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Chapter 15-2

Divisions of the
Nervous System
Central Nervous
System
 Central Nervous System consists of the brain
and spinal cord
 Central Nervous System is the control center
of the body
 Brain- part of the CNS that controls most
functions in the body
 Spinal cord- thick
column of nerve tissue
that links the brain to
most of the nerves in
the peripheral nervous
system
Most impulses from the
peripheral nervous
system travel through
the spinal cord to the
The Structure and
Functions of the
Brain

 Brain
contains
about 100
billion
interneurons
 3 layers of
connective
tissue
surround the
brain
 Space
between the
outermost
and middle
layer is filled
Cerebrum
 3 main regions of the
brain: cerebrum,
cerebellum, and
brainstem
 Cerebrum- interprets
input from the senses,
controls the movement
of skeletal muscles, and
carries out complex
mental processes such
as learning
 Right side of the
cerebrum controls
muscles on the left side
of the body
 Left side of the cerebrum
controls right side of
the body
 Right side of cerebrum
associated with
creativity and artistic
Cerebellum and
Brainstem
 Cerebellum-
coordinates the
actions of your
muscles and
helps you keep
your balance
 Brainstem-
between the
cerebellum and
spinal cord;
controls your
body’s
involuntary
Spinal Cord
 Vertebral column
surrounds and
protects the spinal
cord
 Spinal cord links
your brain and
peripheral nervous
system
 Connective tissue
surrounding brain
also cover spinal
column
Function of the
Peripheral Nervous System
 PNS consists of a  Somatic Nervous
network of nerves System- controls
that branch out voluntary actions
from the CNS and such as using a
function to fork
connect it to the  Autonomic nervous
rest of the body system- controls
 Impulses travel to involuntary
and from the CNS actions such as
on a spinal nerve contractions of
 Spinal nerves the smooth
contain axons of muscles that
both sensory and adjust the
Reflexes

 Reflex- an automatic response that


occurs very rapidly and without
conscious control
 Some reflex actions contract skeletal
muscles with the use of the spinal
cord only- not brain
 Pain causes a reflex of movement
passing only to the spinal cord
 Pain also causes an impulses alerting
your brain of discomfort
 Reflex causes you to move before
Safety and the Nervous
System
 Concussions and spinal cord injuries
can injure the nervous system
 Concussion- bruise-like injury of the
brain
 Helmets help prevent concussions
 Spinal cord injuries occur when the
spinal cord is cut or crushed; causes
impulses to be unable to pass to the
brain from the body
 Paralysis can result from spinal cord
injury
Review
 What is the function of the central
nervous system? Which organs are part
of this system?

 What is the peripheral nervous system


and what is its function?

 Explain what a reflex is. How do reflexes


help protect the body from injury?

 What symptoms might indicate that a


person’s cerebellum has been injured?