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Biodiversity

What do you think biodiversity


means?

Biodiversity
What does Bio mean?

Bio = Life

Biodiversity
What does Diversity mean?

Diversity = Variety

Biodiversity is the variety of life on


Earth and the essential
interdependence of all living things

Scientists have identified more than 1.4 million species. Tens of


millions -- remain unknown (www.thecatalogueoflife.org)
The tremendous variety of life on Earth is made possible by
complex interactions among all living things including microoganisms.

There are 3 components of biodiversity


1. Diversity of genes- Genetic diversity is the variety
in genetic makeup among individuals with in a species. Human
beings white, black, brown, yellow etc.

Chihuahuas, beagles, and rottweilers are all the same species but
they're not the same because there is variety in their genes.

Chihuahua

Beagle

Rottweilers

2. Diversity of number of species- Species


diversity refers to the number of plant and
animal species present in a community.
Species a group of living organisms consisting of
similar individuals capable of exchanging genes
For example, monkeys, dragonflies, and meadow beauties are all
different species.

Saki Monkey

Golden Skimmer

Meadow Beauty

3. Ecosystem diversity- Ecosystem diversity


is the variety of habitats found in an area. For example
Lakes, Ponds, and Rivers are all Freshwater Ecosystems.
Rocky coast, Sand Dune, Estuary, Salt Marsh , Coral Reef
are all Marine Ecosystems.

So whats an ECOSYSTEM???

ECOSYSTEM DEFINITION
A self-contained community of microorganisms,
animals and plants, that interact with each other and with
their physical environment.

Example is
a rock pool

Within an ecosystem there can be


many HABITATS
This is the physical and chemical
description of where a creature lives...

HABITATS might describe:


The NAME of the place where the creature lives.

eg Arctic Canada is the habitat of the polar bear


Ursa maritima.

HABITATS might describe:


The DOMINANT VEGETATION of the
place where the creature lives.
eg Heather moorland is the habitat of the
grouse.

HABITATS might describe:


The TYPE of place where the creature
lives.

eg species of fish like Pike (Esox lucius)


are found in freshwater lakes and ponds.

Which is more diverse?

Which is more diverse?

Which is more diverse?

Which is more diverse?

Which has more cultural


diversity?

Which has more biodiversity?

Which has more biodiversity?

Biodiversity has Different Value


1. Utilitarian Value = the value something has
as a means to anothers end.
We use them for different things. Mainly for
recreation, food. Grains, vegetables, fruits,
meat and fish.
Utilitarian values include:
Goods eg sustainable timber
Services eg eco-tourism
Information eg National Park Wardens

2. Aesthetic values.
It is non-utilitarian (not related to direct use).
Just being close to nature gives many of us
enjoyment and even spiritual solace (comfort).
That is why people go to seashore, hill stations,
deserts, forests for vacation.

3. Ethical Value
We can look at biodiversity from ecosystem point
of view.
Every species has a value or role in nature.

It has a right to exist, whether or not it is


known to be useful to humans.
In fact, humans have so much power over nature,
they should perhaps conserve all species.
All life is sacred and must be protected.

What do we get from


biodiversity?
Oxygen
Food
Clean Water
Medicine
Aesthetics
Ideas

Should we be concerned about


biodiversity?
What we know:
The Earth is losing species at an alarming rate
Some scientists estimate that as many as 3 species
per hour are going extinct and 20,000 extinctions
occur each year.
When species of plants and animals go extinct, many
other species are affected.

What is meant by Biodiversity


Conservation?
In biodiversity conservation, we study how human
activities affect the diversity of plants and animals and
develop ways of protecting that diversity.
Conservation ranges from protecting the populations of a
specific species (sparrow) to preserving entire ecosystems
(forests, deserts, ponds, rivers etc.)
Some threats to biodiversity are
Habitat destruction, Pollution, Species Introductions, Global Climate
Change, Exploitation

There are two main types of conservation.


1.In situ (on-site) conservation tries to protect species where they are,
in their natural habitat.
2. Ex situ (off-site) conservation attempts to preserve and protect the
species in a place away from their natural habitat. Guj lions to MP.
In general, in situ conservation is more cost-effective. You do not
have to move the species.
In many cases, however, the ex situ approach may be the only
feasible one.

How is conservation done in situ?


We do in situ conservation primarily by setting up national parks and
reserves.
It requires the identification and protection of natural areas that have
high biodiversity. Thol lake, Nal Sarovar, Bharatpur, Corbett Nat Park
The main objective is to preserve large areas of underdeveloped land
so that the ecosystems and biodiversity can continue to flourish and
evolve (develop gradually)
Large animals like elephants need big reserves.
But In situ conservation through reserves has its limitations.
They do not receive protection and management they deserve.
Another problem is non involvement of locals in the whole process.
Locals must be consulted and made partners in conservation.

How is Ex situ conservation practised?


In this approach, we conserve biodiversity in an artificial setting.
This includes the storage of seeds in banks, breeding of captive
animals species in zoos, and setting up botanical gardens aquariums
and research institutes.
There are more than 100 seed banks in the world and they hold more
than four million seeds maintained at low temperatures and low
humidity levels.
The seeds are supposed to be safe from habitat destruction, climate
changes, and general destruction. They can even help reintroduce
extinct species.
Most of the seed banks concentrate on about 100 plants that give 90
% of our food. There is a need for many more banks to store many
more species, particularly in the developing countries.

Role of Zoos in biodiversity conservation.


Along with many other animals, zoos also preserve a
few individuals of critically endangered species. If an
animal breeds in captivity, the zoo may ultimately
reintroduce the species into protected reserves.
Botanical Gardens
There are over 1600 botanical gardens in the world,
holding 4 million plants.
They cover about 80,000 species or 30 % of all known
species.
Botanical gardens have a significant educational value
for scientists and students. They increasingly focus on
rare and endangered species.

BIODIVERSITY

GOALS OF CONVENTION
ON BIODIVERSITY
The conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable
use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing
of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic
resources
Biodiversity is a common concern of humankind and
an integral part of the development process
> 100,000 plant/animal species lost in last 5 years
Habitat loss is biggest current threat to biodiversity
Deforestation and forest degradation has increased
since the Rio Earth Summit

BIODIVERSITY
How many species are there?
-- 1.4 million named species (70% of which are
invertebrates)
-- estimated 3 to 50 million species alive!

THE GREATEST THREAT

BIODIVERSITY
http://endangered.fws.gov/
http://www.nesarc.org/

http://www.stopextinction.org/

http://www.audubon.org/campaign/esa/esa.html