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GTA 103/2 Anatomi dan Fisiologi untuk

Pendengaran dan
Pertuturan (Telinga dan Tekak)
( 2 hour)
25 February 2010

Dr Zuraida Zainun,
Audiology Program, School of Health Sciences
(PPSK), Health Campus USM
16150 Kubang Kerian
drzuraida@yahoo.com
Specific Objective
 At the end of this lecture, students should be able to;

Describe anatomically the skeletal and muscular structures of vestibular system.

Peripheral Central

• Vestibular Nuclei
• Gross anatomy and Cerebellum
• Hair cells • Projection from
• Functional vestibular nuclei
• Ascending &
Principles Descending
Projections
http://www.vestibular.org/images/ear_diagram_lg.gif
Anatomy
Vestibular system

• Inner ear organ


• Five sensory
organs
1. Ant SCC
2. Post SCC
3. Lat SCC
4. Utricle
5. Saccule
Blood and nerves supply

• Blood supply-
anterior  cerebellar
artery(45%), superior
cerebellar artery
(24%), or basilar
artery (16% )
• Superior canal,
lateral canal, utricle-
Superior vestibular
nerve
• Posterior canal and
saccule- Inferior
vestibular nerve
Orientation

www.unmc.edu/Physiology/Mann/mann9.html
The inner ear organ- cross
sectional
• Fluid
1- Endolymph ~
membranous
labyrinth
2- Perilymph ~
bony labyrinth
• Vestibular hair
cells
Anatomical view
Posterior SCC-45 degrees of

sagittal plane
Horizontal SCC-30 degree of

naso-occipital plane
Utricle- horizontal plane

Saccule-vertical plane

http://scienceblogs.com/afarensis/2006/05/16/bipedal_locomotion_and_semicir/
The Peripheral
Vestibular System
The Peripheral Vestibular
System
A - Semicircular canal
(ampulla is a sensory
organ)

i)Anterior/ Superior
ii)Posterior
iii)Lateral/Horizontal

B - The Otolith Organs


(maculla is a sensory
organ)

i) Utricle
ii) Saccule
The Labyrinthine Fluid
• The endolymph and the perilymph
• Not mix.
• Endolymph
 a unique ionic composition
 Na+ content is low
 K+ content is high
 Resemble intracellular rather than
extracellular fluid
 Produced by the dark cells of the cristae and
maculae, which are separated by a
transitional zone from the neuroepithelium
 Absorption of endolymph is the
endolymphatic sac, (connected to the utricle
and saccule by means of the endolymphatic,
utricular, and saccular ducts)
 Studies of the obstruction of the
endolymphatic duct will lead to
Cont…
• Perilymph
 Composition of perilymph equal to
extracellular fluid and cerebrospinal
fluid (CSF)
 The site of production is ? —it might
be an ultrafiltrate of blood, CSF, or
both
 Perilymph leaves the ear by draining
through venules and through the
middle ear mucosa.
Vestibular hair cells
• Type 1 and 2.
• Type 1 ~ similar to inner hair cells
of the organ of Corti
• Type 2 ~ similar to outer hair cells
of the organ of Corti
Vestibular hair cells

Type 1 Type 2
• Flash shape
• Cylindrical
• One calyx nerve ending
synapse with one or two • Multiple vestibular
to four hair cells nerve fibrers (multiple
• Afferent nerve fibres efferent and afferent
(the largest nerve nerve synapses)
fibres(~20µm
diameter)/ chalice-like • Fast kinetics
vestibular nerve fibre
• Slow kinetics
Alignment of hair cells of SCC

• Horizontal SCC • Ant. SCC &


-Kinocilium Post. SCC
towards utricles -Kinocilium away
-Stimulated from utricles
utriculopetal(amp -Stimulated
ulopetal) utriculofugal(amp
endolymph flow ulofugal)
endolymph flow
Alignment of hair cells of
otolith
• Utricular maculae
-horizontal plane
-away from striola
-horizontal (side to side),
linear acceeration

• Saccular maculae
-vertical plane
-toward striola
-vertical (head to toe),
linear acceleration

www.medicine.mcgill.ca/.../Notes209.htm
Alignment of hair cells of Otolith
organ
Bioelectric Events

• Angular
head
movemen
t

Kinocilium
A- Semicircular canal

• SCC (Ant., Post & Lat.)


• Ampulla - sensory organ
1. neuroepithelium~ crista ampullaris
2. the cupula
3. supporting cells
4. connective tissue
5. blood vessels
6. nerve fibers
Ampulla
Semicircular canal
Semicircular canal
function:
• Detect any rotational
motions of our head
• Angular/roll/yaw
movement
• Dynamic equilibrium

http://www.nsbri.org/HumanPhysSpace/focus7/ep_structure.html
Rotational movements

ANGULAR
ROLL YAW
/PITCH

• Response according to head movement ‘relative to


space and gravity, using inertial-sensing receptors’
• Acceleration forces activation of vestibular system

http://www.nsbri.org/HumanPhysSpace/focus7/ep_structure.html
Cont…

• Yaw- horizontal of a vertical plane (HSCC)


• Pitch/Angular- flex. & extension about a
vertical axis
• Roll- lateral head tilt about a horizontal axis
(Jaw with approx. to the shoulder)

http://www.egms.de/figures/journals/cto/2005-4/cto000011.f2.png
Cont…

http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/systemsafety/newsletters/tp202/2-04/images/069a.jpg
Cont..

Roll

Angular
/Pitch Yaw

http://www.americanflyers.net/aviationlibrary/instrument_flying_handbook/images/Chapters%201%20to%207_img_6.jpg
B - Otolith organ

http://www.neurocreative.net/sci-art/Vestibular_Otoliths.jpg
Function of the otolith
organ
• Linear
movement
• Gravitational
pull
• Maintain static
equilibrium

http://www.nsbri.org/HumanPhysSpace/focus7/ep_structure.html
Cont..

• Signals from hair cells


integrated spatially
• Both foreward,
afterward and lateral
acceleration of the
head
• Eye movement
resulting from
electrical stimulation of
otoliths
Vestibular organ function
• SCC- rotational motions of our head
• Utricle (horizontal) – ‘horizontal movement’
• Saccule (vertical)- ‘information of vertical
acceleration’. Once head tilts, up and down (in an
elevator), or moved forward and back
~ Otolith organs main for linear movement of the
head(12).
~ All the signal from utricle and saccule incorporated
together and received as integrated signal about the
movement (12).
http://www.mfi.ku.dk/ppaulev/chapter5/images/fp5-5.jpg