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Thermo Dynamic Theories and Combustion Engines

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P M V SUBBARAO

Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

IIT Delhi

It is a Sign of Civilized Engineering.

SI Engine Cycle

FUEL

A

I

Ignition

Fuel/Air

Mixture

Combustion

Products

Actual

Cycle

Intake

Stroke

Compression

Stroke

Power

Stroke

Exhaust

Stroke

Total Time Available: 10 msec

Ignition

Fuel injected

at TC

A

I

R

Combustion

Products

Air

Actual

Cycle

Intake

Stroke

Compression

Stroke

Power

Stroke

Exhaust

Stroke

Fuel injected

at 15o bTC

A

I

R

Air

Combustion

Products

Actual

Cycle

Intake

Stroke

Compression

Stroke

Power

Stroke

Exhaust

Stroke

In early CI engines the fuel was injected when the piston reached TC

and thus combustion lasted well into the expansion stroke.

In modern engines the fuel is injected before TC (about 15 o)

Fuel injection starts

Early CI engine

Modern CI engine

a constant pressure heat addition process Diesel Cycle

The combustion process in the modern CI engines is best approximated

by a combination of constant volume and constant pressure Dual Cycle

Thermodynamic Modeling

Even at constant load and speed, the value of thermodynamic

parameters at any location vary with time.

Each event may get repeated again and again.

So, an IC engine operation is a transient process which gets

completed in a known or required Cycle time.

Higher the speed of the engine, lower will be the Cycle time.

Modeling of IC engine process can be carried out in many ways.

Multidimensional, Transient Flow and heat transfer Model.

Thermodynamic Transient Model USUF.

Fuel-air Thermodynamic Mode.

Air standard Thermodynamic Model.

of IC engine cycles.

1) Fixed amount of air (ideal gas) for working fluid

2) Combustion process not considered

3) Intake and exhaust processes not considered

4) Engine friction and heat losses not considered

5) Specific heats independent of temperature

1) Spark ignition Otto cycle

2) Compression ignition Diesel cycle

FUEL

A

I

Otto Cycle

Ignition

Fuel/Air

Mixture

Combustion

Products

Actual

Cycle

Intake

Stroke

Otto

Cycle

Compression

Stroke

Qin

Air

Power

Stroke

Exhaust

Stroke

Qout

TC

BC

Compression

Process

Const volume

heat addition

Process

Expansion

Process

Const volume

heat rejection

Process

Process 1 2

Process 2 3

Process 3 4

Process 4 1

Isentropic compression

Constant volume heat addition

Isentropic expansion

Constant volume heat rejection

Compression ratio:

r

Qin

Qout

v2

v1

TC

BC

TC

BC

v1 v4

v 2 v3

12 Isentropic Compression

(u 2 u1 )

AIR

W

Q

( in )

m

m

Win

(u2 u1 ) cv (T2 T1 )

m

T2 v1

T1 v2

k 1

k 1

P2 T2 v1

P1 T1 v2

(u3 u 2 ) (

Qin W

)

m

m

Qin

(u3 u2 ) cv (T3 T2 )

m

P3 T3

P2 T2

AIR

Qin

TC

3 4 Isentropic Expansion

(u 4 u3 )

W

Q

( out )

m

m

AIR

Wout

(u3 u4 ) cv (T3 T4 )

m

T4 v3

T3 v4

k 1

1

r k 1

P4 T4 v3

P3 T3 v4

(u1 u 4 ) (

Qout W

)

m

m

AIR

Qout

(u4 u1 ) cv (T4 T1 )

m

Qout

BC

P4 P1

T4 T1

Net cycle work:

Cycle thermal efficiency:

th

Wcycle

Qin

u3 u4 u2 u1 u3 u2 u4 u1 1 u4 u1

u3 u 2

u3 u 2

u3 u 2

cv (T4 T1 )

T

1

1 1 1 k 1

cv (T3 T2 )

T2

r

imep

Wcycle

V1 V2

imep Qin r

1 Qin / m

th

P1

P1V1 r 1

k 1 u1

th

r 1

th

const cV

1

r k 1

Typical SI

engines

9 < r < 11

k = 1.4

and P3 (material strength), both ~rk

For r = 8 the efficiency is 56% which is twice the actual indicated value

th

const cV

1

r k 1

Specific heat

ratio (k)

Cylinder temperatures vary between 20K and 2000K so 1.2 < k < 1.4

k = 1.3 most representative

The net cycle work of an engine can be increased by either:

i) Increasing the r (12)

ii) Increase Qin (23)

imep

(ii)

4

Qin

Wcycle

4

4

(i)

1

V2

V1

Wcycle

V1 V2

Qin r

th

V1 r 1

imep Qin r

1

1 k

P1

P1V1 r 1

r

k = 1.3

Qin

Qout

Air

BC

Compression

Process

Const pressure

heat addition

Process

Expansion

Process

Const volume

heat rejection

Process

Process 1 2

Process 2 3

Process 3 4

Process 4 1

Isentropic compression

Constant pressure heat addition

Isentropic expansion

Constant volume heat rejection

Cut-off ratio:

Qin

rc

Qout

v2

v1

TC

BC

TC

BC

v3

v2

Thermal Efficiency

Diesel

cycle

Qout m

u4 u1

1

1

Qin m

h3 h2

Diesel

const cV

1 1 rck 1

1 k 1

r k rc 1

recall,

Otto 1

1

r k 1

Note the term in the square bracket is always larger than one so for the

same compression ratio, r, the Diesel cycle has a lower thermal efficiency

than the Otto cycle

Note: CI needs higher r compared to SI to ignite fuel

Thermal Efficiency

Typical CI Engines

15 < r < 20

efficiency of the Otto cycle

Higher efficiency is obtained by adding less heat per cycle, Q in,

run engine at higher speed to get the same power.

Qin

Dual

Cycle

Qin

Qout

Air

TC

BC

Compression

Process

Const volume

heat addition

Process

Const pressure

heat addition

Process

Expansion

Process

Const volume

heat rejection

Process

Dual Cycle

Process 1 2 Isentropic compression

Process 2 2.5 Constant volume heat addition

Process 2.5 3 Constant pressure heat addition

Process 3 4 Isentropic expansion

Process 4 1 Constant volume heat rejection

2.5

Qin

Qin

4

1

2.5

Qout

Qin

(u2.5 u2 ) ( h3 h2.5 ) cv (T2.5 T2 ) c p (T3 T2.5 )

m

Thermal Efficiency

Dual 1

cycle

Qout m

u4 u1

1

Qin m

(u2.5 u2 ) (h3 h2.5 )

Dual

const cv

where rc

rck 1

1 k 1

r ( 1) k rc 1

1

v3

v2.5

and

P3

P2

Note, the Otto cycle (rc=1) and the Diesel cycle (=1) are special cases:

Otto 1

1

r k 1

Diesel

const cV

1 1 rck 1

1 k 1

r k rc 1

i) the fractions of constant volume and constant pressure heat addition

(common assumption is to equally split the heat addition), or

ii) maximum pressure P3.

Transformation of rc and into more natural variables yields

rc 1

k 1

k

Qin 1

1

k 1

P

V

k

1

r

1 1

1 P3

r k P1

For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same compression ratio:

For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same peak pressure P3

(actual design limitation in engines):

and the same compression ratio P2/P1:

and the same peak pressure P3:

Pressure, P

Pmax

th 1

Po

Specific Volume

Temperature, T

tto

O al

Du

sel

Die

Entropy

Qout

Qin

Po

Specific Volume

1

4 Tds

3

2 Tds

Tmax

Temperature, T

Pressure, P

x 2.5

el

Dies

al

Du

to

Ot

Entropy

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