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Lec-07

Bond and Development Length

By

Dr. Attaullah Shah

Wah Cantt.

RCC design is that the strain

in concrete and reinforcing

steel is the same. If the

reinforcing steel slips at its

ends, this is not valid. Hence

it must be ensured that

sufficient bond strength is

developed at the interface of

steel and concrete to avoid

slippage of the steel.

Two types of bond failure can

be expected in reinforcing bars:

Direct pull out of the steel bars,

when ample concrete confinement

is provided in the form of large

spacing of bars or large concrete

cover

Splitting of concrete along the bar

when cover confinement or bar

spacing is insufficient

Pure bending case

Concrete fails to resist tensile

stresses only where the actual

crack is located. Steel T is

maximum and

T max = M / jd .

Between cracks , concrete

does resist moderate amount of

tension introduced by bond.

u is proportional to the rate of

change of bar force, and

highest where the slope of the

steel force curve is greatest.

Very high local bond stress

adjacent to the crack.

According to simple crack

sectional theory, T is proportional

to the moment diagram and u is

proportional to shear force

diagram.

In actual, T is less than the simple

analysis prediction everywhere

except at the actual cracks.

Similarly, u is equal with simple

analysis prediction only at the

location where slopes of the steel

force diagrams are equals .If the

slope is greater than assumed,

bond stress is greater; if the slope

is less bond stress is less.

7

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

Types of bond failure

Direct pullout of bars

(small diameter bars are

used with sufficiently

large concrete cover

distances and bar

spacing)

Splitting of the concrete

along the bar (cover or

bar spacing is

insufficient to resist the

lateral concrete tension

resulting from the

wedging effect of bar

deformations)

8

Depar

tment

Direct pull out

For sufficiently confined bar, adhesive bond and friction are overcome as the

tensile force on the bar is increased. Concrete eventually crushes locally ahead

of the bar deformation and bar pullout results.

When pull out resistance is overcome or when splitting has spread all the

way to the end of an unanchored bar, complete bond failure occurs.

Splitting

Splitting comes from wedging action when the ribs of the deformed bars bear

against the concrete.

Splitting in vertical plane

Splitting in horizontal plane: frequently begins at a diagonal crack in

connection with dowel action. Shear and bond failures are often interrelated.

Local bond failure

Large local variation of bond stress caused by flexural and diagonal cracks

immediately adjacent to cracks leads to this failure below the failure load of the

beam.

Results small slip and some widening of cracks and increase of deflections.

Harmless as long as the failure does not propagate all along the bar.

Providing end anchorage, hooks or extended length of straight bar (development

length concept)

9

mass of concrete

P = * [*db2/4]

P = *[Lb**db]

db

Lb

To force the bar to be the weak link: max * [Lb**db] > max * [*db2/4]

Lb > (max / max)* [db/4]

Development Length

Ld = development length

the shortest distance over which a bar can achieve its full

capacity

The length that it takes a bar to develop its full contribution

to the moment capacity, Mn

Ld

Mn

0

Cc

Mn = (C or T)*(dist)

Ts

Using the bilinear assumption of ACI 318:

max = + fy

Lb > (fy / max)* [db/4]

Lb > fy * db / (4*max)

There are lots of things that affect max

The amount of concrete below the bar

The surface condition of the rebar

The concrete cover on the bar

The proximity of other bars transferring stress to

the concrete

The presence of transverse steel

Concrete Strength, fc

Bond strength, max, tends to increase with concrete

strength.

Experiments have shown this relationship to be

proportional to the square root of fc.

Type of Concrete

Light weight concrete tends to have less bond

strength than does normal weight concrete.

ACI 318-08 introduces a lightweight concrete

reduction factor, , on sqrt(fc) in some equations.

See ACI 318-08, 8.6.1 for details

The code refers to top bars

as being any bar which has

12 inches or more of fresh

concrete below the bar

when the member is poured.

If concrete > 12 then

consolidation settlement

results in lower bond

strength on the bottom side

of the bar

See ACI 318-08, 12.2.4(a)

All rebar must meet ASTM requirements for deformations

that increase pullout strength.

Bars are often surface coated is inhibit corrosion.

Epoxy Coating The major concern!

Galvanizing

See ACI 318-08, 12.2.4(b)

The size of the concrete cylinder tributary to

each bar is used to account for proximity of

surfaces or other bars.

The bond transfer tends to cause a splitting plane

Transverse steel will increase the strength of the splitting

plane.

b. Development Length

Development length is the length of embedment necessary to develop the full tensile strength of bar, controlled by

either pullout or splitting.

In Fig., let

maximum M at a and zero at support

fs at a T = Ab fs _

Development length concept total tension force must be transferred from the bar to the concrete in the

distance l by bond stress on the surface.

To fully develop the strength T = Ab fy

ld , development length

Safety against bond failure: the length of the bar from any point of given steel stress to its nearby end must be at least

equal to its development length. If the length is inadequate, special anchorage can be provided.

OF TENSION REINFORCEMENT

Limit

pullout case

fc are not to be

greater than 100 psi.

21

Depar

tment

22

Example:

23

Continue:

24

Depar

tment

Continue:

25

HOOKS

In the event that the desired tensile stress in a bar can not

be developed by bond alone, it is necessary to provide

special anchorage at the end of the bar.

26

27

Factors for Hooked Bars

28

29

Department of

Example

Depar

tment

30

WEB REINFORCEMENT

31

DEVELOPMENT OF BARS IN

COMPRESSION

Reinforcement may be

required to develop its

compressive strength by

embedment under various

circumstances.

ACI basic development

length in compression

32

Depar

tment

Cutoffs

Given a simply

supported beam with a

distributed load.

Cutoffs

Note:

Total bar length =

Fully effective length

+ Development length

Cutoffs

ACI 12.10.3

All longitudinal tension bars

must extend a min. distance

= d (effective depth of the

member) or 12 db (usually

larger) past the theoretical

cutoff for flexure (Handles

uncertainties in loads, design

approximations,etc..)

Cutoffs

Development of flexural

reinforcement in a typical

continuous beam.

ACI 318R-02 - 12.10 for

flexural reinforcement

1. Determine theoretical flexural cutoff points for

envelope of bending moment diagram.

2. Extract the bars to satisfy detailing rules (from

ACI Section 7.13, 12.1, 12.10, 12.11 and 12.12)

3. Design extra stirrups for points where bars are

cutoff in zone of flexural tension (ACI 12.10.5)

All Bars

Rule 1.

the flexural cutoff points except at supports

or the ends of cantilevers (ACI 12.11.1)

Rule 2.

maximum bar stress or from the flexural

cutoff points of adjacent bars (ACI 12.10.2

12.10.4 and 12.12.2)

Positive Moment Bars

Rule 3. Structural Integrity

Simple Supports At least one-third of the positive

moment reinforcement must be extend 6 in. into

the supports (ACI 12.11.1).

Continuous interior beams with closed stirrups.

At least one-fourth of the positive moment

reinforcement must extend 6 in. into the support

(ACI 12.11.1 and 7.13.2.3)

Positive Moment Bars

Rule 3. Structural Integrity

Continuous interior beams without closed

stirrups. At least one-fourth of the positive

moment reinforcement must be continuous or

shall be spliced near the support with a class A

tension splice and at non-continuous supports be

terminated with a standard hook. (ACI 7.13.2.3).

Positive Moment Bars

Rule 3.

Structural Integrity

required at midspan shall be made continuous

around the perimeter of the building and must be

enclosed within closed stirrups or stirrups with

135 degree hooks around top bars. The required

continuity of reinforcement may be provided by

splicing the bottom reinforcement at or near the

support with class A tension splices (ACI

7.13.2.2).

Positive Moment Bars

Rule 3. Structural Integrity

Beams forming part of a frame that is the

primary lateral load resisting system for the

building. This reinforcement must be anchored

to develop the specified yield strength, fy, at the

face of the support (ACI 12.11.2)

Positive Moment Bars

Rule 4. Stirrups

At the positive moment point of inflection and

at simple supports, the positive moment

reinforcement must be satisfy the following

equation for ACI 12.11.3. An increase of 30 %

in value of Mn / Vu shall be permitted when the

ends of reinforcement are confined by

compressive reaction (generally true for simply

supports).

Positive Moment Bars

Rule 4.

Mn

ld

la

Vu

Negative Moment Bars

Rule 5.

Negative moment reinforcement must be

anchored into or through supporting columns or

members (ACI Sec. 12.12.1).

Negative Moment Bars

Rule 6. Structural Integrity

Interior beams. At least one-third of the negative

moment reinforcement must be extended by the

greatest of d, 12 db or ( ln / 16 ) past the negative

moment point of inflection (ACI Sec. 12.12.3).

Negative Moment Bars

Rule 6. Structural Integrity

Perimeter beams. In addition to satisfying rule 6a,

one-sixth of the negative reinforcement required at

the support must be made continuous at mid-span.

This can be achieved by means of a class A tension

splice at mid-span (ACI 7.13.2.2).

Moment capacity of a beam is a function of its depth,

d, width, b, and area of steel, As. It is common

practice to cut off the steel bars where they are no

longer needed to resist the flexural stresses. As in

continuous beams positive moment steel bars may be

bent up usually at 45o, to provide tensile

reinforcement for the negative moments over the

support.

The nominal moment capacity of an under-reinforced

concrete beam is

a

M n As f y d

2

where, a

As f y

0.85 f cb

the moment diagram due to external loading is drawn.

The ultimate moment resistance of one bar, Mnb is

M nb

a

Abs f y d

2

the external bending moment diagram indicates the

theoretical points where each bar can be terminated.

Given a beam with the 4 #8 bars and

fc=3 ksi and fy=50 ksi and d = 20 in.

The moment diagram is

Moment Diagram

3000

2500

k-in

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0

10

ft

12

14

16

18

20

The moment resistance of one bar is

a

M nb Asb f y d

2

2

3.16

in

50 ksi

As f y

5.2 in.

0.85 f cb 0.85 3 ksi 12 in.

M nb

M ub

5.2 in.

0.79 in 50 ksi 20 in.

688 k-in.

2

The moment diagram and crossings

Moment Diagram

3000

2480 k-in

2500

1860 k-in

k-in

2000

1240 k-in

1500

1000

620 k-in

500

0

0

10

ft

12

14

16

18

20

The ultimate moment resistance is 2480 k-in. The

moment diagram is drawn to scale on the basis A bar

can be terminated at a, two bars at b and three bars at c.

These are the theoretical termination of the bars.

Moment Diagram

3000

2480 k-in

2500

1860 k-in

k-in

2000

1500

1240 k-in

1000

620 k-in

500

0

0

10

ft

12

14

16

b

18

20

Compute the bar development length is

la 12d b or d

ld

f y d b

20 f c

20 3000

The ultimate moment

resistance is 2480 k-in.

The moment diagram

is drawn to scale on

the basis A bar can be

terminated at a, two

bars at b and three bars

at c. These are the

theoretical termination

of the bars.

It is necessary to develop

part of the strength of the bar

by bond. The ACI Code

specifies that every bar

should be continued at least

a distance d, or 12db , which

ever is greater, beyond the

theoretical points a, b, and c.

Section 12.11.1 specify that

1/3 of positive moment

reinforcement must be

continuous.

Two bars must extend

into the support and

moment resistance

diagram Mub must

enclose the external

bending moment

diagram.

Example Cutoff

For the simply

supported beam with

b=10 in. d =17.5 in.,

fy=40 ksi and fc=3 ksi

with 4 #8 bars. Show

where the reinforcing

bars can be terminated.

Example Cutoff

Determine the moment capacity of the bars.

a

M nb

As f y

0.85 f cb

3.16 in 40 ksi

4.93 in.

0.79 in 40 ksi 17.5 in.

2

4.93 in.

Example Cutoff

Determine the location of the bar intersections of

moments.

2 bar 71.3 k-ft.

4 bar 142.6 k-ft.

M x M 0 mx

Example Cutoff

Determine the location of the bar intersections of

moments.

2 bar 71.3 k-ft.

4 bar 142.6 k-ft.

107 k-ft. 132.5 k-ft.

x

6 ft.

Example Cutoff

Determine the location of the bar intersections of

moments.

2 bar 71.3 k-ft.

4 bar 142.6 k-ft.

71.3 k-ft. 87.5 k-ft.

x

5 ft.

or 11 in. + 72 in. = 83 in. from center

Example Cutoff

The minimum distance is

la 12d b or d

ld

f y d b

20 f c

20 3000

Example Cutoff

The minimum amount of bars are As/3 or two bars

Example Cutoff

The cutoff for the first bar is 41 in. or 3 ft 5 in. and 18 in

or 1 ft 6 in. total distance is 41 in.+18 in. = 59 in. or 4 ft

11 in.

Example Cutoff

The cutoff for the second bar is 83 in. + 18 in. 101 in. or

8 ft 5 in. (37-in+5-in+18-in+41-in= 101-in.)

Example Cutoff

The moment diagram is the blue line and the red line is

the envelope which encloses the moment diagram.

Bar Splices

Why do we need bar splices? -- for long spans

Types of Splices

1.

Butted &Welded

2.

Mechanical Connectors

3.

Lay Splices

of yield strength ACI

12.14.3.2 and ACI

12.14.3.4

Why do we need bar splices? -- for long spans

Types of Splices

1.

Contact Splice

2.

Non-Contact Splice (distance between the

1/5 of the splice length

bars 6 and

ACI 12.14.2.3)

Splice length (development length) is the distance

the two bars are overlapped.

Types of Splices

Class A Splice

(ACI

12.15.2)

As provided

When

2 over entire splice

As req'd

length.

and 1/2 or less of total reinforcement is

spliced win the reqd lay length.

Types of Splices

Class B Splice

(ACI 12.15.2)

requirements of Class A Splices

where As (reqd)

ld

= development length for bars (not

allowed to use excess reinforcement

modification factor)

Lap Splices shall not be used for bars larger than No. 11.

(ACI 12.14.2)

Lap Splices should be placed in away from regions of

high tensile stresses -locate near points of inflection

(ACI 12.15.1)

Lap, reqd = 0.0005fy db

for fy 60000 psi

Lap, reqd = (0.0009fy -24) db for fy > 60000

Lap, reqd 12 in

psi

by (4/3) (ACI 12.16.1)

In tied column splices with effective tie area throughout

splice length 0.0015 hs factor = 0.83

In spiral column splices, factor = 0.75

The final splice length must be

12 in.

Calculate the lap-splice length for 6 #8 tension bottom

bars in two rows with clear spacing 2.5 in. and a clear

cover, 1.5 in., for the following cases

a. When 3 bars are spliced and As(provided) /As(required) >2

b. When 4 bars are spliced and As(provided) /As(required) < 2

c. When all bars are spliced at the same location.

fc= 5 ksi and fy = 60 ksi

For #8 bars, db =1.0 in and = = = =1.0

3 fy

ld

d b 40 f c c K tr

db

3 60000

1.0

42.4 43 in.

40 5000 1.5 in. 0

1.0

in.

The As(provided) /As(required) > 2, class A splice applies;

therefore lst = 1.0 ld >12 in., so lst = 43 in. > 12 in. The

bars spliced are less than half the number

lst = 1.3 ld >12 in., so lst = 1.3(42.4 in.) = 55.2 in. use 56 in.

> 12 in..

Class B splice applies and lst = 56 in. > 12 in.

Calculate the lap splice length for a # 10 compression

bar in tied column when fc= 5 ksi and

a) fy = 60 ksi

b) fy = 80 ksi

For #10 bars, db =1.27 in.

ld 0.02 f y

0.003 f y

db

fc

0.02 60000

16.97 or 18

5000

ld 18 1.27 in. 22.86 in. ld 23 in.

Check ls > 0.005 db fy = 38.1 in. So ls = 39 in.

For #10 bars, db =1.27 in. The ld = 23 in.

Check ls > (0.0009 fy 24) db

=(0.0009(80000)-24)(1.27in.) = 61 in.

So use ls = 61 in.

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