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WHY ?

Boiler water Treatment

BY

Vivek Pratap Singh


Mechanical Engineer
India Glycols Limited
vivekpsingh.mech@rediffmail.com
OPERATING PRESSURES

BOILERS ARE,ARBITRARILY,DESCRIBED AS

000 - 300 psig : LOW PRESSURE

301 - 600 psig : MEDIUM PRESSURE

601 - 900 psig : HIGH PRESSURE

> 900 psig : HIGH PRESSURE WITH STRINGENT


WT REQUIREMENTS

BELOW 3206.2 psig : SUB-CRITICAL

> 3206.2 psig/ : SUPER-CRITICAL


705.4 deg F
Types Of Boilers

Coil Type
Fire Tube
Water Tube
ASME Guidelines for Water Quality in
Modern Industrial Water Tube Boilers

Boiler Feed Water Boiler Water


Drum Iron Copper Total Silica Total Specific
Conductan
Pressure (ppm Fe) (ppm Cu) Hardness (ppm SiO2) Alkalinity** ce
(ppm (ppm (micromho
(psi) CaCO3) CaCO3) s/cm)
(unneutrali
zed)
0-300 0.1 0.05 0.3 150 700* 7000
301-450 0.05 0.025 0.3 90 600* 6000
451-600 0.03 0.02 0.2 40 500* 5000
601-750 0.025 0.02 0.2 30 400* 4000
751-900 0.02 0.015 0.1 20 300* 3000
901-1000 0.02 0.015 0.05 8 200* 2000
1001-1500 0.01 0.01 0 2 0*** 150
Types of Pretreatment Equipment

••Primary
Primary
•• Clarifiers
Clarifiers
•• Lime
Lime Soda
Soda Softener
Softener
•• Sodium
Sodium Zeolite
Zeolite Softener
Softener
Secondary
Secondary
•• Demineralizer
Demineralizer
•• Dealkalizers
Dealkalizers
•• Reverse
Reverse Osmosis
Osmosis
Problems associated with boiler water

• Scaling
• Corrosion
• Priming (formation of droplets)
• Carryover in the steam (of volatile
minerals)
Scale

Accumulation of material on boiler surfaces that


can cause overheating as well as circulation
restrictions.
Both conditions frequently result in
unscheduled Shutdowns.
Scale
Scaling

Scale formation is a function of two criteria:


1. The concentration and solubility limits of the
dissolved salt
2. The inverse solubility (proportional to
temperature) property of some salts
Scale

Many
Many solids,
solids, soluble
soluble in
in boiler
boiler feedwater,
feedwater, precipitate
precipitate inin
the
the boiler
boiler water.
water. This
This happens
happens due due to
to change
change in in
chemistry
chemistry of of water
water when
when going
going from
from feedwater
feedwater to to
boiler
boiler water
water conditions,
conditions, inverse
inverse solubility
solubility of
of some
some
salts
salts like
like carbonate
carbonate which
which will
will combine
combine with
with calcium
calcium
to
to form
form calcium
calcium carbonate,
carbonate, aa relatively
relatively insoluble
insoluble salt.
salt.
Magnesium
Magnesium hydroxide
hydroxide and
and iron
iron oxide
oxide are
are also
also
produced
produced by by changes
changes inin water
water chemistry.
chemistry.
Effect of Scale
Scale Formation Reactions

Ca(HCO33)22 = CaCO33 + CO22 + H22O

Fe++++ + 2HCO33-- = Fe(OH)22 + 2CO22

Mg(HCO33)22 = Mg(OH)22 + 2CO22


How Bad Are Iron Deposits?

6
Energy Loss %

2 Iron + Silica
High Iron Content
1
"Normal" Scale
0
1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16
Scale Thickness - Inches
Prevention of scaling

Solubilizing programs
Precipitating Programs
Coordinated phosphate - pH programs.
Congruent phosphate
Filming amines
How Does Corrosion Occur in a Boiler?
How Does Corrosion Occur in a Boiler?

From Oxygen in the Feedwater


Oxygen Corrosion
How Does Corrosion Occur in a Boiler?

From Oxygen in the Feedwater


From Acid Conditions in the Boiler
How Does Corrosion Occur in a Boiler?

From Oxygen in the Feedwater


From Acid Conditions in the Boiler
Caustic Attack
During an Idle Period
Corrosion in Boiler - Oxygen
Dissolved oxygen in the feedwater can attack the feedwater line,
heaters, and the economizer.
Oxygen induced corrosion is an electrochemical reaction and often
Fe(OH)
2

results in localized pitting of the metal surface.


The rate of reaction and severity of this type of corrosion will depend
upon the level of dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH of the
feedwater.
Corrosion of steel is a spontaneous electrochemical reaction that
occurs between iron and oxygen. The overall reaction is:
Fe + ½ O2 + H2O
Contd……

Oxygen
Oxygen attack
attack on
on steel
steel can
can be
be decreased
decreased by
by maintaining
maintaining an
an alkaline
alkaline pH
pH
and
and limiting
limiting the
the oxygen
oxygen concentration.
concentration.
The
The factors
factors affecting
affecting oxygen
oxygen scavenging
scavenging reaction
reaction rates
rates include:
include:
•• Oxygen
Oxygen concentration
concentration
•• Presence
Presence ofof aa catalyst
catalyst
•• Reaction
Reaction time
time
•• pH
pH
•• Temperature
Temperature
•• Scavenger
Scavenger feed
feed rate
rate and
and decomposition
decomposition
Acidic Boiler Water
CAUSTIC GOUGING
BOILER WATER ENTERS THROUGH POROUS DEPOSITS

ESCAPES AS STEAM THROUGH CHIMNEYS FORMED


IN POROUS DEPOSITS

A LOCALISED BOILER FORMS LEADING TO CONCENTRATION


OF SOLIDS WITH NO PROVISION OF BLOWDOWN
Steam
Boiler Water

Conc
NaOH

AS A RESULT CAUSTIC CONCENTRATES UPTO ABOUT 1%


(10,000 ppm) AND ABOVE,AND CONC KEEPS INCREASING
Prevention of Corrosion
Means of Removal of Dissolved
gasses

Mechanically

Chemical
Mechanical

Degasser

Deaerater
Tray type
Spray type
Purpose of a Deaerator

• Remove Oxygen and Other


Dissolved Gases from Feedwater
Why is Deaeration Necessary?
Why is Deaeration Necessary?

• Oxygen Corrosive Mild Steel


Why is Deaeration Necessary

• Oxygen Corrosive to Mild Steel


• Cheaper to Remove Most of the Oxygen with
Steam than to Remove Chemically
Consequences of poor deaeration
Oxygen Pitting
Chemical

Sodium BiSulphite
Na22SO33
Hydrazine
DEHA
Carbohydrazide
Condensate System

Make-up Water

Primary Secondary
Pretreatment Pretreatment

Condensate
Steam Header
Deaerator

Boiler Chemical
Feed
Systems
Feedwater

Blowdown
Why you need a condensate recovery ?
Corrosion
How Does Corrosion Occur?
How Does Corrosion Occur?

Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen Corrosion
Oxygen Enters the Steam/
Condensate System
Oxygen Enters the Steam/
Condensate System

From Feedwater
Oxygen Enters the Steam/
Condensate System

From Feedwater
Draw in Under Vacuum as Steam
Condenses
Carbonic Acid Corrosion
Carbon Dioxide Can Enter the
Steam/Condensate System

From Breakdown of Feedwater Alkalinity


Carbon Dioxide Can Enter the
Steam/Condensate System

From Breakdown of Feedwater Alkalinity


Drawn in Under Vacuum as Steam Condenses
Oxygen and Carbonic Acid Corrosion
How Can You Tell If You Have a
Corrosion Problem?
How Can You Tell If You Have a
Corrosion Problem?

If You Need to Replace Lines


How Can You Tell If You Have a
Corrosion Problem?

If You Need to Replace Lines


Testing for Iron in the Returned
Condensate
What Happens When You Cannot Stop
Corrosion or Treat Your Condensate System
What Happens When You Cannot Stop
Corrosion or Treat Your Condensate System

Dissolved Iron Turns to Iron Particles


What Happens When You Cannot Stop Corrosion
or Treat Your Condensate System

Dissolved Iron Turns to Iron Particles


Particulate Iron Goes Into the Boiler
What Happens When You Cannot Stop
Corrosion or Treat Your Condensate System

Dissolved Iron Turns to Iron Particles


Particulate Iron Goes Into the Boiler
Iron Deposits Are Formed