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Third Edition

ANTHONY GIDDENS MITCHELL DUNEIER RICHARD APPELBAUM DEBORA CARR


Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College

Sex, Sexualtiy Gender Issues & Roles


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Overarching questions
Is gender biological, social, or both?
Why is power invested in the male category?
What does gender inequality look like and
why?
Why is gendered violence so common place?

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Gender warrior

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Sex and gender

As sociologists we begin by separating sex


and gender:

Sex is a biological category.


Gender is a social category.

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SEX
Is the biological
distinction between
females and males
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Biological differentiation
Chromosomes
XX and XY
XXY or XYY can occur in rare cases
Hormones
Estrogen and testosterone
The question: How important is biology in
explaining behavioral differences?

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Refers to physical
characteristics
Constant across
time

Constant across
different societies
and cultures

SEX and the BODY

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-MATURE FEMALES:

allow for pregnancy, child birth, and breastfeeding, mature females have wider hips, breasts and softy fatty tissue that provides a reserve supply of nutrition.
-MATURE MALES:

develop more muscle in the upper body, more extensive body hair, and deeper voices.

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HERMAPHRODITES

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- A word derived from


hermaphrodites,
the
offspring
of
the
mythological Geek gods
Hermes and Aphrodite,
who
embodied
both
sexes)
- A human being with some
combination of female
and male genitalia
- Some
people
feel
disgusted
and
even
confuse about it because
of
culture--others

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TRANSEXUAL

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Some hermaphrodite undergo


genital surgery to appear a
sexually normal male or female
ARE SEXUAL WHO FEEL THER
ARE ONE SEX EVEN THOUGH
BIOLOGICALLY THEY ARE THE
OTHER. Just like in the US
many feel trapped in a body of a
wrong sex.
Many people become
TRANSGENDERED, meaning
THEY BEGIN TO DISREGARD
CONVENTIONAL IDEAS ABOUT
HOW FEMALES AND MALES

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Socialization and environment


Gender roles are learned via socialization, both
early on and throughout life.
Gender socialization now begins prior to birth.
Varying social environments produce different
versions of man and woman.
Gender is socially constructed.

2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.

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CARING

COUNSELING CENTER

SEX: A CULTURAL ISSUE

- Sex has a biological foundation but like other human behavior sexuality is also a cultural issue because it has no similar biological program.
- Humans have biological sex drives in the sense that they find sex pleasurable and want to engage in sexual activity.

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P:123
555.123.4568
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York, NY 10001 www.carecounseling.com
F:_______________________
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| |

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INCEST TABOO

o A norm forbidding sexual


relations
or
marriage
between certain relatives.
In the US the law and
cultural
mores
prohibit
close relatives from having
sex and marrying.

WHY DOES INCEST TABOO EXIST


EVERYWHERE?
1. Reproduction between close relatives of any species
risks offspring with mental or physical problems
2. Controlling sexuality seems a necessary element of
social organization
a. INCEST TABOO limit sexual competition in
families by restricting sex to spouses (e.g.
parent and child)
b. Family ties define peoples rights and obligation
toward each other, reproduction between close
relatives would hopelessly confuse kinship; like if
mother and son had a daughter, what would the
childs relationship be to the other two?

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Sex as a Cultural Issue

Sexual Revolution
Premarital Sex
Sex between Adults
Extra Marital Sex

A.SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Refers to a persons romantic and emotional
attraction
to another
person
- 4 M AJOR
ORIENTATIONS:
o Heterosexuality sexual attraction to
someone of the other sex
o Homosexuality sexual attraction to
someone of the same sex
o Bisexuality sexual attraction to people
with both sexes
o Asexuality - no sexual attraction to people
of their sexes

Sexual Controversies
Teenage Pregnancy
Pornography
Prostitution

Types of Prostitution
1.Call girls elite prostitutes who are young,
attractive and well educated and arranger their
own appointments with clients by phone.
2.Sex Workers e.g. massage parlor or brothel
under the control of managers
3.Street Walkers men and women who work the
streets of large cities. Female street walkers are
often under the control of male pimps who take
most of their earnings. Street walkers are at
high risk of violence form pimps and clients.

SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND


ABUSE
a. Sexual Abuse means any act that violates a woman or
man through the use of sexual acts or any form of behavior
which is sexual in nature.
1. RAPE often time people think that rape is a form of sex but it is
actually an expression of power, a violent that uses sex to hurt,
humiliate or control another person

FORMS OF RAPE:
KINDS OF RAPE
1. Stranger rape
1. ANGER RAPE generally planned,
2. Gang rape courtship failure
3. Military rape
2. POWER RAPE a man need to
4. Mass rape demon-strate his power,
5. Marital rape
he wants to prove he
6. Incest rape a man
3. SADISTIC RAPE: done by sick man

Gender Issues
and Roles

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Gender as a concept
oWhat makes one masculine and
feminine
oSocially determined; culturally
defined
oChanges across time
oChanges across places and
cultures
oLearned behavior
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Gender as a Concept
Reminds us that to be born
male or female varies with

TIME
PLACE
CLASS AND CULTURE
ETHNICITY AND CIVILIZATION

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What are the aspects


of Gender

oGender roles
oGender needs
oGender expectations

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GENDER ROLES
NOT inborn
LEARNED in the early stages of
CHILDHOOD
Productive
Reproductive
Community managing
Community leadership or
constituency-based politic rule

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Socialization and environment


Gender roles are learned via socialization, both
early on and throughout life.
Gender socialization now begins prior to birth.
Varying social environments produce different
versions of man and woman.
Gender is socially constructed.

2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.

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Gender Roles
A. Female gender
role is associated
with appropriate
concepts and traits
of femininity:
Submissiveness
Modesty
Nurturance

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B. Male gender role


is associated with
appropriate concepts
and traits of
masculinity:
Aggressiveness
Arrogance
Strength

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Language and gender


socialization
The language we use is not gender neutral; it is
part of everyday life.
Much language glorifies the male category and
demeans the female.

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Gendered language
Janet Shibley Hyde notes patterns in
gendered language:
Male as normative/female as exception
Parallel words
Infantilization of women

Allowing language to devalue women and


girls is part of socialization and contributes to
inequality.
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Doing gender

Gender is more than simply a learned role,


though that role is important.
Gender is something to be done
accomplishedeach day.

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Gender in time and space


Gender has not always looked the same:
Consider changes in gender roles over the past 50
100 years here in the Philippines.

Gender does not look the same across cultures:


Meads research in New Guinea (1930s) showed
significant variation between tribes and with
outside cultures.

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Gender in time and space


Gender is not always confined to male and
female.
Example: Manobo Matig-Salug Tribe

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Gender systems
Patriarchy refers to the gender system in
societies where men are dominant.
Nearly all societies are patriarchal, though the
degree varies greatly.
Gender inequality refers to the difference in
power, status, access, and choices between
men and women.

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Figure 9.1 Womens Participation in the Labor Force in


the United States

Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition


Copyright 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

Inequality at work
Jobs gender-typed female are valued less and
paid less.
The gender gap in earnings has narrowed but
remains in place (19702008).
FT employees: 62% 80%
Hourly: 64% 79%
All employees: 46% 61%

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Inequality at work
Policies like comparable worth aim to
remedy the pay gap, but have drawbacks.
Informal structures such as the glass ceiling
and glass escalator reproduce gender
inequality by favoring male employees.
Sexual harassment also continues to be a way
for men to dominate women in the workplace.

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Gender and family


The ongoing difficulty of balancing work and
family rests largely on women.
Managers see women as more tied to family than
work.
This affects womens ability to get responsible
positions.

Women also continue to do significantly more


housework than their spouses.

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Gender and education


Differential treatment in schools perpetuates
traditional gender socialization.
More attentionpositive and negativeis paid to
boys.

But something is changing: Today girls


outperform boys on many measures.

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DETERMINANTS OF GENDER
ROLE/SEX ROLE
1. Biological
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Reproductive organ
Genetalia
Chromosomes
Hormonal
Biological drive rooted in male nervous system and regulated by
hormones and brain chemical

2. Cultural
a. Socialization (conformity, deviance and stereotyping)
b. Culture as symbol of norms


1. Social

a. Ideology
-

Any system of ideas which justifies or legitimizes the subordination of one group with
another

b. Patriarchy
-

A system of belief whereby new achieve and maintain social, cultural and economic
dominance over females and younger males

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Gender Socialization is
shaped by:

1.Family
2.School
3.Church
4.Media
5.State
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Three aspects of Gender


Roles
1.Positions with social
structure/hierarchy indicating
where women and men belong or
expected to belong
2.Behaviors prescribed for women
and men
3.Proper relationship between
roles
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GENDER NEEDS
A. Practical Gender Needs
Needs of both men and women necessary to
perform their roles effectively

- May defer according to social class, age and situation


- Practical gender needs are context-specific

B. Strategic Gender Needs


Needs that arise out the analysis and understanding
of women subordinate position in society. These are
needs that challenge the unequal structure of gender
relation, division of labor or traditional balance of
power. Needs that aim to change existing gender
roles.
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PRACTICAL GENDER NEEDS


(PGNS) AND STRATEGIC
GENDER NEEDS (SGNS)
Practical Gender Needs

Strategic Gender Needs

Tend to be immediate, short term

Tend to be long term

Unique to particular women

Common to almost all women

Relate to daily needs: food, housing,


household efficiency, income,
healthy children

Relate to disadvantaged
position: subordination, lack of
resources, vulnerability to
poverty and violence

Easily identifiable by women

Basis of disadvantage and


potential for change not
always identifiable by women

Can be addressed by provision of


specific inputs: food water pumps,
clinic, traditional IGPs, etc

Can be address by:


consciousness raising,
increasing self-confidence,
education, strengthening
womens organization, political
mobilization, etc.

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ADDRESSING PGNs
Tend to involve women
as beneficiaries and
perhaps as participants
Can improve the
CONDITION of womens
lives
Generally does not alter
the traditional roles and
relationships

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ADDRESSING SGNs
Involve women as
agents or enables
women to become
agents
Can improve the
POSITION of women in
society
Can empower
women and transform
relationships

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Gender relation
refers to male/female relation
in power sharing, decisionmaking, the division of labor
and return to labor both
within the household and the
society at large

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Gender Division of Labor


An over-all societal pattern which
women are allocated one set of gender
roles and men are allotted another set
Unequal division of labor refers
unequal division of reward. Women get
most of the burden of labor and most
of unpaid labor but men collect most of
the reward resulting from that labor

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GENDER AND
DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT is a goal of every
society. Although development
models vary in approach and
philosophy, they all have common
objective A BETTER QUALITY OF
LIFE FOR EVERYONE. While
development is a goal, it is also a
process and as much as possible,
everyone should be concerned with
or involved in this process.
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GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT


1.Development is the sustained capacity to
achieve a better life for all.
2.Bette life is translated into length of life
and quality of life.
3.Quality of life is defined as the capacity
TO DO AND THE CAPACITY TO BE
4.Capacity TO DO implies a wide range of
human activities and situation that a
person can participate in a pursuit of a
better
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GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT


4. Capacity TO BE implies that a person, given
the range of opportunities and resources
available, has the capacity to attain her
objectives for a better life.
5. It is concerned with the social construction of
gender and the assignment of specific roles,
responsibilities and expectations to women and
men.
6. Welcomes the potential contribution of men
who share a concern for issues of equity and
social justice
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GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT


7. It reflects on the public/private dichotomy that has
been used a s a mechanism to undervalue family and
household maintenance work performed by women
8.Women are agents of change rather than passive
recipients of development assistance
9. It stresses the need for women to organize
themselves for a more effective political voice
10. It leads to a fundamental re-examination of social
structures and institutions and ultimately, to the base
of power of entrenched elites, which will affect some
women as well as men
11. It demands a degree of commitment to structural
change and power shifts.
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WHY GENDER IS A DEVELOPMENT


ISSUE?

1. Half of the world population is female. Women, equally


with men, are expected to be the beneficiaries of
development
2. Women have special needs which arise from these sex
roles. Special needs of women have to be addressed by
development programs/project
3. Womens development involves gender issues. Gender
issue is defined as those arising from gender roles
characterized by unequal burden of work and unequal
distribution of resources
4. Gender issues are central forms of development
5. Gender concerns on the other hand, concerns on women
which do not necessarily entail problems to be addressed
by development programs

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Year Women
Could Vote

Income
Ratio

1919
1913
1906
1902
1918
1917
1946
1947
1920
2006

0.67
0.77
0.73
0.59
0.65
0.65
0.55
0.53
0.79
0.27

Gender Empowerment
Around the World
47%
36%
42%
30%
31%
25%
33%
24%
17%
23%

32%
31%
29%
37%
38%
37%
43%
31%
43%
10%

51%
51%
55%
57%
50%
56%
53%
45%
56%
21%

0
%

Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition


Copyright 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

10%

20%

Ten Countries
Ranked by Gender
Empowerment Measure

30%

% of Seats in Parliament
% of Legislators, Senior
Officials, & Managers
40%

% of Professional &
Technical Workers
* Ratio of estimate female to male earned income
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SOURCE: UNDP 2009a.

50%
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Gains of the Advocacy

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Gains of the Advocacy

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Gains of the Advocacy

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Violence against women


Violence against women is institutionalized in
varying ways around the world.

Dowry disputes in India


Sharia law in Islamic countries
Foot-binding in China
Genital mutilation in many countries
Forced prostitution (sex trafficking)
Culture of misogyny

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Rape
Nearly one-quarter of women say they have
been forced into a sexual encounter, but only 3
percent of men acknowledge coercive sex.
College campuses are a prime location for
sexual violence and attempted sexual violence.
Rape
Coercion
Stalking

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Explaining gender inequality


Functionalism
Feminist theories
Liberal feminism
Radical feminism
Black feminism

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Functionalist theory
Sees gender differences as good for societal
harmony
Problems:
Assumes gender roles are universal and static
Puts the broad harmony over problems caused by
gender inequity

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Feminist theories
An activist approach that sees inequality as a
systemic wrong that must be challenged
Today feminist theory is used to explain
inequality in many social institutions and
concerns aside from those explicitly dealing with
gender.
Many versions of feminist theory; they do not
necessarily agree with each other

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