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Chapter1

IntroductiontoDatabases
Transparencies

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Chapter1Objectives

Somecommonusesofdatabasesystems.
Characteristicsoffilebasedsystems.
Problemswithfilebasedapproach.
Meaningofthetermdatabase.
MeaningofthetermDatabaseManagement
System(DBMS).

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Chapter1Objectives

TypicalfunctionsofaDBMS.
MajorcomponentsoftheDBMSenvironment.
PersonnelinvolvedintheDBMSenvironment.
HistoryofthedevelopmentofDBMSs.
AdvantagesanddisadvantagesofDBMSs.

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ExamplesofDatabaseApplications

Purchasesfromthesupermarket
Purchasesusingyourcreditcard
Bookingaholidayatthetravelagents
Usingthelocallibrary
Takingoutinsurance
Rentingavideo
UsingtheInternet
Studyingatuniversity
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FileBasedSystems

Collectionofapplicationprogramsthat
performservicesfortheendusers(e.g.reports).

Eachprogramdefinesandmanagesitsown
data.

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FileBasedProcessing

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LimitationsofFileBasedApproach

Separationandisolationofdata

Eachprogrammaintainsitsownsetofdata.
Usersofoneprogrammaybeunawareof
potentiallyusefuldataheldbyotherprograms.

Duplicationofdata

Samedataisheldbydifferentprograms.
Wastedspaceandpotentiallydifferentvalues
and/ordifferentformatsforthesameitem.
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LimitationsofFileBasedApproach

Datadependence

Filestructureisdefinedintheprogramcode.

Incompatiblefileformats

Programsarewrittenindifferentlanguages,andso
cannoteasilyaccesseachothersfiles.

FixedQueries/Proliferationofapplication
programs

Programsarewrittentosatisfyparticularfunctions.
Anynewrequirementneedsanewprogram.
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DatabaseApproach

Arosebecause:

Definitionofdatawasembeddedinapplication
programs,ratherthanbeingstoredseparatelyand
independently.
Nocontroloveraccessandmanipulationofdata
beyondthatimposedbyapplicationprograms.

Result:

thedatabaseandDatabaseManagementSystem
(DBMS).

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Database

Sharedcollectionoflogicallyrelateddata(and
adescriptionofthisdata),designedtomeetthe
informationneedsofanorganization.

Systemcatalog(metadata)providesdescription
ofdatatoenableprogramdataindependence.

Logicallyrelateddatacomprisesentities,
attributes,andrelationshipsofan
organizationsinformation.
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DatabaseManagementSystem(DBMS)

Asoftwaresystemthatenablesuserstodefine,
create,maintain,andcontrolaccesstothe
database.

(Database)applicationprogram:acomputer
programthatinteractswithdatabaseby
issuinganappropriaterequest(SQL
statement)totheDBMS.

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DatabaseManagementSystem(DBMS)

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DatabaseApproach

Datadefinitionlanguage(DDL).
Permitsspecificationofdatatypes,structuresand
anydataconstraints.
Allspecificationsarestoredinthedatabase.

Datamanipulationlanguage(DML).
Generalenquiryfacility(querylanguage)ofthe
data.

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DatabaseApproach

Controlledaccesstodatabasemay
include:

asecuritysystem
anintegritysystem
aconcurrencycontrolsystem
arecoverycontrolsystem
auseraccessiblecatalog.

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Views

Allowseachusertohavehisorherownviewof
thedatabase.

Aviewisessentiallysomesubsetofthe
database.

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ViewsBenefits

Reducecomplexity
Providealevelofsecurity
Provideamechanismtocustomizethe
appearanceofthedatabase
Presentaconsistent,unchangingpictureofthe
structureofthedatabase,evenifthe
underlyingdatabaseischanged

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ComponentsofDBMSEnvironment

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ComponentsofDBMSEnvironment

Hardware

CanrangefromaPCtoanetworkof
computers.

Software

DBMS,operatingsystem,networksoftware(if
necessary)andalsotheapplicationprograms.

Data
Usedbytheorganizationandadescription
ofthisdatacalledtheschema.
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ComponentsofDBMSEnvironment

Procedures
Instructionsandrulesthatshouldbeappliedto
thedesignanduseofthedatabaseandDBMS.

People

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RolesintheDatabaseEnvironment

DataAdministrator(DA)
DatabaseAdministrator(DBA)
DatabaseDesigners(LogicalandPhysical)
ApplicationProgrammers
EndUsers(naiveandsophisticated)

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HistoryofDatabaseSystems

Firstgeneration

HierarchicalandNetwork

Secondgeneration
Relational

Thirdgeneration

ObjectRelational
ObjectOriented
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AdvantagesofDBMSs

Controlofdataredundancy
Dataconsistency
Moreinformationfromthesameamountofdata
Sharingofdata
Improveddataintegrity
Improvedsecurity
Enforcementofstandards
Economyofscale

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AdvantagesofDBMSs

Balanceconflictingrequirements
Improveddataaccessibilityandresponsiveness
Increasedproductivity
Improvedmaintenancethroughdata
independence
Increasedconcurrency
Improvedbackupandrecoveryservices

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DisadvantagesofDBMSs

Complexity
Size
CostofDBMS
Additionalhardwarecosts
Costofconversion
Performance
Higherimpactofafailure

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