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Deep Groove Ball Bearing

Deep groove ball bearings are very widely used


A deep groove is formed on each inner and outer race of a deep groove
ball bearing
Radial loads and axial loads in either direction and the resultant forces
of these loads can be sustained
These bearings are suitable for high speed operation

Deep Groove Ball Bearing


Shielded Ball Bearings are deep groove ball bearings having the same
boundary dimensions as those of open type bearings
Protection against the penetration of foreign material and the
prevention of grease leakage are provided by the steel shield plates of
these bearings
Since the shields are non-contact type, friction torque is very low

Deep Groove Ball Bearing


Like shielded bearings, Sealed Ball Bearings have the same boundary
dimensions as those of the open type bearings
Sealed ball bearings also have the function of keeping foreign matters
out and grease in with a seal
In Non-Contact type sealed bearing a seal plate of synthetic rubber
anchored to a steel plate is fastened to the outer race, and the edge of
the seal forms a labyrinth clearance along the V groove of the inner
race seal surface whereas in Contact type, the seal contacts the V
groove

Non-contact

Contact

Angular Contact Ball Bearing


In addition to radial loads, relatively heavier axial loads in one
direction can be accommodated by an angular contact ball bearing
The line connecting the contact points of the steel ball and inner race
and the ball and outer race create an angle with the line drawn in the
radial direction called the contact angle
The larger the contact angle, the larger the loading capacity becomes
Since the axial load is generated from a radial force, two of these
bearings are generally used in pairs

Angular Contact Ball Bearing


Duplex Arrangement Angular Contact Ball Bearings
Radial loads and axial loads in either direction can be accommodated
by Back-to-Back or Face-to-Face duplex angular contact ball
bearings

Angular Contact Ball Bearing


The back-to-back duplex type bearing has a large distance l between
the acting load center of the bearing, and the loading capacity is large
The face-to-face duplex type bearing has smaller loading capacity than
that of the back-to-back duplex type bearing
Radial loads and heavy axial loads can be accommodated by Tandem
Duplex type bearing, however, the axial loads can be applied in only
one direction

Angular Contact Ball Bearing


Double Row Angular Contact Ball Bearing
The structure of double row angular contact ball bearings are designed
by arranging two single row angular contact ball bearings in back-toback duplex form so that the inner and outer races, are respectively,
each formed in one piece

Angular Contact Ball Bearing

Four Point Angular Contact Bearing


Four point angular contact ball bearings have raceways designed to
support axial loads in both directions
They have split inner ring
These bearings take considerable less axial space than double row
bearings
They have a contact angle of either 35o or 45o

Self-Aligning Ball Bearing


The outer raceway of self aligning ball bearings forms a spherical
surface whose center is common to the bearing center
The inner race of the bearing has two raceways
The steel balls, cage and inner race can rotate freely at a certain angle
due to self aligning features
Misalignment of the bearing shaft due to the machining and
installation of the shaft and housing will be automatically adjusted

Self-Aligning Ball Bearing


The allowable misalignment angle of the bearing is about 4 o in the
case of ordinary loads
Since axial loading capacity is limited, the bearings are not suitable for
applications with heavy axial loads

Thrust Ball Bearing

Single Direction Thrust Ball Bearing


The balls of a single direction thrust ball bearings are arranged
between shaft housing washers
The contact angle is 90o and axial loads can be supported in only one
direction
The shaft washers (rotating rings) have a flat back face, the housing
washers (fixed rings) can have either a spherical or flat back face
The spherical type allows for certain bearing mounting errors
Generally, these bearings are unsuitable for high-speed operations

Thrust Roller Bearing


Spherical Roller Thrust Bearing

Cylindrical Roller Bearing


Since the rollers of cylindrical roller bearings make line contact with
the raceways, these bearings can support heavy radial and are suitable
for high speed operation
The NU type has double ribs on the outer race and the outer
race/roller/cage assembly and inner race can be separated
The N type differs from NU type in that it has double ribs on the inner
race
Both cannot receive any axial load whatsoever
Most suitable types for floating side bearings

Cylindrical Roller Bearing


The NJ type has double ribs on the outer race and a single rib on the
inner race

Tapered Roller Bearing


Tapered roller bearings are designed such that their conical rollers and
raceways are arranged so that all elements of the roller and raceway
cones meet at a common apex on the bearing axis
The rollers are guided by the contact between the large end of the
roller and the rib on the inner race

Tapered Roller Bearing


This construction provides a high capacity for radial loads, axial loads
and combined loads
The larger the contact angle, the greater the loading capacity becomes
When a pure radial load is placed on the bearing, an induced load in
the axial direction is also generated. So, these bearings are generally
used in pairs opposing each other

Spherical Roller Bearing


Spherical roller bearings consist of an outer race having a continuous
spherical raceway centered within two rows of barrel-shaped rollers
operating in separate raceways ground into the inner ring with a center
rib to guide the rollers
This type of bearing has a self aligning nature, so it can be used in
cases where misalignment between inner and outer rings occurs from
shaft mounting errors and shaft deflections

Spherical Roller Bearing


The allowable misalignment is about 0.5o for ordinary loads and for
light loads, this angle can be up to 2o
These bearings have a large capacity for radial loads, axial loads in
either direction, and combinations of these loads
They are also suited for applications where vibration and/or impact
forces are encountered

Needle Roller Bearing


The needle shaped rollers used as rolling elements have a diameter of
5mm or less and length three to ten times the diameter
Because the bearing has many rolling elements, rigidity is high and is
suitable for rocking motion
Needle Roller Bearings Without Inner Race
These are ideal in cases where the shaft surface itself can be hardened
to act as a raceway
They allow the use of larger shafts then are possible when inner rings
are used and since no influence is exerted by inner race accuracy, high
running accuracy is obtainable
Double Row Needle Roller Bearings
Are specially suitable where large loads are operating or where
support is required over a large area

Bearing Arrangement
Shaft are generally supported by two bearings in the radial and axial
direction
The side that fixes relative movement of the shaft and housing in the
axial direction is called the Fixed Side Bearing or Locating Bearing
And the side that allows axial movement is called Floating or NonLocating Bearing
The floating side bearing is needed to absorb mounting error and avoid
stress caused by expansion or contraction of the shaft due to
temperature change

Bearing Fits
The most effective method of mounting a bearing to support a load is
to provide Interference by fastening with an interference fit
There are also advantages in providing Clearance such as mounting,
dismounting and absorption of expansion and contraction of the shaft
and housing due to change in temperature
A bearing ring subjected to a rotating load will suffer creep if mounted
with a clearance fit, and wear of contacting surfaces will occur. To
prevent this interference fits must be used

Bearing Internal Clearance


Bearing internal clearance is defined as the total distance through
which one bearing ring can be moved relative to the other in the radial
direction (radial internal clearance) or in the axial direction (axial
internal clearance)
During operation, clearance largely affects bearing performance such
as bearing life, heat, vibration, and sound

Bearing Internal Clearance


As a general rule, ball bearings should have an operational clearance
which is virtually zero, or there may be a slight preload
Cylindrical and spherical roller bearings, on the other hand, should
always have some residual clearance
The bearing internal clearance referred to as Normal has been selected
so that a suitable operational clearance will be obtained when the
operating conditions are normal
Where operating conditions differ from normal (for example unusual
temperatures prevail) bearing with smaller or greater internal
clearances than normal are required
C1=Clearance less than C2
C2=Clearance less than normal
C3=Clearance greater than normal C4=Clearance greater than C3
C5=Clearance greater than C4

Bearing Preload
In certain applications, a negative operational clearance or Preload is
desirable in order to enhance the stiffness of the bearing arrangement
or to increase running accuracy
Excessive preload, however, invites life reduction, abnormal heating,
and increase in rotating torque
Preload is particularly recommended where bearings are to operate
under very light load and at high speeds to prevent bearing damage
from excessive sliding movements
It also reduces vibrations and noise

Bearing Failures
Rolling fatigue, flaking may be caused by early
overload, excessive load due to improper
handling, poor shaft or housing accuracy,
installation error, ingress of foreign objects,
rusting
Flaking
Poor mounting and removing practice, oil film
discontinuation on the contact surface due to
excessive radial load, foreign objects trapping,
slippage or poor lubrication of the rolling
elements
Spalling

Bearing Failures
Ingress of solid foreign particles, trapping of
flaked particles, impacts due to careless handling

Indentation (False Brinelling)


Poor lubrication, trapping of foreign objects,
heavy vibration, excessive heat (plastic cages)

Cage Failures

Types of Sliding Contact Radial Bearings


Low-Speed Pins and Bushings are a form of journal bearing in which
the shaft generally does not make a full rotation. The partial rotation at
low speeds, before typically reversing direction, does not allow for the
formation of full fluid film and thus metal-to-metal contact does occur
within the bearing. These type of bearings are lubricated with extreme
pressure grease to aid in supporting the load
Dry Journal Bearings consists of a shaft rotating in a dry sleeve,
usually a polymer, which may be blended with solids such as
molybdenum, graphite, and PTFE. These bearings are limited to lowload and low-speed applications
Semi-Lubricated Bearing consists of a shaft rotating in a porous metal
sleeve of aluminum in which lubricating oil is contained within the
pores of the porous metal. Restricted to low-load and low-temperature
applications

Journal Bearing
The cylindrical hydrodynamic journal bearing is the most basic
hydrodynamic bearing
It has a cylindrical bore, typically with two axial grooves for
lubrication
Grooves in the bearing shell are used to distribute the oil throughout
the bearing surfaces
Journal bearings accept only radial loading generally due to downward
weight or load of the shaft

Journal Bearing
Journal bearings operate in the boundary regime
only during the startup and shutdown of the
equipment when the rotational speed of the shaft is
insufficient to create the oil film
It is during startup and shutdown when almost all of
the damage to the bearing occurs
Hydrostatic lift, created by an external pressurized
oil feed, may be employed to float large, heavy
journals prior to startup to prevent this damage
During normal operation, the shaft rotates at
sufficient speed to force oil between the conforming
curved surfaces of the shaft and shell, thus creating
an oil wedge and a hydrodynamic oil film

Journal Bearing
This full hydrodynamic fluid film allows these bearings to support
extremely heavy loads and operate at high rotational speeds

Journal Bearing
Oil Whip and Whirl
Oil whirl is a phenomenon that can occur in high-speed journal
bearings when the shaft position within the shaft becomes unstable and
the shaft continues to change its position during normal operation due
to the fluid forces created within the bearing
Oil whirl may be reduced by changing the viscosity, temperature or oil
pressure in the bearing
Oil whip occurs when the oil whirl frequency coincides with the
systems natural frequency. The result can be a catastrophic failure

Tilting Pad Thrust Bearing

Load transmitted by the rotating collar to any thrust shoe forces the shoe
against the upper leveling plate behind it. Each upper leveling plate is
supported on one radial edge of each of two adjacent lower leveling plates.
The lower leveling plates rock very slightly and raise the shoes on either
side and so on around the ring. As the leveling plates intermesh, the load on
adjacent shoes is equalized.

Tilting Pad Radial Bearing