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FLOW ASSURANCE

in

FLOWLINES AND PIPELINES

Internal

Internal

FLOW IN FLOW ASSURANCE

In the reservoir

Within the pipeline

Separation is normally done at

platforms. Gas is pressurized and flow in

single phase. Only CAPEX is significant

NOTE: if complete separation is not

achieved, fluid will flow in multiphase,

will involve OPEX

Internal

OVERVIEW

Internal

IN SINGLE PHASE

HYDRAULICS

Analyze flow and predict pressure from

fluid reservoir

HEAT TRANSFER

Analyze and predict temperature

behavior

THERMODYNAMICS

How pressure and temperature impact

fluid behavior

Internal

FIRST LAW OF

THERMODYNAMICS

Time rate of

increase of the

total stored

energy of the

system

V2

eu

gz

2

Internal

= energy addition

by heat transfer

into the system

Q net in

Represents the ways

in which energy is

exchanged between

the CV contents and

surroundings

because of a

temperature

difference

+ of energy

addition by

work transfer

into the

system

W

net in

Also known as

power. + when

work is done on

the contents of the

CV by surroundings

and vice versa

FIRST LAW OF

THERMODYNAMICS

Energy Equation

2

p V

dV

gz

n

dA

W

net in

shaft

CV

CS

t

2

net in

From normal

stress

Internal

From

moving

shaft

FIRST LAW OF

THERMODYNAMICS

If there is only one steady stream

entering and leaving the CV, and if

all the properties are assumed to be

uniformly distributed over the flow

cross-sectional areas involved

p

m uout uin

p

out

Vout Vin

2

net in

in

2

Internal

EQN

For steady, incompressible flow

with zero shaft power and

negligible viscous forces effects,

the energy equation becomes the

Bernoulli Equation

V2

V 2

pout

out

zout pin

in

zin

flow

Loss

of useful or

with friction,

occurs in an

Internal

incompressible fluid

FIRST LAW OF

THERMODYNAMICS

Other related equations

wshaft

W shaft net in

net in

2

pout Vout

pin Vin2

gzout

2

net in

friction and shaft work. Also known

as the Mechanical Energy Equation

or the Extended Bernoulli Equation

Internal

FIRST LAW OF

THERMODYNAMICS

Other related equations

2

out

hL loss

2

in

pout V

pin V

zout

zin hs hL

2g

2g

of length is used to quantify the amt

of head involved

W shaft net in

hs

m g

If turbine, hs=-hT (T=turbine)

Internal

W shaft net in

PIPELINE PRESSURE

GRADIENT

The change in pressure in any pipeline or

flowline is due to

Head loss associated with frictional effects

which are given in terms of the friction factor,

f.

Elevation change

Change due to any mechanical device such as

pumps or compressors

Internal

PIPELINE PRESSURE

GRADIENT

TOTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT =

LOSS)

+

PRESSURE GRADIENT DUE TO ELEVATION (POTENTIAL

ENERGY)

+

PRESSURE GRADIENT DUE TO VELOCITY CHANGE

(KINETIC ENERGY)

fV V

2 gc D

Internal

g

dV

sin V

gc

dL

At high velocity gradient, i.e. flare

lines

EXAMPLE 1 PIPELINE

PRESSURE GRADIENT

Determine the pressure at B, when

the pressure at A is 1000 psi

L=10,000

ft

Internal

V=25 ft/s

= 5 lb/ft3

f = 0.01

D = 12

inch

The Moody Chart

The pressure drop for steady,

incompressible turbulent flow in a

horizontal

p round

F V , D, , pipe

, , of diameter D is

V average velocity

pipe length

independent of the roughness of the pipe.

Internal

The Moody Chart

The pressure drop in turbulent flow

depends on the wall roughness due

to the random velocity components

that account for a momentum

transfer (which is a function of

density) and hence, a shear force.

Internal

EXTENDED BERNOULLI EQN

p2 V22

p1 V12

z2

z1 hs hL

2g

2g

Internal

The Moody Chart (cont.)

For a horizontal pipe, the pressure

change is given by

V 2

p f

D 2

D

Internal

V2

hL f

Darcy - Weisbach Equation

D 2g

valid for fully developed, steady, incompress ible pipe flow,

whether th e pipe is horizontal or on a hill.

The Moody Chart (cont.)

Moody Chart gives the functional

dependence of f on Re and /D.

For the nonlaminar part (Re>4000), the

Moody Chart is a graphical representation

of

D

1

2.51

2.0 log

3.7 Re f

f

1

f

1.74 2 log 2 D

Internal

18.7

f 0.5 Re

Colebrook formula

The Moody Chart (cont.)

From the Moody chart, it is observed that

For laminar flow (0<Re<2300)

f 64

Re

Internal

The Moody Chart (cont.)

Note that, even for hydraulically

smooth pipe (=0), the friction factor

is not zero, i.e. there is a head loss in

any pipe, no matter how smooth the

surface is made.

Internal

MOODY CHART

Internal

TABLE 1

Internal

MINOR LOSSES

Major losses in a straight pipe comes from

the friction losses

Minor losses can also occur and contribute

to the overall head loss of the system.

Head loss information for all components

which contribute to the minor losses are

based on experimental data

The most common method used to

determine these head losses or pressure

drops is to specify the loss coefficient, KL.

Internal

MINOR LOSSES

hL

p

KL 2

1

2

V 2 g 2 V

2

V

p K L2 V , hL K L

2g

1

Internal

MINOR LOSSES

Minor losses come from

Transition sections in pipe for example

flow into a pipe from a reservoir (an

entrance) or out of a pipe into a

reservoir (an exit) - Figure 3,4.

Change in pipe diameter - Figure 5,6.

Internal

MINOR LOSSES

Minor losses come from

Bends in pipe. Losses for this case is due to the

separated region and swirling secondary flow

that occurs because of the imbalance of

centripetal forces as a result of the curvature

of the pipe centerline. Guide vanes can be

used to reduce the loss. Figure 7,8.

Commercially available pipe fittings such as

elbows, tees, reducers, valves and filters.

Table 2.

Internal

MINOR LOSSES

Internal

and loss coefficient (a) Reentrant,

KL=0.8 (b) sharp-edged, KL = 0.5 (c)

slightly rounded, KL = 0.2, (d) wellrounded, KL = 0.04.

coefficient (a) Reentrant, KL=1.0 (b)

sharp-edged, KL = 1.0 (c) slightly

rounded, KL = 1.0, (d) well-rounded,

KL = 1.0.

MINOR LOSSES

contraction

Internal

expansion

MINOR LOSSES

90o bend and the associated loss

coefficient

Internal

90o miter bend and the associated

loss coefficient: (a) without guide

vanes (b) with guide vanes

MINOR LOSSES

Table 2

Internal

EXAMPLE FRICTION

FACTOR

Find the friction factor in a 12-in gas

transmission pipeline, given the

following data:

V = 25 ft/s

D = 12 in

= 0.0018 in

= 5 lb/ft3

= 0.01 cp

1 centipoise = 6.7210 lb/fts

-4

Internal

friction factor

initial

guess

0.015

0.013024

relative

error

FRICTION FACTOR IN

TRANSITION ZONE?

Transition : 2300 < Re < 4000

The common practice in the industry

is to find the friction factor using the

laminar equation and using the

Moody chart (or the Colebrook-White

equation) for turbulent at the same

Re and interpolate to get the

weighted friction factor

Internal

TRANSITION ZONE

Find the friction factor in a 12-in

heavy oil pipeline, given the

following data:

V = 1 ft/s

D = 12 in

= 0.0018 in

= 60 lb/ft3

= 30 cp

Internal

1 centipoise = 6.7210-4lb/fts

Ans =

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