1 )
2E
Y
u ( r,0) u ( r , )
[(1 ) 2 log r ]
E

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## [(1 )( ) cos 2 log r sin ]

E
2
Y

u
[ (1 )( ) sin 2 log r cos (1 ) cos ]
E
2
ur

## Note unpleasant feature of 2-D

model that displacements become
unbounded as r

## Comparison of Flamant Results with

3-D Theory - Boussinesqs Problem
u

2R

Corresponding 2-D
P
Results
u (r ,0)
[(1 ) 2 log r ]
E

## 3-D Solution eliminates

the unbounded far-field
behavior
Elasticity Theory, Applications and Numerics
M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

P
z2

2
(
1

Rz
4R R 2 R z
4R
R 2
z
P 3x 2 z
R
x 2 (2 R z )

x
(1 2)

2
R
R

z
2R 2 R 3
R
(
R

z
)

z
P 3y 2 z
R
y 2 (2 R z )

(
1

R R z R ( R z ) 2
2R 2 R 3

3
3Pz
P 3xyz (1 2)( 2 R z ) xy
z
, xy

5
2R
2R 2 R 3
R( R z ) 2

Px z

4R R 2

Free Surface
P (1 )
Displacements
u z ( R,0)

Cartesian
1 2 Solution
Py z 1 2

,v

yz

, w

3Pyz 2
3Pxz 2

, xz
2R 5
2R 5

Cylindrical
Solution
rz (1 2)r

P
ur

4R R 2
R z
P
z2
uz
2(1 ) 2
4R
R
u 0

3r 2 z (1 2 ) R
3

Rz
R

(1 2) P z
R

2R
R R z
P
r
2R 2

3P rz 2
3Pz 3
z
, rz
2R 5
2R 5

2Y
sin cos 2
r
2Y
y r sin 2
sin 3
r
2Y
xy r sin cos
sin 2 cos
r
x r cos 2

2p
cos 2 d

2p
d y
sin 2 d

2p
d xy
sin cos d

d x

2 p 2
p
2
cos

## [2( 2 1 ) (sin 2 2 sin 21 )]

1
2
2 p 2 2
p
y
sin d [2( 2 1 ) (sin 2 2 sin 21 )]

1
2

2p 2
p
xy
sin cos d
[cos 22 cos 21 ]

1
2
x

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

max Contours

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Generalized Superposition Method

2y
x

2 y3

2y2
xy

Elasticity

p( s )( x s ) 2
2
ds
2
2
2
a [( x s ) y ]

t ( s)( x s ) 3
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

p( s)
2y2
ds

a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

p( s )( x s )
2y
s
2
2
2
a [( x s ) y ]

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

t ( s )( x s)
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

t ( s )( x s) 2
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Notch/Crack Problem

## r [ A sin B cos C sin( 2) D cos( 2)]

Try Stress Function:

## ( 1)r 2 [ A sin B cos C sin( 2) D cos( 2)]

r ( 1)r 2 [ A cos B sin C ( 2) cos( 2) D ( 2) sin( 2)]
Boundary Conditions: (r ,0) r (r ,0) (r ,2) r (r ,2) 0
n
sin 2( 1) 0 1 , n 0,1, 2,
2
nt O (r 1 )
At Crack Tip r Stress O(r 2 ) , Displaceme
0:
Finite Displacements and Singular Stresses at Crack Tip 1< <2 = 3/2

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Notch/Crack Problem Results

3 1
3

3
5

A
(sin

5
sin
)

B
(cos

cos
)
4 r
2
2
2
3
2
3 1
3

3

A
(sin

3
sin
)

B
(cos

cos
)
4 r
2
2
2
2
3 1
3

3
1

r
A(cos cos ) B (sin sin )

4 r
2
2
2
3
2
r

3
2
3

2
3
r
2
r

Transform to
Variable

Elasticity

cos (3 cos )
sin (1 3 cos )
2
2
r
2 r
A

3B

cos (1 cos )
sin (1 cos )
2
2
r
2 r
A

sin (1 cos )
cos (1 3 cos )
2
2
r
2 r

## Note special singular behavior of stress field O(1/r)

A and B coefficients are related to stress intensity factors and are
useful in fracture mechanics theory
A terms give symmetric stress fields Opening or Mode I behavior
B terms give antisymmetric stress fields Shearing or Mode II
behavior

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Crack Problem Results

Contours of Maximum Shear Stress

contours)

Elasticity

## Mode II (Maximum shear

stress contours)

Experimental Photoelastic
Isochromatics
Courtesy of URI Dynamic
Photomechanics Laboratory

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Mode III Crack Problem Exercise 841

z Contours for Mode III Crack Problem

## Anti-Plane Strain Case

u v 0 , w w( x, y )

2 w 1 w 1 2 w
w 2
2
0
2
r r r
r
2

w A r sin , z
cos , zr
sin
2
2
2
2 r
2 r

O r
Stresses Again

Elasticity

1 / 2

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

z - Stress Contours

## Curved Beam Under End

Moments

r (a ) r (b) 0
r (a ) r (b) 0
b

dr 0
a

rdr M
a

a 0 a1 log r a 2 r 2 a3 r 2 log r

4M a 2b2
b
r
a
r
[ 2 log( ) b 2 log( ) a 2 log( )]
N
r
a
b
r
2 2
4M
a b
b
r
a

[ 2 log( ) b 2 log( ) a 2 log( ) b 2 a 2 ]
N
r
a
b
r
r 0

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## Curved Cantilever Beam

P

r
a

r ( a, ) r (b, ) 0
r ( a, ) r (b, ) 0

= /2 b/a =
4 Theory of
Elasticity
Strength of
Materials

r ( r ,0)dr P

DimensionlessDistance, r/a

## ( r,0)dr ( r,0) rdr 0

a

( r, / 2)dr P
( r, / 2) rdr P ( a b) / 2
r ( r , / 2)dr 0

( Ar 3

Elasticity

## Dimensionless Stress, a/P

B
Cr Dr log r ) sin
r

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

P
a b
a b2
) sin
(r 3
N
r
r
P
a 2b2 a 2 b2
(3r 3
) sin
N
r
r
P
a 2b2 a 2 b2
r ( r 3
) cos
N
r
r
r

Compression
P

P
Flamant
Solution (1)

Flamant
Solution (2)

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Solution (3)

## Disk Problem Superposition

of Stresses
(x1)

2P
cos 1 sin 2 1
r1

(y1)

2P
cos 3 1
r1

(xy1)

2P
cos 2 1 sin 1
r1

(x2)

2P
cos 2 sin 2 2
r2

(y2)

2P
cos 3 2
r2

(xy2 )

2P
cos 2 2 sin 2
r2

(x3) (y3)

2P
, (xy3) 0
D

2P ( R y ) x 2 ( R y ) x 2 1

r14
r24
D

2P ( R y )3 ( R y)3 1
y

r14
r24
D
xy

2P (R y)2 x (R y)2 x

r14
r24

r1, 2 x 2 ( R y ) 2

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

x-axis (y = 0)
2P D 2 4x 2
x ( x,0)
D D 2 4 x 2

y-axis (x = 0)
2

2P
4D 4
y ( x,0)
1

2
2 2
D ( D 4 x )

xy ( x,0) 0

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

2P
Constant
D
2P
2
2
1
y (0, y )

D 2 y D 2 y D
x (0, y )

xy (0, y ) 0

## Applications to Granular Media

Modeling
Contact Load Transfer Between Idealized Grains

## (Courtesy of URI Dynamic

Photomechanics Lab)

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

Four-Contact
Grain

Generates:

pc

## - Contact Area (w)

- Interface Tractions (pc)
- Local Stresses in Each Body

## Creates Complicated Nonlinear

Boundary Condition:
Boundary Condition Changing With
Deformation; i.e. w and pc Depend on
Interfacial Friction Characteristics
Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

## 2-D Elastic Half-Space

Subjected
to a Rigid Indenter
Local stresses and
deformation determined
from Flamant solution
See Section 8.4.9 and
Exercise 8.38

Rigid Indenter

uy

a
1 x
2 a t ( s ) log x s ds a
p
(
s
)
ds

p
(
s
)
ds
1
E -a
x
2 E -a
a
2 a
1 x
a
uy
p( s ) log x s ds
t
(
s
)
ds

t
(
s
)
ds
2

x
E -a
2 E -a
a1 and a2 are rigid body motion constants

Frictionless Case
(t = 0)

Elasticity

ux

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

du x
1

p ( x)
dx
E
du y
2 a p( s)

ds
dx
E -a x s

## 2-D Elastic Half-Space

Subjected
Frictionless Flat Rigid Indenter
Rigid Indenter

uy
y

Unbounded
Stresses at
Edges of
Indenter

Max Shear
Stress Contours

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

p( s)
ds 0
xs

-a

p ( x)

Solution

P
a2 x2

1
P sin 1 ( x / a ) , x a
E
1/ 2
x x2

2
uy
log 2 1 u yo , x a
E
a a

ux

2 Py
x 2

2 Py 3
y 2

Elasticity

u y u yo constant

2 Py 2
xy 2

( x s) 2

2 2

a s [( x s ) y ]

ds

a s [( x s ) y ]

( x s)

2 2

2 2

a s [( x s) y ]

ds
ds

## 2-D Elastic Half-Space

Subjected
Frictionless Cylindrical Rigid
Indenter
p( s)
E

u y proportional to x / 2 R
2

-a

xs

Solution
p ( x)

2P
a 2

a2 x2

4 Py
x 2 2
a
4 Py 3
y 2 2
a
4 Py 2
xy 2 2
a

Max Shear
Stress Contours

Elasticity

## Theory, Applications and Numerics

M.H. Sadd , University of Rhode Island

a2

4 PR
E

a 2 s 2 ( x s) 2
ds
[( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

a2 s2
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2
a

a 2 s 2 ( x s)
ds
a [( x s ) 2 y 2 ]2

ds

2R