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Principles of Mass Transfer


CHAPTER 1
Molecular Diffusion in
Gases

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Topic Outcomes

It is expected that student will be able to:


Apply the diffusivity coefficient of molecular
diffusion in gases.
Solve mathematical solution of molecular diffusion
in gases.

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CONTENTS

Mass Transfer

Gases

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Molecular Diffusion

Convective Mass Transfer

Liquid

Solid

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Introduction

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Equimolar Counter diffussion


in Gases

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Molecular Diffusion in Gases

Equimolar Counter diffussion in Gases

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For a binary gas mixture of A and B, the diffusivity coefficient


DAB=DBA

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Problem 6.1-1 (pg 452) Diffusion of Methane


Through Helium
A gas of CH4 and He is contained in a tube at 101.32 kPa pressure and
298 K. At one point the partial pressure of methane is pA1 = 60.79 kPa,
and at a point 0.02 m distance away, pA2 = 20.26 kPa. If the total pressure
is constant throughout the tube, calculate the flux of CH 4 (methane) at
steady state for equimolar counter diffusion.

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Example 6.2-1 (pg 415) Equimolar Counterdiffusion


o

1.

2.

Ammonia gas (A) is diffusing through a uniform tube 0.10 m long


containing N2 gas (B) at 1.0132 x 105 Pa pressure and 298 K. At point
1, pA1 = 1.013 x 104 Pa , and at point 2, pA2 = 0.507 x 104 Pa. The
diffusivity DAB = 0.230 x 10-4 m2/s.
1. Calculate the flux J*A at steady state
2. Repeat for J*B

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Numerical
value

Units

82.057
82.057x 10-3
8314.34
8314.34
8314.34
o.7302

cm3.atm/kg mol . K
m3.atm/kg mol . K
J/kg mol . K
m3 .Pa / kg mol .K
kg . m2/s2 . kg mol.K
ft3.atm/lb mol.0R

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Problem
6.2-1TRANSFER
(pg 452) Equimolar Counterdiffusion of a BinaryFKKSA,
Gas UMP
Mixture

Helium and nitrogen gas are contained in a conduit 5 mm in diameter


and 0.1 m long at 298 K and a uniform constant pressure of 1.0 atm
abs. The partial pressure of He at one end of the tube is 0.060 atm and
the other end is 0.020 atm. Calculate the following for steady-state
equimolar counterdiffusion:

1.

1. Flux of He in kg mol/s.m2
2. Flux of N2

2.

3. Partial pressure of He at a point 0.05 m from either end.

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Diffusion of Gases A and B Plus


Convection (General Case) (pg 416)

Convection is the concerted, collective


movement of ensembles of molecules
within fluids (e.g., liquids, gases)

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Eq 6.17

For equimolar counterdiffussion, NA=-NB ,


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then
NIIA=J*A=-NB=-J*B

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A Diffusing Through
Stagnant, Nondiffusing B
(Special Case)

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Example 6.2-2 (pg 419) Diffusion of Water


Through Stagnant, Nondiffusing Air
Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant
temperature of 20oC. The total pressure of air (assumed dry) is1.0 atm
and the temperature is 20oC. Water evaporates and diffuses through
the air in the tube, and the diffusion path z2 z1 is 0.1524 m (0.5 ft)
long. The diagram is similar to Fig 6.2-2a. Calculate the rate of
evaporation at steady state in lb mol/hr.ft2 and kg mol/s.m2. The
diffusivity of water vapor at 20oC and 1 atm pressure is 0.250x10-4
m2/s. Assume that the system is isothermal.

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Problem 6.2-3 (pg 423) Diffusion of A Through


Stagnant B and Effect of Type of Boundary on Flux
Ammonia gas is diffusing through N2 under steady state conditions
with N2 nondiffusing since it is insoluble in one boundary. The total
pressure is 1.013 x 105 Pa and the temperature is 298 K. The partial
pressure of NH3 at one point is 1.333 x 10 4 Pa, and at the other point
20 mm away it is 6.666 x 103 Pa. The DAB for the mixture at 1.013 X 105
Pa and 298 K is 2.30 x 10-5 m2/s.
a) calculate the flux of NH3 in kg mol/s.m2
b) do the same as (a) but assume that N2 also diffuses, both
boundaries are permeable to both gases and the flux is equimolar
counterdiffusion. In which case is the flux greater?
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Diffusion Through Cross


Sectional Area (Sphere)

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Example 6.2-4 (pg 421) Evaporation of


Naphthalene Sphere

A sphere of naphthalene having a radius of 2.0 mm is suspended in a


large volume of still air at 318 K and 1.01325 x 10 5 Pa. The surface
temperature of the naphthalene can be assumed to be at 318 K and its
vapor pressure at 318 K is 0.555 mm Hg. The DAB of naphthalene in air
at 318 K is 6.92 x 10-6 m2/s. Calculate the rate of evaporation of
naphthalene from the surface.

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Problem 6.2-5 (pg 453) Mass Transfer from a


Naphthalene Sphere to Air
Mass transfer is occurring from a sphere of naphthalene having radius
of 10 mm. The sphere is in large volume of still air at 52.6C and 1 atm
abs pressure. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at 52.6C is 1.0
mmHg. The diffusitivity of naphthalene in air at 0C is 5.16 x 10 -6 m2/s.
Calculate the rate of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface in
kg mol/s.m2.

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Diffusion Coefficient
for Gases

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Example 6.2-5 (pg 427) Estimation of


Diffusivity of a Gas Mixture
Normal butanol (A) is diffusing through air (B) at 1 atm abs.
Using the Fuller et al. method, estimate the diffusivity DAB for
the following temperatures and compare with the experimental
data. [Given MA (butanol) = 74.1 kg (mass)/kg mol, MB (air) =
29 kg (mass)/kg mol]
1. For 0oC.
2. For 25.9oC
3. For 0oC and 2.0 atm abs

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Gas Law Constant R (pg 955)


Numerical
value
82.057
82.057 x 10-3
8314.34
8314.34
8314.34
o.7302

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Units
cm3.atm/kg mol . K
m3.atm/kg mol . K
J/kg mol . K
m3 .Pa / kg mol .K
kg . m2/s2 . kg mol . K
ft3.atm/lb mol.0R

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TEST 1 EP 203
21st FEBRUARY 2013
FRIDAY

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