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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

EX. HEIGHT OF ADULTS


RELATIVELY FEW SHORT ADULTS
RELATIVELY FEW TALL ADULTS

THEREFORE,
HISTOGRAM

Example. Height..
A. < 4
B. 4 - < 46
C. 46 - < 5
D. 5 - <56
E. 56 - < 6
F. 6 - <66
G. > 66

Frequency Polygon

Smoothed-out, normal curve/normal distribution

Exercise
Show why a class composed mostly of bright students
has a distribution that is skewed to the left? And
why one made up mostly of poor students has a
distribution that is skewed to the right? Draw your
diagrams, label them, and explain.

Skewed Distributions

Properties of a normal curve


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

It is symmetrical about mean.


The mean is equal to the median, which is equal to the mode.
The tails or ends are asymptotic relative to the horizontal
line.
The total area under the normal curve is equal to 1 or 100%.
The normal curve area maybe subdivided into at least 3
standard scores, each to the left and to the right of the
vertical axis.
Along the horizontal line, the distance from one integral
standard score to the next integral standard score is
measured by the standard deviation.

Finding areas in the normal curve


Convert the normal curve into standardized normal

curve
Formula:

Standardized normal curve

Exercise
Solve for z when: x = 60, mean = 50, s = 5
2. Illustrate the normal curve where mean = 80 and
standard deviation = 4
1.

Exercise

Exercise

X
Mean + 1 s
Mean + 2 s
Mean + 3 s
Mean
Mean 1 s
Mean 2 s
Mean - 3s

Exercise
1. Find the area under the normal curve from z = 0 to z
= 1.2 OR
Find the probability that z is from 0 to 1.2 OR
Find P { 0 < 1.2 }
Solution: At z Area is
1.20.8849
Area from z=0 to z=1.2 is 0.8849 or 88.49% of the total area under the normal
curve or 88.49% of the total number of observations of the variable in question.

Exercise
2. Find the area under the normal curve from z = -.68
to z = 0.
Solution: At z
-.68

Area is
0.2483

z
Area from z=0 to z=-.68 is 0.2483 or 24.83% of the total area under the normal
curve or 24.83% of the total number of observations of the variable in question.

Exercise
3. Find the area under the normal curve from z = 0.81
to z = 1.94.
Solution: At z Area is
.81.7910
1.94 .9738
Area = .9738-.7910
Required area = .1828 or 18.28%

Exercise
4. Find the area from z = -0.46 to z = 2.21.
Solution: At z Area is
-.46 .3228
2.21 .9864
z

Area = .9864-.3228
Required area = .6636 or 66.36%

Exercise
5. Find the z score when the area from z = 0 to +z is
0.8770. (Note: in the first type of problem, we
shaded the required area; in the second type, we
shade the given area.)
Solution:
When Area is .8770, z=1.16

Exercise
6. Find the z score when the area to the left of +z is
0.8621.
Solution:
.8621 z=1.09
.5000
.3621

Exercise
7. Find the z score when the area to the right of +z is .
1230.
Solution:
.5000
.1230
.3770

z=1.16
z

Exercise
8. The average weekly income of 2,000 workers is P151
with a standard deviation of P15. Assuming that the
weekly incomes are normally distributed, find the
number of workers who earn:
a. from P119.50 to P155.50 per week
b. less than or equal to P127.50 per week
c. greater than or equal to P185.50 per week

Remaining Topics
ANOVA AND ENUMERATION DATA
REGRESSION AND CORRELATION
TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AND INDEX

NUMBERS

SIMPLE TESTS OF
HYPOTHESIS
HYPOTHESIS
2 KINDS:
1. NULL (H0)
- WORKING HYPOTHESIS
- MUST ALWAYS EXPRESS THE IDEA OF
NONSIGNIFICANCE
2. ALTERNATIVE (HA)

TYPE I AND TYPE II ERRORS


Decision

H0

= TRUE

Actual Condition
HA= TRUE

Reject Ho

Type I error

Correct decision

Accept Ho

Correct decision

Type II error

In industrial statistics, Type I error-producers risk


Type II error-consumers risk

LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
1%

5%
95% sure

99% sure

One-tailed test

Two-tailed test

> or <

TESTING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO MEANS


z-test

t-test

Population standard deviation is known

Sample standard deviations are known

Steps in Hypothesis Testing


Formulate the null hypothesis
2. Set the level of significance
3. Determine the test to be used
4. Determine the tabular value for the test
1.

Steps in Hypothesis Testing


5. Compute for z:
a) Sample mean compared with population mean

b) Comparing two sample means

Steps in Hypothesis Testing


5. Compute for z:
c) Comparing two sample proportions

Steps in Hypothesis Testing


5. Compute for t:
a) Sample mean compared with population mean

b) Comparing two sample means

Steps in Hypothesis Testing


6. Compare the computed value with its corresponding
tabular value, then state your conclusion.
A. Reject Ho if the absolute computed value is equal

to or greater than the absolute tabular value.


B. Accept Ho if the absolute computed value is less
than the absolute tabular value.

Exercise
Data from a school census show that the mean
weight of college students was 45 kilos, with a
standard deviation of 3 kilos. A sample of 100
college students were found to have a mean weight
of 47 kilos. Are the 100 college students really
heavier than the rest, using .05 significance level?
1 Null hypothesis
2 Level of significance
3 Test to be used
4 Tabular value
1.

Exercise
4 Tabular value
Test type

Significance Level
.10

.05

.025

.01

One-tailed
test

+ 1.28

+ 1.645

+ 1.96

+ 2.33

Twotailed test

+ 1.645

+ 1.96

+ 2.33

+ 2.58

Exercise
5 Computation
Given: sample mean = 47 kilos
population mean = 45 kilos
sample standard deviation = 3 kilos
n = 100

Seatwork
1.

A researcher wishes to find out whether or not there is


significant difference between the monthly allowances of
morning and afternoon students in his school. By random
sampling, he took a sample of 239 students in the morning
session. These students were found to have a mean monthly
allowance of PHP142.00. The researcher also took a sample of
209 students in the afternoon session. They were found to have
a mean monthly allowance of PHP148.00. The total population
of students in that school has a standard deviation of PHP40. Is
there a significant difference between the two samples at .01
level of significance?

Tab value = +2.58

Seatwork
2. A sample survey of a television program shows that
80 of 200 men dislike the same program. We want
to decide whether the difference between two
sample proportions: 80/200=0.40 and
75/250=0.30, is significant or not, at .05 level of
significance.
Tab value = +1.96