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MECHANICS

Define and explain fluid properties such as

density, shear stress, velocity and etc.

Define, explain and derive viscosity, and

explain its correlation with human blood.

Viscosity measurement.

Define and explain the surface tension and

capillary effect.

Explain the effect of surface tension in

biomedical engineering.

Thermal-fluid sciences: The physical sciences that deal with

energy and the transfer, transport, and conversion of energy.

APPLICATION AREAS OF

THERMAL FLUID SCIENCE 1

Designing Radiator:

1. Amount of energy transfer from a knowledge of the properties of

coolant, thermodynamics.

2. Size of inner and outer fins, heat transfer.

3. Size and type of the water pump, fluid mechanics.

INTRODUCTION TO

THERMAL FLUID SCIENCES

Subcategories of

thermodynamics

heat transfer

fluid mechanics

THERMODYNAMI

CS

The science that studies

energy and the

transformation of energy

into work, or moving things

around.

THERMODYNAMICS LAWS

Conservation of energy principle

(energy change from on state to

another, cannot be destroyed).

Energy has quality and quantity,

actual processes occur in the

direction of decreasing

quality of energy.

HEAT TRANSFER

with the determination

of the rates of such

energy transfers.

Heat

A form of energy that can be

transferred from one system to

another as a result of

temperature difference.

Transfer

Thermodynamics

Heat Transfer

heat transfer.

amount of heat from

thermos when hot coffee

cool down from 90 to 80

degrees

transfer

Equilibrium state

Non-equilibrium state

hot coffee to cool down from

90 to 80 degrees

Next

Lectur

e

Fluid Mechanics

The sciences that deals with the

behavior of fluids at rest (fluids

statics) or fluids in motion (fluid

dynamics), and interaction of fluids

with solids or other fluids at the

boundaries.

DIMENSIONAL

HOMOGENEOUS

Every terms in an equation must have the same dimensions.

Spotting Errors in unit

E (kJ) = 25 kJ + 7 kJ/Kg

Fundamental Dimension: M,L,T

Obtain formulas from unit

= 850kg/m3; V = 2 m3

MECHANICS QUIZ

Statics?

Dynamics?

Kinetics?

Kinematics?

Two Phase Flow?

Engineer?

Science?

Temperature?

FLUID MECHANICS

The sciences that deals with the behavior of

fluids at rest (fluids statics) or fluids in motion

(fluid dynamics), and interaction of fluids with

solids or other fluids at the boundaries.

Static

Dynami

c

Incompressible (density constant, e.g. Water, gases at low speed), HYDRODYNAMICS.

Compressible (density change significantly) fluid flow, nozzles at high speed, GAS DYNAMICS.

AERODYNAMICS, flow of gases (especially air) over bodies, aircraft, automobiles.

WHAT IS FLUID?

Fluid

A substance in the gas or liquid phase.

A liquid takes the shape of the container, free

surface under gravity.

Gases cannot form a free surface

STRESS (FORCE/AREA) ON

FLUID

element.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN

SOLID AND FLUID

Solid

Resist an applied shear stress by deforming.

Stress proportional to strain.

Fluid

Deforms continuously under the influence of shear stress.

Stress proportional to strain rate.

VISCOSITY

heaviness

What is measured by viscosity?

Easiness of fluid to flow.

Internal resistance of fluid to

motion.

VISCOSIT

Y

U(h)=V

y

No slip

condition

B

Oil

betwee

n two

plates

Moveable Plate

B

d (small deformation)

Stationary Plate

U(0)=0

Velocity gradient , dU/dy =

V/h

Applied

force

Frictional

force

VISCOSITY

Based on the experimental analysis,

FAV/h or F/AV/h

A:Interface area between fluid and plate

= du/dy, is viscosity

[Compare with F = N]

VISCOMETER

VISCOMETR

Y

How is viscosity

measured? A rotating

viscometer.

Two concentric cylinders

with a fluid in the small

gap .

Inner cylinder is rotating,

outer one is fixed.

MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY

T FR

-----(1)

du

F A A

dy

V

F A

A 2RL

l

V R

2N

4 R NL

T

l

VISCOSITY

NEWTONIAN & NON NEWTONIAN

Shear thinning - Latex

Newtonian - Oil, Water

Shear thickening - quicksand

d/dt

Non-Newtonian (apparent viscosity)

Shear thinning viscosity , shearing rate (velocity gradient)

shear stress, fluid starts shearing

BLOOD VISCOSITY

Blood non-Newtonian but could

behave as Newtonian at higher shear

rates (>100 1/s)

SURFACE TENSION

SURFACE TENSION

The cohesive forces between molecules down into a

liquid are shared with all neighboring atoms and

balance each other because of symmetry.

The attractive forces acting on the surface molecule

are not symmetric, and the attractive forces applied

by the gas molecules above are very small. It

experiences forces only sideways and downward,

which creates the surface tension effect.

SURFACE TENSION

TENSION

Capillary effect is

the rise or fall of a

liquid in a small2

diameter tube.

W mg Vg g (R h) The curved free

Fsurface 2R s cos

surface in the tube

is call the

2 s

meniscus.

h

cos

gR

Force balance can

describe magnitude

For water-glass in atmospheric air, of capillary rise.

=0

CAPILLARY EFFECT

When the attractive forces are

between unlike molecules, they are

said to be adhesive forces. The

adhesive forces between water

molecules and the walls of a glass

tube are stronger than the cohesive

forces (attraction between like

molecules) lead to an upward turning

meniscus at the walls of the vessel

and contribute to capillary action.

SUMMARY

Definition of thermal fluid and its

application

Definition of subcategories of thermalfluid science.

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.

Viscosity and its relation to human

blood.

Surface tension and its relation to

Biomedical field.

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