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Weed

management

Weed management
Integration of methods to prevent, decrease, and maintain
weed population densities below critical levels.

Considerations

Identity of the weeds (species)


Field cropping history
Growers objectives.
Available technology
Finances

Methods of Weed management

Preventive
Mechanical/ Physical
Cultural/ Agro-ecological
Chemical
Biological
Biotechnological

Preventive
Regulatory Actions
Use of legislation/ rules to prevent the non-native species
from entering the country
Ex. Quarantine Laws; Use of certified seeds (97% pure);
rouging off-types during mid-season to prevent crosspollination,
RA 9271. Quarantine Act of 2004

Preventive
Rouging off-types during mid-season to prevent cross

pollination.
Cleaning off equipment;
Weed identification
field assessments/surveys
Preventing vegetative spread of perennials

Mechanical Methods

Handweeding
Hoeing
Tillage or cultivation
Mowing
Flooding, dredging, draining

Thorough land preparation


- 1 to 2 plowings followed by 2 harrowings reduces weed
growth and number of future handweedings.
- Interrow cultivation

Thorough land preparation


Off-barring
is plowing or cultivating in a way that the soil is drawn
away from the plants, usually in between the furrows for the
purpose of killing the weeds.

After plowing, harrow at 2wks intervals or spray herbicide


after first harrowing
Paraquat- Gramoxome
Glufosinate- Basta (irreversibly inhibits glutamine
synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the production of
glutamine and for ammonia detoxification.)
Glyphosate- roundup

Results after 6 cropping season


If handweeding is correct and timing is adequate.
50% minus in weed control costs
1st handweeding
2-4 weeks after transplanting
2nd hand weeding
6-8 weeks after transplant

Physical methods
Use some physical components of the environment such
as temperature, humidity, or light to the detriment of
weeds
Ex.
1. Heat
2. Mulcing

Physical methods
Heat
- flaming (rice hull burning)
- Solarization- drying through exposure to sunlight

Physical methods
Mulching
Prevents weed growth, increase soil temperature
- Materials: rice straw, hay, paper, and plastic

Cultural or Agro-ecological
Indirect control methods
Environmental modification or changes in crop production
practices that enhance crop volume and reduces weed
growth.

Cultural or Agro-ecological
Crop competition
- Make crops more competitive than weeds (planting
methods such as transplanting, spacing)
- Transplanted: rice has 20-day headstart than weeds;
lesser competition.
- Direct seeded- rice and weeds germinate at the same
time; greater competition.

Cultural or Agro-ecological
Water management
Flooding
- Supressses weed growth by depriving plant with the
needed oxygen (hypoxia)
- Proper timing and optimum level of water in lowland rice
will inhibit the establishment of weeds.

Effect of soil moisture on weed


species present in the field

Saturated after transplanting- Echinochloa glabrescens


Below saturation after transplanting- Leptochloa chinensis
Rainfed, puddled- Cyperus iria
Rainfed, not puddled- E. colona
Irrigated, puddled- Monochoria vaginalis
Irrigatde, not puddled- Cyperus difformis
Saturated, puddled- Echinochloa colona

Cultural or Agro-ecological

Crop rotation (ex. Rice, onion rotation)


Cultivar or crop type
Plant density
Fertilizer application

Introduction to Chemical weed


control
Herbicides- Chemicals used to suppress or kill vegetation
Use of this need understanding their nature and
properties for maximum efficacy.

Herbicide Classification
Based on time of application
- Preplant- applied before the crop is seeded or
transplanted.
- Foliar- applied before planting (glyphosate, paraquat)
- Soil incorporated

Herbicide Classification

Pre-emergence- Before crop emergence.


( Butachlor, pretilachlor, penolimethalin)
Post emergence
- 2.4-D; oxadiazon

Herbicide Classification
Soil applied- recommended on prepalnt on pre-emergence

Herbicide Classification

Based on biological activity


- according to mobility
A. Contract herbicide
Site of application- paraquat,

Herbicide Classification
Based on selectivity
Selective
Broad-spectrum