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# STF1103:

## Statistic for Biology II

Learning Unit 2
The Friedman Test

## The Friedman Test

For the randomized block design, a non-parametric
equivalent of the F test obtained from the analysis of
variance table is the Friedman test.
The Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks tests
the null hypothesis that the k matched groups come from
the same underlying continuous distribution, or from
distributions with the same median (or mean if the
distributions are symmetrical).

## The Friedman Test (continue)

The procedure can be summarized as follow: Rank the data within each block, from 1 to k.
Calculate Si = sum of ranks of the ith treatment, i = 1, 2, ,
k.
k
12
2
F
S
3b( k 1)

i
bk ( k 1) i 1
The test statistic is

## The rejection region is

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

F k21

if either b 5 or k 5.

Example 1
To compare the popularity of five politicians, the following
popularity scores were obtained over a six-month period:

Month

20

14

33

11

15

18

25

27

10

10

18

27

27

11

17

29

23

10

12

19

29

20

11

11

20

31

20

10

10

## For these data, there are 6 blocks (months), and 5 treatments

(politicians).
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Example 1 (continue)
The null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis are:
H0 : they have the same popularity
HA : At least one differs in popularity from the others
The rank of the politicians are as follow:Month

1.5

1.5

4.5

4.5

1.5

1.5

3.5

3.5

1.5

1.5

Si

19.5

25.5

26

7.5

11.5

## STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Example 1 (continue)
F

12
[19.5 2 25.5 2 26 2 7.5 2 11.5 2 ] 3(6)(5 1) 18.33
6(5)(5 1)

## The rejection region is Chi-square 9.488 (from ) at = 5%.

Hence, we reject Ho and conclude that the five politicians
are not of the same popularity.

## Continue with the Bonferroni inequality

procedure
The Bonferroni inequality procedure has 3 steps:(i) Calculate the critical value.
critical value z

bk ( k 1)
6

## Where z is obtained from the standard normal table with the

area
in the tail (just like in the Kruskal-Wallis test)
k ( k - 1)

## (ii) For any pair of treatment, the rejection is S S critical value

i

(iii) Order the total ranks Si from the largest to the smallest
and proceed as for the Friedmans test.
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

If = 10%, then

k ( k 1)

0. 1
0.005
5( 4)

## What is the z value?

6(5)(5 1)
2.57
14.07
Thus, z = 2.57, and critical value =
6

C

26

25.5

19.5

11.5

7.5

## SC SD = 26 7.5 = 18.5 > 14.07

SC SE = 26 11.5 = 14.5 > 14.07
SC SA = 26 19.5 = 6.5 < 14.07
Therefore, we underline from C to A
SB SD = 25.5 7.5 = 18 > 14.07
SB SE = 25.5 11.5 = 14 < 14.07
Therefore, we underline from B to E
SA SD = 19.5 7.5 = 12 < 14.07
Therefore, we underline from A to D.
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

C

26

25.5

19.5

11.5

7.5

## Hence, we can conclude that politician C is more popular

than politicians E and D, and politician B is more popular
than D at = 10%.
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II