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MSc Environmental Engineering - Waste Management Course

18. Landfill gas


management

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18.1

Outline

Quality
Generation
Extraction
Transport and regulation
Flaring
Utilisation
Alternative management

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18.2

Gas composition
Concentrations
GAS
methane
CO2
CO
hydrogen
H2S
R-SH
trichloroethylene
tetrachlomethylene
CCl4
vynilchloride
steam
oxygen
nitrogen
argon
traces

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Exceptional

Typical

(0-45)*
(55-80)*
(<1)*
(0-30)*

45-65 % vol
35-55 % vol
0% vol
0% vol
<50 ppm
<50 ppm
<50 ppm
<50 ppm
<5 ppm
<20 ppm
2-4 % vol
0 % vol
0 % vol
<1% vol
<1% voI

(<20)*
(<80)*

18.3

Generation
Biogas production in landfills
Modelling biogas generation
Calculation of specific biogas generation and t50

15 Time

Assumptions for calculation and example


Assignment: Estimation of the cumulative gas production and
of the production per hour for a landfill receiving untreated
MSW

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18.4

Measurements at actual landfills

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18.5

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18.6

Actual landfill gas yields

The specific methane production rate expressed as


m3CH4 per ton may vary substantially from landfill to
landfill owing to variations in waste composition,
moisture content, microbial activity in the waste and
supposedly also according to the age of the waste as a
measure of the stability of the organic matter present in
the waste
Observed methane production rates at actual landfills
may vary owing to different efficiencies of the gas
extraction systems, which may be influenced by the
shape of the landfill, the top cover, the type of extraction
system and the pumping rate applied
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18.7

Gas generation measurement


Field testing of landfills to determine present gas generation rates
or long-term gas production potential is difficult and inexact,
subject to problems in obtaining reliable data but also to
problems arising from the heterogeneity of the landfill
The best approach is to use several different techniques
One technique is to try to simulate the landfill by enclosing
portions of the landfill or a simulated landfill in a test volume in
order to measure the gas generated (lysimeter testing)
A more common testing procedure is to pump gas from the
landfill, measuring the amount and composition but also
attempting to delineate the volume of the landfill giving rise to the
gas being collected
Yet another concept is to measure gas passing into the
atmosphere (flux testing)
Lastly, it is possible to measure gas generated by samples of
refuse taken directly from the landfill and placed in containers
(anaerobic sampling)

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18.8

Modelling Biogas production


Statistical analysis: when a large number of data are available, but
knowledge of the system is inadequate, and the data are collected for
different porpuses; this kind of model does not assume any causeeffect relation or deal with the temporal dynamics of the system, but
the general characteristics of the data population and provides
correlations
Stochastic model: describes the temporal trend of data without
explaining the same; this kind of model is useful for describing the
behaviour of a black-box system; it states simply which is the output
related to a specific input
Semplified deterministic model: requires knowledge of the mechanisms
governing the system; it is able to describe the behavior of the system
with semplfied mathematical equations
Complex deterministic model: acts in a similar way to the abovementioned model using more complex mathematical equations

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18.9

Structure of Biogas production models


A biogas model can include the following submodels:
Stoichiometric submodel: gives the maximum theoretical yield
of biogas from the anaerobic degradation of the organic waste
fraction . Some models proposed in the literature are simply
stoichiometric and provide as a result only information on
Biogas yields
Kinetic submodel: is a dynamic model, which gives as a result
the temporal evolution of Biogas generation rates. It can be
either an empirical model, based on a more or less simple
equation of a defined order; or a deterministic model, based
on a set of equations describing the degradation of the
different biodegradable MSW fractions; or an ecological
model, which describes the dynamic of microbial populations
and substrata within the landfill

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18.10

Estimation of maximum Biogas (Landfill gas, LFG) yields

The reaction representing the overall methane fermentation process


for organics in solid waste can be represented by the following by
the following equation:

CaHbOcNd + nH2O

Biodegradable organics
in solid waste

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xCH4 + yCO2 + wNH3 + zC5H7O2N + energy

Bacterial cells

18.11

(1)

Estimation of maximum LFG yields


1 mol C org. = 1 mol (CH4 + CO2)
at 0 C and 1 atm:
1 mol C in organic matter = 22,4 l (CH 4 + CO2)
on a weight basis:
1 g C in organic matter = 1,867 l (CH 4 + CO2)
maximum theoretical yield of Methane
CH4 = 0,55-0,6 1,867 l

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18.12

Content of biodegradable organic carbon:


(OCb)i = OCi(fb)i (1-ui) pi
(OCb)i = biodegradable organic carbon in component i of
waste (kg biodegradable org. carbon/kg wet MSW)
OCi = organic carbon content in the dry component i of waste
(kg carbon/kg dry ith component)
(fb)i = biodegradable fraction of OCi
(kg biodegradable org. carbon/kg org. carbon)
ui = moisture content of the ith component of waste
(kg water/kg wet ith component)
pi = wet weight of the ith component of waste
(kg ith component/kg MSW)

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18.13

Waste component

ui
(kgH2O/ kg wet
component)

OCi
(kg C / kg dry
component)

Food waste

0,6

0,48

0,8

Yard waste

0,5

0,48

0,7

Paper and
cardboard

0,08

0,44

0,5

Plastics and
rubber
Textiles

0,02

0,7

0,0

0,1

0,55

0,2

Wood

0,2

0,5

0,5

Glass

0,03

0,0

Metals

0,03

0,0

0,0
0,0

(fb)i
(kg biodeg. C/kg C)

(Andreottola and Cossu, 1988, modified)

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18.14

(fb)i = 0,83 0,028 LC (on a volatile solids basis)


LC = lignin content of the volatile solids expressed as % of dry weight

Component

Volatile solids (VS)

Lignin content (LC) Biodegradable


as percent. of VS
fraction (BF)

Food wastes
Newsprint

7-15
94

0,4
21,9

0,82
0,22

Office paper

96,4

0,4

0,82

94

12,9

0,47

50-90

4,1

0,72

Cardboard
Yard wastes

(Tchobanoglous et al., 1993)

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18.15

According to some authors, a good estimation of the fraction


of bioconvertible carbon to landfill gas can be calculated as
a function of the temperature :

(OCb)i = OCi (0,014 T + 0,28)


Temperature, however, primarily affects generation rates, which are
strictly associated with the biological activity within the landfill.

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18.16

LFG specific yield


(OCb)i = OCi(fb)i (1-ui) pi
1gC

1,867 l (CH4 + CO2)

YLFG = 1,867 OCi (fb)i (1-ui) pi

(l gas/g MSW)

This expression represents the common theoretical basis


for the majority of LFG generation models

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18.17

LFG for how long?

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18.18

First order kinetic model


d OCg i
ki dt
OCb i - OCg i
OCg i: Gassified C (kg C / kg wet MSW)
OCb i: Biodegradable C (kg C / kg wet MSW)
ki: (Decay time constant, component i), y-1
t (y)

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18.19

Specific biogas generation

Gi 1,867 OCg i OCb i 1 e

ki t

Specific Biogas production (Nm3 / kg MSW)


Gt

3
1,867
i1

OCb i (1- ekiet )

Maximum theoretical yield (Nm3 / kg MSW)


Gmax

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3
1,867
i1

OCb

18.20

Example
Assumes easily degradable
fraction and slowly degradable
fraction and that filling
takes place over 5 years

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18.21

Generation curve

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18.22

Generation vs time
160
140

m3/h

120

Specific
production

100
80
60
40
20

20
14

20
13

20
12

20
11

20
10

20
09

20
08

20
07

20
06

20
05

20
04

20
03

12000000
10000000

m3

8000000

Cumulative
production

6000000
4000000
2000000
0
2002

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2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

18.23

Landfill Gas Extraction and Utilisation

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18.24

LFG Quantities
Theory100-150 m3/t ww (depends
on waste compostion)
Measurements at full scale landfills

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18.25

Gas Production

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Temperature in the landfill


Moisture content of the waste
Waste composition
Waste age
Covering of the landfill:

18.26

LFG for how long?

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18.27

Extraction

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18.28

Gas extraction: vertical wells


-5-20 mbar

Collection pipe
manhole

5%

Flexible connection
Well head
Clay seal
Gas pipe non slotted
Coarse gravel
Pipe sloated

Well d=6001000 mm

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Leachate
extraction
possibility
18.29

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18.30

80-100
cm

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18.31

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18.32

Stewartby Landfill

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18.33

Horizontal Gas extraction


system

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18.34

Design
Non costituisce ostacolo per le operazioni di smaltimento
quotidiane dei rifiuti
Risente dei fenomeni di assestamento e delle sollecitazioni
indotte dal traffico superficiale
Trincea: larghezza -> 1 m
lunghezza -> non superiore a 80-100 m
altezza -> 0,5 m
Diametro tubazione in PEAD fessurata : 160 200 mm
Dreno con ghiaia silicea 32-64 mm
Pendenza del dreno > 3% in direzione dei pozzetti di
drenaggio verticali o dei collettori del biogas
Distanza verticale dei dreni: 5-10 m
Distanza orizzontale: max 40 m
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18.35

Landfill Gas Extraction & Transport


= 40 m

125 400 mm

Wells
lay-out

= 60 m
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90 - 110 - 125 mm

18.36

Transport &
Regulation
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18.37

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18.38

INDICAZIONI PROGETTUALI
Velocit del gas per dimensionare le condotte:
- < 5 m/s: per trasporto in controcorrente al flusso della
condensa;
- < 10 m/s: per trasporto del gas in equicorrente al flusso
della condensa o con l'utilizzo frequente di separatori di
condensa;
Valori pi elevati comportano perdite di carico troppo
ingenti e danni alle tubazioni causa vibrazioni indotte
Connessione tra la condotta in uscita dal singolo pozzo e
e la condotta principale pu avvenire con sottostazioni:
ci sono meno tubazioni che arrivano alla stazione centrale
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18.39

SEPARATORI DI CONDENSA
La temperatura del gas in testa al pozzo si attesta sui 30
C con umidit pari a circa il 100% : il gas caldo arrivando
in superficie incontra una temperatura ambiente pi
fredda e quindi si forma condensa
La condensa se si accumula in punti depressi della rete
di trasporto d luogo a sifoni che ostacolano il movimento
del gas;
La condensa corrosiva e pu rovinare valvole,
strumenti di misura e aspiratori;
La condensa contiene composti alogenati quindi rende
ambientalmente pi rischiosa la combustione del gas in
torcia o nei motori.
Condensate: Quality similar to leachate and can be
recycled into the landfill
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18.40

IN SITU CONDENSATE SEPARATOR

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18.41

LE STAZIONI DI REGOLAZIONE (SOTTOSTAZIONI)


Contengono:
I terminali delle linee dei pozzi
I separatori di condensa
Le valvole di intercettazione
Le valvole di regolazione (Manuali o Automatiche)
Il sistema di campionamento del gas

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18.42

INDICAZIONI PROGETTUALI
Stazioni di regolazione manuali:
4 20 pozzi
valvole di regolazione ad otturatore inclinato
valvole di intercettazione a farfalla
pannello do stream con manometri per regolazioni
Stazioni di regolazione automatiche:
10 12 pozzi
valvole di intercettazione a farfalla
(pneumatiche o elettriche)
valvole di regolazione pneumatiche a diaframma
Separatori di condensa
uno per linea ed uno sul collettore principale
Sistema di campionamento del gas
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18.43

Control stations

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18.48

Pumping station
Delay
line

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18.49

LA CENTRALE DI ESTRAZIONE E
CONTROLLO
Necessit di unestrazione forzata per ottenere raggi di
influenza di 20-30 m
valori di depressione applicate in testa ai pozzi sono tra -5
e -20 mbar
Arrivano le condotte dalle sottostazioni intermedie o dai
singoli pozzi immettendosi in una condotta di regolazioneraccolta in acciaio zincato
Depressione in aspirazione
Pressione in mandata
Ventilatori centrifughi multistadio
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18.50

Ventilatori radiali o assiali


La scelta dei ventilatori si
basa su:
Perdite di carico (sia
continue che localizzate)
Portata del biogas
curve di resistenza del
circuito
Curve caratteristiche del
ventilatore stesso

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18.51

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18.53

Quadro analisi biogas

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18.54

Utilisation

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18.55

LFG utilisation
gas collection
gas disposal

flare

gas utilisation

gas cleaning
gas storage

combustion muffle

Vehicle fuel

gas turbine

electricity

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gas engine

direct utilisation

combustion

Heat
steam

CH4 / CO2

natural gas

18.56

Problems in LFG Utilisation

Settlements of horizontal and vertical wells


Blockage by water
Air penetration (inhibition of anaerobic metabolism)
Corrosion
Discontinuous LFG supply

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18.57

Alternative to utilization: Flares


Removal of smell, toxic compounds, CH4, ozone depleting
compounds
Maintenance is needed
Incomplete combustion
new toxic compounds

QUESTION:
Does LFG flaring contribute
to Global Warming?
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18.58

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18.60

LFG -pretreatment

LFG Filters - new and used

LFG Filtration unit

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18.62

LFG Engine

LFG Engine (4MW)

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Corrosion on valves

18.63

Module for measuring and regulating

Module for measuring and regulating - inside


LFG Boiler/Natural gas boiler

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Gas engine (350 kW) with heat utilisation

18.64

Minimization of Gas Emissions


Biological methane oxidation
CH4 + 2O2

CO2 + 2H2O

+ 210,8 kCal/mol + Bio mass

Depth of cover [m]

exothermic process

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Oxidation zone

CO2

Gas concentration [Vol%]

18.65

Methane Oxidation Systems Design

Oxidation layer

>1.2 m
Compost

Gas distribution layer


Uppermost layer of waste
not compacted

0.5 m
Coarse gravel, low
Calcium Carbonate
content
(e.g. 16/32 mm)

to permit areal distribution


of the landfill gas.

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18.66

Methane Oxidation Systems Design


Methane Oxidation - Substrates

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Requirements
nutrients and organic matter

Parameters
TOC > 8 % DS;
C/N-ratio 15

Stability of organic matter

Respiratory activity in 7 days


8 mg O2/g DS;
high humic substance content

most nitrogen should already be


bound in humic substances

Ammonia < 350 ppm DS

high pore volume

Sufficient content of bulky material,


e.g. wood chips 5 15 % DS

water-holding capacity

> 80 % wet substance

Nitrite: non-existent

18.67