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MCB4513

FLOW ASSURANCE
in
FLOWLINES AND PIPELINES

Internal

A. Jaafar, 2014, Universiti Teknologi Petronas. Azuraien_japper@petronas.com.my

SINGLE PHASE FLOW


Internal

A. Jaafar, 2014, Universiti Teknologi Petronas. Azuraien_japper@petronas.com.my

WHEN DO YOU SEE SINGLE PHASE


FLOW IN FLOW ASSURANCE
In the reservoir
Within the pipeline
Separation is normally done at
platforms. Gas is pressurized and flow in
single phase. Only CAPEX is significant
NOTE: if complete separation is not
achieved, fluid will flow in multiphase,
will involve OPEX

Internal

OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION


OVERVIEW

Internal

KEY FLOW ASSURANCE ISSUES


IN SINGLE PHASE
HYDRAULICS
Analyze flow and predict pressure from
fluid reservoir

HEAT TRANSFER
Analyze and predict temperature
behavior

THERMODYNAMICS
How pressure and temperature impact
fluid behavior
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FIRST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
Time rate of
increase of the
total stored
energy of the
system
V2
eu
gz
2

Internal

Net time rate of


= energy addition
by heat transfer
into the system

Q net in
Represents the ways
in which energy is
exchanged between
the CV contents and
surroundings
because of a
temperature
difference

Net time rate


+ of energy
addition by
work transfer
into the
system
W
net in

Also known as
power. + when
work is done on
the contents of the
CV by surroundings
and vice versa

FIRST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS

Energy Equation
2

p V

dV

gz

n
dA

W
net in
shaft

CV
CS
t
2
net in

From normal
stress

Internal

From
moving
shaft

FIRST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
If there is only one steady stream
entering and leaving the CV, and if
all the properties are assumed to be
uniformly distributed over the flow
cross-sectional areas involved

p
m uout uin

p


out

Vout Vin

g zout zin Q net in W shaft


2
net in

in
2

Valid for compressible and incompressible flow


Internal

ENERGY EQN vs. BERNOULLI


EQN
For steady, incompressible flow
with zero shaft power and
negligible viscous forces effects,
the energy equation becomes the
Bernoulli Equation
V2
V 2
pout

out

zout pin

in

zin

For steady, incompressible


flow
Loss
of useful or

uout uin qnet in loss 0 available energy that


with friction,
occurs in an
Internal

incompressible fluid

FIRST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
Other related equations

wshaft

W shaft net in

net in

2
pout Vout
pin Vin2

gzout

gzin wshaft loss

2
net in

Used for one dimensional steady-inthe-mean, incompressible flow with


friction and shaft work. Also known
as the Mechanical Energy Equation
or the Extended Bernoulli Equation
Internal

FIRST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
Other related equations
2
out

hL loss

2
in

pout V
pin V

zout

zin hs hL

2g

2g

Head = energy per unit weight, units


of length is used to quantify the amt
of head involved
W shaft net in
hs
m g
If turbine, hs=-hT (T=turbine)
Internal

If pump, hs=hP (P=pump)

W shaft net in

PIPELINE PRESSURE
GRADIENT
The change in pressure in any pipeline or
flowline is due to
Head loss associated with frictional effects
which are given in terms of the friction factor,
f.
Elevation change
Change due to any mechanical device such as
pumps or compressors

Internal

PIPELINE PRESSURE
GRADIENT
TOTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT =

PRESSURE GRADIENT DUE TO FRICTION (FRICTIONAL


LOSS)
+
PRESSURE GRADIENT DUE TO ELEVATION (POTENTIAL
ENERGY)
+
PRESSURE GRADIENT DUE TO VELOCITY CHANGE
(KINETIC ENERGY)

fV V


2 gc D

Internal


g
dV

sin V

gc
dL

Is small and generally ignored except


At high velocity gradient, i.e. flare
lines

EXAMPLE 1 PIPELINE
PRESSURE GRADIENT
Determine the pressure at B, when
the pressure at A is 1000 psi
L=10,000
ft

Internal

V=25 ft/s
= 5 lb/ft3
f = 0.01
D = 12
inch

Ans = 936 psi

PIPELINE PRESSURE GRADIENT


The Moody Chart
The pressure drop for steady,
incompressible turbulent flow in a
horizontal
p round
F V , D, , pipe
, , of diameter D is
V average velocity
pipe length

measure of roughness of the pipe wall

The pressure drop for laminar pipe flow is


independent of the roughness of the pipe.
Internal

PIPELINE PRESSURE GRADIENT


The Moody Chart
The pressure drop in turbulent flow
depends on the wall roughness due
to the random velocity components
that account for a momentum
transfer (which is a function of
density) and hence, a shear force.

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FIRST LAW OF THERMO


EXTENDED BERNOULLI EQN
p2 V22
p1 V12

z2

z1 hs hL
2g
2g

hL= major losses + minor losses

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THE FRICTION FACTOR


The Moody Chart (cont.)
For a horizontal pipe, the pressure
change is given by
V 2
p f
D 2

where f is the friction factor, f Re,


D

The head loss (major) is given as

Internal

V2
hL f
Darcy - Weisbach Equation
D 2g
valid for fully developed, steady, incompress ible pipe flow,
whether th e pipe is horizontal or on a hill.

MAJOR LOSSES IN PIPELINES


The Moody Chart (cont.)
Moody Chart gives the functional
dependence of f on Re and /D.
For the nonlaminar part (Re>4000), the
Moody Chart is a graphical representation
of
D
1
2.51
2.0 log

3.7 Re f
f

1
f
1.74 2 log 2 D

Internal

18.7
f 0.5 Re

Colebrook formula

Colebrook - White formula

THE FRICTION FACTOR


The Moody Chart (cont.)
From the Moody chart, it is observed that
For laminar flow (0<Re<2300)

f 64

Re

Which is independent of the relative roughness

For completely turbulent flow (Re>4000)

which is independent of the Re


Internal

(equivalent roughness) for several materials are given

THE FRICTION FACTOR


The Moody Chart (cont.)
Note that, even for hydraulically
smooth pipe (=0), the friction factor
is not zero, i.e. there is a head loss in
any pipe, no matter how smooth the
surface is made.

Internal

MOODY CHART

Internal

THE FRICTION FACTOR


TABLE 1

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MINOR LOSSES
Major losses in a straight pipe comes from
the friction losses
Minor losses can also occur and contribute
to the overall head loss of the system.
Head loss information for all components
which contribute to the minor losses are
based on experimental data
The most common method used to
determine these head losses or pressure
drops is to specify the loss coefficient, KL.
Internal

MINOR LOSSES
hL
p
KL 2
1
2
V 2 g 2 V
2

V
p K L2 V , hL K L
2g
1

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MINOR LOSSES
Minor losses come from
Transition sections in pipe for example
flow into a pipe from a reservoir (an
entrance) or out of a pipe into a
reservoir (an exit) - Figure 3,4.
Change in pipe diameter - Figure 5,6.

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MINOR LOSSES
Minor losses come from
Bends in pipe. Losses for this case is due to the
separated region and swirling secondary flow
that occurs because of the imbalance of
centripetal forces as a result of the curvature
of the pipe centerline. Guide vanes can be
used to reduce the loss. Figure 7,8.
Commercially available pipe fittings such as
elbows, tees, reducers, valves and filters.
Table 2.

Internal

MINOR LOSSES

Internal

Figure 3: Entrance flow conditions


and loss coefficient (a) Reentrant,
KL=0.8 (b) sharp-edged, KL = 0.5 (c)
slightly rounded, KL = 0.2, (d) wellrounded, KL = 0.04.

Figure 4: Exit flow conditions and loss


coefficient (a) Reentrant, KL=1.0 (b)
sharp-edged, KL = 1.0 (c) slightly
rounded, KL = 1.0, (d) well-rounded,
KL = 1.0.

MINOR LOSSES

Figure 5: Loss coefficient for sudden


contraction

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Figure 6: Loss coefficient for sudden


expansion

MINOR LOSSES

Figure 7: character of the flow in a


90o bend and the associated loss
coefficient
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Figure 8: Character of the flow in a


90o miter bend and the associated
loss coefficient: (a) without guide
vanes (b) with guide vanes

MINOR LOSSES
Table 2

Internal

EXAMPLE FRICTION
FACTOR
Find the friction factor in a 12-in gas
transmission pipeline, given the
following data:

V = 25 ft/s
D = 12 in
= 0.0018 in
= 5 lb/ft3
= 0.01 cp
1 centipoise = 6.7210 lb/fts
-4

Internal

Ans < 0.015


friction factor
initial
guess
0.015
0.013024

relative
error

FRICTION FACTOR IN
TRANSITION ZONE?
Transition : 2300 < Re < 4000
The common practice in the industry
is to find the friction factor using the
laminar equation and using the
Moody chart (or the Colebrook-White
equation) for turbulent at the same
Re and interpolate to get the
weighted friction factor
Internal

EXAMPLE FRICTION FACTOR in


TRANSITION ZONE
Find the friction factor in a 12-in
heavy oil pipeline, given the
following data:

V = 1 ft/s
D = 12 in
= 0.0018 in
= 60 lb/ft3
= 30 cp
Internal

1 centipoise = 6.7210-4lb/fts

Ans =