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INTRO TO FLUID

MECHANICS
Define and explain fluid properties such as
density, shear stress, velocity and etc.
Define, explain and derive viscosity, and
explain its correlation with human blood.
Viscosity measurement.
Define and explain the surface tension and
capillary effect.
Explain the effect of surface tension in
biomedical engineering.

INTRODUCTION TO THERMALFLUID SCIENCES


Thermal-fluid sciences: The physical sciences that deal with
energy and the transfer, transport, and conversion of energy.

APPLICATION AREAS OF
THERMAL FLUID SCIENCE 1

Designing Radiator:
1. Amount of energy transfer from a knowledge of the properties of
coolant, thermodynamics.
2. Size of inner and outer fins, heat transfer.
3. Size and type of the water pump, fluid mechanics.

INTRODUCTION TO
THERMAL FLUID SCIENCES
Subcategories of
thermodynamics
heat transfer
fluid mechanics

THERMODYNAMI
CS
The science that studies
energy and the
transformation of energy
into work, or moving things
around.

THERMODYNAMICS LAWS

The First law


Conservation of energy principle
(energy change from on state to
another, cannot be destroyed).

The Second law


Energy has quality and quantity,
actual processes occur in the
direction of decreasing
quality of energy.

The Zeroth law

HEAT TRANSFER

The science that deal


with the determination
of the rates of such
energy transfers.
Heat
A form of energy that can be
transferred from one system to
another as a result of
temperature difference.

Between Thermodynamics and Heat


Transfer
Thermodynamics

Heat Transfer

Amount (how much) of


heat transfer.
amount of heat from
thermos when hot coffee
cool down from 90 to 80
degrees

Rate (how long) of heat


transfer

Equilibrium state

Non-equilibrium state

How long does it take for


hot coffee to cool down from
90 to 80 degrees
Next
Lectur
e

Fluid Mechanics
The sciences that deals with the
behavior of fluids at rest (fluids
statics) or fluids in motion (fluid
dynamics), and interaction of fluids
with solids or other fluids at the
boundaries.

DIMENSIONAL
HOMOGENEOUS
Every terms in an equation must have the same dimensions.
Spotting Errors in unit
E (kJ) = 25 kJ + 7 kJ/Kg
Fundamental Dimension: M,L,T
Obtain formulas from unit

= 850kg/m3; V = 2 m3

MECHANICS QUIZ
Statics?
Dynamics?
Kinetics?
Kinematics?
Two Phase Flow?
Engineer?
Science?
Temperature?

FLUID MECHANICS
The sciences that deals with the behavior of
fluids at rest (fluids statics) or fluids in motion
(fluid dynamics), and interaction of fluids with
solids or other fluids at the boundaries.

Static

Dynami
c

FLUID MECHANICS CATEGORIES

Also referred as Fluid Dynamics.


Incompressible (density constant, e.g. Water, gases at low speed), HYDRODYNAMICS.
Compressible (density change significantly) fluid flow, nozzles at high speed, GAS DYNAMICS.
AERODYNAMICS, flow of gases (especially air) over bodies, aircraft, automobiles.

WHAT IS FLUID?
Fluid
A substance in the gas or liquid phase.
A liquid takes the shape of the container, free
surface under gravity.
Gases cannot form a free surface

STRESS (FORCE/AREA) ON
FLUID

The normal stress and shear stress at the surface of a fluid


element.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN
SOLID AND FLUID

Solid
Resist an applied shear stress by deforming.
Stress proportional to strain.
Fluid
Deforms continuously under the influence of shear stress.
Stress proportional to strain rate.

VISCOSITY

Density & specific weight measure


heaviness
What is measured by viscosity?
Easiness of fluid to flow.
Internal resistance of fluid to
motion.

VISCOSIT
Y
U(h)=V

y
No slip
condition
B
Oil
betwee
n two
plates

Moveable Plate
B

d (small deformation)
Stationary Plate

U(0)=0
Velocity gradient , dU/dy =
V/h

Applied
force
Frictional
force

VISCOSITY

F = A, = F/A, is shear stress


Based on the experimental analysis,

FAV/h or F/AV/h
A:Interface area between fluid and plate

Shear Stress acting on fluid layer is defined as,

Finally, V/h du/dy


= du/dy, is viscosity
[Compare with F = N]

FIG 2.4 SHOWS THE ROTATING-DRUM


VISCOMETER

VISCOMETR
Y
How is viscosity
measured? A rotating
viscometer.
Two concentric cylinders
with a fluid in the small
gap .
Inner cylinder is rotating,
outer one is fixed.

MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY
T FR

-----(1)

du
F A A
dy
V
F A
A 2RL
l
V R

2N

4 R NL
T
l

VISCOSITY
NEWTONIAN & NON NEWTONIAN

Bingham Plastic Toothpaste and Mayonnaise


Shear thinning - Latex
Newtonian - Oil, Water
Shear thickening - quicksand

d/dt

Newtonian constant viscosity


Non-Newtonian (apparent viscosity)
Shear thinning viscosity , shearing rate (velocity gradient)

Shear thickening viscosity , shearing rate (velocity gradient)

Bingham plastic constant viscosity but at certain amount


shear stress, fluid starts shearing

BLOOD VISCOSITY
Blood non-Newtonian but could
behave as Newtonian at higher shear
rates (>100 1/s)

SURFACE TENSION

SURFACE TENSION
The cohesive forces between molecules down into a
liquid are shared with all neighboring atoms and
balance each other because of symmetry.
The attractive forces acting on the surface molecule
are not symmetric, and the attractive forces applied
by the gas molecules above are very small. It
experiences forces only sideways and downward,
which creates the surface tension effect.

SURFACE TENSION

Table 1.5 shows the surface tension of water.

CAPILLARY EFFECT OF SURFACE


TENSION

Capillary effect is
the rise or fall of a
liquid in a small2
diameter tube.
W mg Vg g (R h) The curved free
Fsurface 2R s cos
surface in the tube
is call the
2 s
meniscus.
h
cos
gR
Force balance can
describe magnitude
For water-glass in atmospheric air, of capillary rise.
=0

CAPILLARY EFFECT
When the attractive forces are
between unlike molecules, they are
said to be adhesive forces. The
adhesive forces between water
molecules and the walls of a glass
tube are stronger than the cohesive
forces (attraction between like
molecules) lead to an upward turning
meniscus at the walls of the vessel
and contribute to capillary action.

SUMMARY
Definition of thermal fluid and its
application
Definition of subcategories of thermalfluid science.
Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.
Viscosity and its relation to human
blood.
Surface tension and its relation to
Biomedical field.