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GBUS 205 MANAGEMENT AND

ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR
(WEEK 5)
WORK MOTIVATION
AND PERFORMANCE
By Grace Abban Ampiah
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Motivation
Motivating people at work is a vital

element in effective and successful


management.
This session aims to provide an

examination of some theories of


motivation and their implications for the
manager.

Objectives
At the end of this lecture, students will be able
to:
apply the various theories of motivation
when motivating employees in the
organization.
develop steps/measures to motivate both

individual and group to enable them


improve on their performance to ensure
organizational effectiveness.
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Content
What is Motivation?
Significance of Work Motivation to

Managers
Characteristics of Motivation
Types of Work Motivation
Theories of Motivation
Content approaches
Maslow
Herzberg
Alderfers ERG
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Content
Process approaches
Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
Equity Theory (Adams)
Goal Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)

Motivation and psychological contract


Techniques to increase motivation of

employees
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Exercise
Spend few minutes to discuss among
yourselves the following question:
What is motivation?
Reflect on the things that motivate you to

study a particular subject on campus.


List ways managers can motivate
employees to perform at the work place.
Why it is vital for managers to study and
apply the motivation principles at the
work place.
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What is Work Motivation?


Motivation simply means the degree to which

a person strives hard to achieve a specific


goal. (E.g. ability to work hard to pass an
exams inspite of difficulties).
Motivation is the extent to which persistent

effort is directed toward a goal.


(Johns, G. and Saks, A. M., 2005)
Motivation is defined as a driving force

within individuals by which they attempt


to achieve a specific goal in order to fulfill
a need or expectation.

Why should Managers study and


apply Motivation principles at the
Workplace?
It is vital for every manager and aspiring

managers to understand and apply motivation


principles at the work place because of the
following:
Motivating employees helps to improve their

performance.
Motivated workforce helps to increase

organizational effectiveness or productivity


levels.
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Why should Managers study and


apply Motivation principles at the
Workplace?
Helps to increase employees commitment,

loyalty and satisfaction on the job.


Reduce turnover rate, absenteeism, lateness

and accidents rate.


Motivating employees helps to create a

serene work environment.

How do managers determine that


employees are motivated on the job.
There three main determinants of work motivation;
Direction of Individual behaviour: How does an

employee behave on the job? Does a person have


a positive negative behaviourlack towards work?
Level of effort: How hard does a person strive to

achieve his/her work targets?


Level of Persistence: How diligent does a person

work despite the challenges they face on the job.


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De-motivated Staff will


hinder organization's
progress!

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Motivated Staff is essential


to achieve organizational
success!

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Types of Motivation
Motivation is grouped into two main types

namely:
Intrinsic Motivation: is when we perform

or act in a certain manner because we want


to fulfill our personal interest or desires.
Extrinsic Motivation: when we perform or

behave in a specific way with the intention


of being rewarded or avoiding punishment.

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Differences between Intrinsic and Extrinsic


Motivation Off the Job examples
Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic Motivation

Taking part in community

Learning hard to get an

works because you enjoy


doing it.
Playing ludo during your

leisure because you find


it interesting and fun.

excellent grade at the end


of the semester.
Abiding by the GIMPA

rules and regulation


because you do not want
to be dismissed or
punished.
Working hard as an

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employees to receive end


of year award.

Differences between Intrinsic and Extrinsic


Motivation On the Job examples

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Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic Motivation

These are related to


Psychological rewards:
Achievement Able to
deliver results
Challenge task
Recognition receiving
appreciation
Career Advancement
Growth in skills and
knowledge
Social needs
Acceptance, respect and
attention

Base Pay fixed amount

of salary paid to employees


in return of their work.
Excludes bonuses,
incentives e.t.c
Performance-based pay
Fringe benefits (E.g.
retirement benefits plans,
housing benefits, life
insurance benefits.
Certificates (E.g. End of
year awards, Best Worker
Awards)

Theories Of Motivation
Content Theories
Maslow - Five Level Hierarchy of Needs
Alderfers ERG Theory
Herzberg -Two Factor Theory

Process Theories
Vroom Expectancy Theory
Adams Equity Theory
Locke Goal Setting Theory
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Theories of Motivation
Contd
Theories of
Motivation

Contribution

Practical
Implication

Content Theories

Examines how to
satisfy individual
needs in order to
strengthen and
maintain
behaviours

Managers should
understand that
each employee is
unique and focus
on different needs,
desires and goals
to enable them
motivate
employees
accordingly.

Contributors:
Maslow
Herzberg
Alderfers ERG

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Theories of Motivation
Theories of
Motivation

Contribution

Practical
Implication

Process Theories

Individuals make
decisions whether
to work hard or not
based on the
following:

Managers should
have knowledge in
the motivation
process to
understand that
individuals make
decision based on
achievements,
rewards and
preferences

Contributors:
Vroom
Adam
Locke

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Own preferences
Available rewards
Possible
outcomes
from work

Different needs of individuals


and the organization

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Individual Needs

Organizational needs

Achievement

High Productivity

Respect from work

Low Absenteeism

group/colleagues
Personal
Development
Physical Well-being
Job Satisfaction -

Cooperation
Low Labour Turnover
Industrial Harmony

Five Level Hierarchy of Needs Maslow

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Five Level Hierarchy of Needs


Maslow (Practical Implications)
Level 1 Physiological Needs
should be met
(E.g. Water, Oxygen, Food,
Sleep, and Shelter)

Level 2 Safety and Security


(E.g. Safe working conditions,
Stability of environment.)

Provide reasonable working


hours
Break for lunch and refreshment
Comfortable working
environment
Basic Compensation and
benefits
Provide safe working environment,
medical insurance, job security, Join
trade Unions)

Level 3 Love (Social Belongingness) Opportunity to socialize: Provide


formal and informal working groups.
Generate a feeling of acceptance
(E.g. Family, friendship, Sexual
intimacy)
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Five Level Hierarchy of Needs


Maslow (Practical Implications)
Level 4 Esteem (Respect
Own self and from others)
E.g. Confidence,
Independence, respect for
others, Appreciation,
recognition.

Responsibility for
challenging tasks.

Level 5 Self Actualization

provide opportunities for growth


and development of employees
E.g. Creativity, problem solving,
innovations, opportunities for
career development

E.g. Growth and Development

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Feedback and recognition


from Superior.

Alderfers ERG Theory

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Group exercise
Critically analyze the similarities between

Maslow's Five level hierarchy of needs


and Alderfers ERG Theory.
Reflects on the criticisms of both

Maslows five level hierarchy of needs and


Alderfers ERG Theory

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Herzbergs Two factor


Theory
According to Herzberg there are two main factors
that needs to be considered to ensure improved
employee performance:
Hygiene factors (Dissatisfiers)

These are factors that does not motivate employees,


but if not present leads to job dissatisfaction.
Motivation factors

These are factors that when present make


employees to be satisfied(motivated) on the job.
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Herzbergs Two factor


Theory
Hygiene Factors

Motivation Factors

Supervision

Recognition

Interpersonal

Achievement

Relations
Good working

conditions
Salary

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Responsibility
Advancement

Herzbergs Two factor


Theory

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Process theories of
Motivation
Types of process theories of motivation
are:
Expectancy Theory - Victor Vroom
Equity Theory - Adams
Goal Setting Theory - Locke

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People are motivated


based on the
outcomes
Expectancy
Theory
- Vroom

they expects to occur as results of their actions.

According to Vroom three variables needs to


be considered under this theory.
Expectancy
Instrumentality
Valence

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Expectancy Theory - Vroom

Expectancy: employees are likely to be

motivated if they perceive that their effort


will result in level of performance.

Can I accomplish this task?


E.g. An employee will perceive that, If I
strive hard I will be able to accomplish my
targets and meet the deadline

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Expectancy Theory - Vroom


Instrumentality: when employees are

sure that that successful performance will


be awarded.
Will I be rewarded?

E.g. If I am able to meet the


standards(targets) at the end of the year,
will I be awarded (E.g. recognition,
development opportunities, promotions)
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Expectancy Theory - Vroom


Valence: Values individuals attached to

various work outcomes.

Valence is positive (preferred), Negative

(Not preferred), Zero ( Indifferent whether


to work to achieve target or not.

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E.g. Based on the outcomes(rewards) linked


to effort (expectancy), he/she will decide
whether or not to work hard to achieve
recognition, desired pay, or development
opportunities.

Managerial Implication of
Expectancy Theory
Managers should prepare employees thoughts

about the how their efforts and performance


(outcomes) will be awarded to ignite their
motivation on the job. This can be achieved by:
Initiating Performance appraisal system to help

achieve organizational goals.


Set clearly defined standards for employees.
support employees performance (constructive

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feedback).
Measure performance annually.
Reward employees performance.

Equity Theory of Motivation


(Adams)
Employees are motivated if they are fairly

treated (Equity) based on the following:


if their efforts (skills, experience) and

rewards compared with their


colleagues/Co-workers in similar work
situations are equal (equity).

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Managerial Implications of
Equity Theory
Managers should be aware that underpaid
workers
will get angry and overpaid people feel guilty.
Managers should ensure that employees with

similar abilities (e.g. skills, experience) on


the job are given equal paid.
Design appropriate reward systems to ensure

equity (E.g. individual Performance-based and


Group performance based systems).
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Goal-setting Theory - Locke


According to Locke, motivate people by
setting
goals.
Characteristics of Goals (SMART)
S (Specific)
M (Measurable)
A (Agreed)
R - (Realistic)
T - (Time-bound)
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Managerial Implication of
Goal-setting Theory
Managers can motivate employees by the
following:
Involving employees to set clearly defined

goals.
Goals set for employees should be not be too
challenging which employees are unable to
achieve.
Provide regularly feedback to employees to
enable them focus on achieving the goals set
for them.
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Managerial Implication of
Goal-setting Theory Contd
Initiate proper monitoring system

(Performance Appraisal Review) to


review employees performance to
ensure that the goals are achieved
accordingly.
Reward Performance (Pay increment,

incentives, bonuses).

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Motivation and Psychological


Contract
Psychological Contract: refers to unwritten

agreement between the employees and


employers that specifies what to expect or
receive in return for hard work.
E.g. Employees might expect to be paid for
working overtime or weekends.
Failure of management fulfillment of

psychological contract may affect employees


work attitudes and behaviour negatively.
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Other Practical ways to Managers can


use to ensure Increased in
Motivation
Encourage
Listen
Participative Management: Consult employees

in decision-making process, tap their creativity.


Praise/Appreciation
Set Achievable Targets (SMART)
Inform (effective communication)
Delegate (Managers should assign duties to

employees)
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Other Practical ways to Managers can use


to ensure Increased in Motivation
Job Enlargement: Widen the scope (extend the

range of job duties and responsibilities) of


employees role/job. E.g. used to prevent boredom
on the job.
Job Rotation: Changing employees roles to

enhance personal development. E.g. Provide


different role outside their comfort zone.
Job Enrichment: Give employees opportunities

to use their abilities on the job. E.g. being


creative and innovative on the job.
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Conclusion
Motivate employees through:
Satisfying their desires or needs.
meeting their expectations according as

results of their actions.


Designing jobs appropriately

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Questions

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References
Ivancevich, J.M., Matteson, M. T. and

Konopaske, R. (2006), Organisational


Behaviour and Management, 7th Edition,
New York: McGraw-Hill
Greenberg, .J. (2004) Managing Behaviour
in Organisation, 4th Edition Ed, New Jersey,
USA, Prentice Hall.
Mullins, L. J. Management and
Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition., New
Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall
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