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CHOPPER CONTROLLED

DC DRIVES
Name of Student : BAROT AKSHARKUMAR HARISHKUMAR
Guided by : Prof. N. D. Mehta
Power Electronics Engineering Department,
Vishwakarma Government Engineering College, Chandkheda- 382424.
Introduction :
Development of high performance motor
drives are very essential for industrial
applications. A high performance motor drive
system must have good dynamic speed
command tracking and load regulating
response. DC motors provide excellent control
of speed for acceleration and deceleration.
The power supply of a DC motor connects
directly to the field of the motor which allows
for precise voltage control, and is necessary
for speed and torque control applications. DC
drives, because of their simplicity, ease of
application, reliability and favourable cost
have long been a backbone of industrial
applications. DC drives are less complex as
compared to AC drives system. DC drives are
normally less expensive for low horsepower
ratings. DC motors have a long tradition of
being used as adjustable speed machines
and a wide range of options have evolved for
this purpose. Cooling blowers and inlet air
flanges provide cooling air for a wide speed
range at constant torque. DC regenerative
drives are available for applications requiring
continuous regeneration for overhauling
loads. AC drives with this capability would be
more complex and expensive. Properly
applied
brush
and
maintenance
of
commutator is minimal. DC motors are
capable of providing starting and accelerating
torques in excess of 400% of rated .

Chopper Controlled Dc Motor

Fig.1 Block Diagram Of Chopper Controlled


Dc Motor

Fig.2 Current Commutated Chopper Waveforms

DC CHOPPER:

Control strategies of choppers :

A chopper is a static power electronic device


that converts fixed dc input voltage to a
variable dc output voltage. A Chopper may be
considered as dc equivalent of an ac
transformer since they behave in an identical
manner. As chopper involves one stage
conversion, these are more efficient.
Choppers are now being used all over the
world for rapid transit systems. These are also
used in trolley cars, marine hoist, forklift
trucks and mine haulers. The future electric
automobiles are likely to use choppers for
their speed control and braking. Chopper
systems offer smooth control, high efficiency,
faster response and regeneration facility . The
power semiconductor devices used for a
chopper circuit can be force commutated
thyristor, power BJT, MOSFET and IGBT.GTO
based chopper are also used. These devices
are generally represented by a switch. When
the switch is off, no current can flow. Current
flows through the load when switch is on.
The power semiconductor devices have onstate voltage drop of 0.5V to 2.5V across
them. For the sake of simplicity, this voltage
drop across these devices is generally
neglected. As mentioned above, a chopper is
dc equivalent to an ac transformer, have
continuously variable turns ratio.
Choppers may be classified on several bases.
On basis of input and output voltage levels:
1. Step-down Chopper
2. Step-up Chopper
3. Step Up/ Down Chopper

For all the chopper configurations operating from


a fixed dc input voltage, the average value of the
output voltage is controlled by periodic opening
and closing of the switches used in the chopper
circuit.
The average output voltage can be controlled by
different techniques namely:
Pulse Width Modulation Technique
Frequency Modulation
CLC control
In Pulse Width Modulation the switches are
turned on at a constant chopping frequency. The
total time period of one cycle of output waveform
is constant. The average output voltage is
directly proportional to the ON time of chopper.
The ratio of ON time to total time is defined as
duty cycle. It can be varied between 0 to 1 or
between 0 to 100%. Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM), or Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM), is
a technique used to encode a message into a
pulsing signal. Although this modulation
technique can be used to encode information for
transmission, its main use is to allow the control
of the power supplied to electrical devices,
especially to inertial loads such as motors. The
average value of voltage (and current) fed to the
load is controlled by turning the switch between
supply and load on and off at a fast rate. The
longer the switch is on compared to the off
periods, the higher the total power supplied to
the load. The PWM switching frequency has to
be much higher than what would affect the load
(the device that uses the power).

Fig.3 Output Voltage Waveforms


Application :
Important application includes rolling mills,
paper mills, machine tools, electrical traction,
textile mills, excavators and crane.
Some other application are:
Switched mode power supplies, including
DC to DC converters.
Speed controllers for DC motors
Class D Electronic amplifiers
Switched capacitor filters
Variable-frequency drive
D.C. motor speed control
D.C. voltage boosting
Battery operated electric cars
Battery operated appliances
Battery chargers
FHP DC motor are widely used as servo motor
for positioning and tracking application.
Conclusion :
From this we can study that A chopper is a
static power electronic device that converts
fixed dc input voltage to a variable dc output
voltage.
Chopper
provides
smooth
acceleration, high efficiency , fast dynamic
response and regeneration that is why dc
drives are widely used in application requiring
variable speed, frequent starting , braking and
reversing.
Bibliography :
1. Gobinath.K, Mahendran.S, Gnanambal.I New
Cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter with
improved efficiency International Journal of
Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics
and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 2, Issue
4, April 2013.
2. Muhammad H. Rashid, Third edition, Power
electronics circuit, device and application,
Chap.9 pp. 406, 417-422 Prentice Hall of India.
3. M D Singh, K B Khanchandani. Second edition,
Power electronic, Chap.9 pp. 437-439, 451,
452, 657-662 Tata McGraw Hill Education
Private Limited.
4. Bin Wu, High-power converters and ac drives,
Chap.7 pp. 126, 139-141 IEEE Press, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication

Name of Student : Barot Akshar


Contact No : 9737900899
Sem
:6
En. No
: 120170124048
Email ID
:
axarbarot95@gmail.com