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STF1103:

Statistic for Biology II

Learning Unit 2
The Friedman Test

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

The Friedman Test


For the randomized block design, a non-parametric
equivalent of the F test obtained from the analysis of
variance table is the Friedman test.
The Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks tests
the null hypothesis that the k matched groups come from
the same underlying continuous distribution, or from
distributions with the same median (or mean if the
distributions are symmetrical).

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

The Friedman Test (continue)

The procedure can be summarized as follow: Rank the data within each block, from 1 to k.
Calculate Si = sum of ranks of the ith treatment, i = 1, 2, ,
k.
k
12
2
F
S
3b( k 1)

i
bk ( k 1) i 1
The test statistic is

where b = number of blocks, and k = number of treatments

The rejection region is


STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

F k21

if either b 5 or k 5.

Example 1
To compare the popularity of five politicians, the following
popularity scores were obtained over a six-month period:

Month

20

14

33

11

15

18

25

27

10

10

18

27

27

11

17

29

23

10

12

19

29

20

11

11

20

31

20

10

10

For these data, there are 6 blocks (months), and 5 treatments


(politicians).
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Example 1 (continue)
The null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis are:
H0 : they have the same popularity
HA : At least one differs in popularity from the others
The rank of the politicians are as follow:Month

1.5

1.5

4.5

4.5

1.5

1.5

3.5

3.5

1.5

1.5

Si

19.5

25.5

26

7.5

11.5

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Example 1 (continue)
F

12
[19.5 2 25.5 2 26 2 7.5 2 11.5 2 ] 3(6)(5 1) 18.33
6(5)(5 1)

The rejection region is Chi-square 9.488 (from ) at = 5%.


Hence, we reject Ho and conclude that the five politicians
are not of the same popularity.

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Continue with the Bonferroni inequality


procedure
The Bonferroni inequality procedure has 3 steps:(i) Calculate the critical value.
critical value z

bk ( k 1)
6

Where z is obtained from the standard normal table with the

area
in the tail (just like in the Kruskal-Wallis test)
k ( k - 1)

(ii) For any pair of treatment, the rejection is S S critical value


i

(iii) Order the total ranks Si from the largest to the smallest
and proceed as for the Friedmans test.
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Continue with the Bonferroni inequality procedure (continue)

If = 10%, then

k ( k 1)

0. 1
0.005
5( 4)

What is the z value?

6(5)(5 1)
2.57
14.07
Thus, z = 2.57, and critical value =
6

The ordered Si, are:


C

26

25.5

19.5

11.5

7.5

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Continue with the Bonferroni inequality procedure (continue)

SC SD = 26 7.5 = 18.5 > 14.07


SC SE = 26 11.5 = 14.5 > 14.07
SC SA = 26 19.5 = 6.5 < 14.07
Therefore, we underline from C to A
SB SD = 25.5 7.5 = 18 > 14.07
SB SE = 25.5 11.5 = 14 < 14.07
Therefore, we underline from B to E
SA SD = 19.5 7.5 = 12 < 14.07
Therefore, we underline from A to D.
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Continue with the Bonferroni inequality procedure (continue)

All these results lead to


C

26

25.5

19.5

11.5

7.5

Hence, we can conclude that politician C is more popular


than politicians E and D, and politician B is more popular
than D at = 10%.
STF1103: Statistic for Biology II