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INTRODUCTION ON RUN

OFF

Hydrology is the science which deals with the occurance,distribution and disposal of water on the earth. Moisture is constantly in circulation
between the land and ocean and the sky. The unending moisture cycle is known as Hydrologic cycle
Different phases of hydrologic cycle are as follows:1. Evaporation and transpiration(E)
2. Precipitation(P)
3. Run off(R)

EVAPORATION AND TRANSPIRATION:-

Infiltration for convenience, evaporation and transpiration are combined into


evapotranspiration(ET). It is the total water loss from a crop area due to evaporation from the and transpiration by the plants.
Infiltration is the entry of water into the soil surface.
PERCIPITATION:- It may be define as the fall of moisture from the atmosphere to the earth surface in any from. Run off is that portion of
precipitation that is not evaporated .When moisture falls to the earths surface as precipitation, a part of it is evaporated from the water
surface , soil and vegetation and through transpiration by plant, and remainder point is available as run off which ultimately runs to the
ocean through surface or sub-surface ocean. The run off of a catchment area is any specified period is the total quantity of water draining
into a stream or into reservoir in that period .This can be expressed as (I) centimeter of water over a catchment or (ii)The total water in
cubic- meter or hectare meters
The rainfall is disposed 0ff in the f0llowing manner :
1.Basin Recharge
2. Direct Run off
3.Percolation down to ground water
4. Evaporation
1..BASIN RECHARGE:- (i) Rain intercepted by leaves and stream of vegetation
(ii) Soil moisture held as capillary water in pore spacer of soil or as hygroscopic water absorbed on the surface of soil particles.
2.DIRECT RUN OFF:- Direct Run 0ff is that water which reaches the stream shortly after it falls as rain. It consists of
(i)Overland flow
(ii) Interflow
Overland flow is that portion of water which travel across the ground surface to the nearest stream. If the soil is permeable, water percolates
intact and when it become saturated flows laterally in the surface soil to a stream channel.
The condition for interflow is that the surface soil is permeable but the sub-soil is relatively impermeable so that water does not percolate
deep to meet the ground water.
3.PERCOLATION DOWN TO GROUND WATER :-(Bass flow)
If the sub-soil is also permeable, water percolates deep downwards to meet the ground water .Much of the low water flow of rivers is derived
from the ground water. Stream channel which are below the ground water table are called effluent-streams.
4.EVAPORATION ;Evaporation is the process in which liquid changes state to vapour.It can occur at any temperature up to the boiling point of the liquid.

2. FACTOR AFFECTING RUN OFF


1.Percipitation characteristic
2. Shape and size of the catchment
3. Topography
4.Geological characteristics
5.Metrological characteristics
6.Character of the catchment surface
7. Storage characteristics
1.PERCIPITATION CHARACTERISTICS:- The more rainfall, more will be the run off .Run off depends on the type of the storm causing precipitation, and also
upon the duration. Run off increases with the intensity is very less ,it rain as light slower, much of the water will be lost in infiltration and evaporation etc
and the run off will be less.

2.SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE CATCHMENT:-The run off from a catchment also depends upon the size shape and location of the catchment. The entire area of a river basin whose surface run off drains into the river in the basin is considered as a hydrologic unit, and is called drainage basin water shed or catchment area
There are two type of catchment1. FAN shape catchment
2.FERN shape catchment
Fig no. (1)

fig no. (2)

A fan shape catchment produce greater flood intensity. Since all the tributaries are nearly of the same length and hence the time of concentration is same and is less
when as in the fern shape catchment the time of concentration is more and discharge is distributed over a long period
A stream collecting water from a small catchment area is likely to give greater run off intensity per unit area. Than the larger stream where as the uniform rain seldom falls over the entire area, that only very few tributaries of the stream feed water to main stream during a particular storm.
3.TOPOGRAPHY:-The run off depends upon whether the surface is smooth or rugged. If the surface slope is steep water will flow quickly, evaporation will be less resulting in greater run off . If the catchment is mountainous, and is on the windward direction the intensity of rainfall will be more where run off will also be more.

4.GEOLOGICAL CATERCTERISTICS:-Geological characteristics of the catchment area


is an important factor affecting run off .It includes the type of surface soil and types
of rocks etc. If the surface will be more and this in turn reduces peak flood. If the
surface is rocky, no evaporation and absorption will take place and run off will be
more.

5.METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS:- Temperature, humidity and wind also


affect the run off.
If the temperature is low and ground is saturated and frozen, it gives rise to greater
run off. Whereas high temperature and greater wing velocity give vise to greater
evaporation loss and reduce the run off.

6.CHARACTER OF THE CATCHMENT SURFACE:-The run off also depends upon the
surface condition- Whether the surface is drained or un-drained, natural or
cultivated, it is bare or vegetative land etc.It the surface has n0 natural drainage,
absorption loss will be more .If the more area of a catchment is cultivated, surface
run off will be less. The vegetative land reduces run off .

7.STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CATCHMENT:-The artificial storage such as


dams ,weirs etc and natural storage such as lakes, pond etc ,to reduce peak flow .
Evaporation losses takes place. If the tributaries of a rivers discharges into a lake,
and the river off from the lake, the point peak floods in the river will be reduced. The
storage into the pervious surface soil and sub soil tends to reduce the peak flow and
tend to regularize the flow of a stream.

ESTIMATION OF RUNOFF
1. Empirical formulae,curves and
tables.
2. Infiltration method.
3. Rational method.
4. Overland flow hydrograph.
5. Unit hydrograph method.