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Introduction to the Finite Element Method

(Software: NISA)

Motivation , General Concepts and Tutorial

Jeetender Singh Kushawaha

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is:


[Generally

speaking]
a powerful computational technique
for the solution of differential and
integral equations that arise in various
fields of engineering and applied
sciences;
[Mathematically]
a

generalization of the classical


variational (Ritz) and weighted-residual
(Galerkin, least-squares, etc.) methods.

Introduction to the Finite Element


Method by Jeetender Singh
Kushawaha

Motivation
Most

of the real problems:

are

defined on domains that are geometrically


complex, may have different boundary
conditions on different portions of the
boundary.

Therefore,

it is usually impossible (or difficult):


1. To find a solution analytically (so one must
resort to approximate methods),
2.
To generate approximation functions
required in the traditional variational methods.
An answer to these problems is a finiteelement approach.
Introduction to the Finite Element
Method by Jeetender Singh
Kushawaha

Main concept of FEM


A

given domain can be viewed as an


assemblage of simple geometric
shapes, called finite elements, for
which
it
is
possible
to
systematically
generate
the
approximation functions.

Introduction to the Finite Element


Method by Jeetender Singh
Kushawaha

Remarks:
The

approximation functions are also called


shape functions or interpolation functions
since they are often constructed using
ideas from interpolation theory.
The finite element method is a piecewise (or
element-wise) application of the variational
and weighted-residual methods.
For a given BVP, it is possible to develop
different finite element approximations (or
finite element models), depending on the
choice of a particular variational and weightedresidual formulation.
Introduction to the Finite Element
Method by Jeetender Singh
Kushawaha

Finite Elements the concept 1


Basic

principle: building a complicated


object with simple blocks (e.g. LEGO) or
divide a complicated object into
manageable small pieces.

Example:

approximation of an area of a

circle

Area

of one triangle:
Area of the circle:
Introduction to the Finite Element
Method by Jeetender Singh
Kushawaha

Finite Elements the concept 2


How

to proceed in FEM analysis:

1.Divide

structure into pieces


2.Describe
behavior of the physical
quantities in each element
3.Connect (assemble) the elements at the
nodes to form an approximate system of
equations for the whole structure
4. Solve the system of equations involving
unknown quantities at the nodes (e.g.
displacements)
5.Calculate desired quantities (e.g. strains
and stresses) at selected elements
Introduction to the Finite Element
Method by Jeetender Singh
Kushawaha

Finite Elements Why?

FEM

allows discretization of bodies with


arbitrary shapes. Originally designed for
problems in static elasticity.
FEM is the most widely applied computer
simulation method in engineering.
The required grid generation techniques are
interfaced with graphical techniques (CAD).
Today numerous commercial FEM software
is available (e.g. ANSYS,ABAQUS, NISA, etc.)
Introduction to the Finite Element
Method by Jeetender Singh
Kushawaha

Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


1. Geometry Creation
Creation of grids
Creation of lines
Creation of patches
2. Material Property
3. Physical Properties
4. Mesh generation
5. Node Management
6. Boundary conditions
Displacement
7. Loads
8. Type of analysis- executive
9. Title
10. Load Case
11. Print Control
12. Save files
13. Static analysis
Execute the NISA file
14. Post Processing
26.dat
15. Deformations

Introduction to the Finite Element


Method by Jeetender Singh
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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Launch the software using desktop ICON

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


New window appears

Now click on DISPLAY IV

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


New window appears

Close the Tip of he day Window

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)

Create grid using the grid


window

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)

Insert Grid point locations in grid window


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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


The Grid point 0/0/0 is displayed (Circled in RED color )

Similarly create other FOUR Grid Points

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


The FOUR Grid points are visible (0/0/0, 0/10/0, 10/10/0, 10/0/0)

Now using LINE, create the

Introduction to the Finite Element


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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)

The window icons change

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)

Using the LINE create the lines

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Two line created and similarly complete the four lines

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Create the patch using the lines

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


The patch (1, shown in RED) is created using lines ( Shown in YELLOW)

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Enter Material propery FEM>FE model data> Material property

Next window opens

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Enter the material property E = 200 e 6 and Poisson ratio 0.3

Add > OK

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Enter Material propery FEM>FE model data> Property Data
Element is shell

PROP > new window opens

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Enter Thickness as 1 and select number of nodes as 8 > OK

Click OK on property dialogue box

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Now for mesh generation: FEM > Mesh > FEG option > Quadrilateral

New window opens

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Accept the defaults : Number of elements 3/3,
Click on element type and new window opens for
stiffness type
Select 2 D plane stress > OK
Select Patch > new window opens

Select Patch > new window opens

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Select the patch 1 created earlier

The patch changes color Right Click and

Introduction to the Finite Element


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Create
window
opens
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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Select YES All and Cancel

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)

Now for node management: FEM > Nodes > Node Management> Merge N

New window opens

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)

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Steps of finite element analysis (NISA)


Select all Click OK > OK Yes All> Cancel

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Now for Boundary Conditions: FEM > Structural BC > Displacement > Add

New window opens

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Select BC data > new window opens

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Select All Zero > OK, Now Select Node IDs New window opens

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Select one by one the nodes on the left edge, Create > Yes all > Cancel

The nodes get yellow

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Now to apply load

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Apply load : FEM > Structural BC > Force/ Moment > Add on
nodes

New window opens

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Click on BC data New window opens

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Enter -500 I y qualifier > Click OK > Click on Node IDs

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Select the Right side nodes and arrows will be shown


> Click Create > Yes all > Cancel

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Now save the file using .dbs, .nis and .ses

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Enter the title of the Problem > OK

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Enter the print control; preview the selection and Click OK

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Enter the execution set up


Analysis/Static > Execution setup > new window opens > Run

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Run NISA > yes all > New window runs through > Type y and enter

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The file is executed and the message displayed

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Now open the file 26.dat

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