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ANTI-SURGE CONTROL SYSTEM M.S.MANI , CES-INSTS.
ANTI-SURGE CONTROL
SYSTEM
M.S.MANI , CES-INSTS.
ANTI-SURGE CONTROL SYSTEM M.S.MANI , CES-INSTS. 1
CONTROL PHILOSOPHY In case of a Process Units the em phasis is on safe operation and
CONTROL PHILOSOPHY
In case
of a
Process Units the
em phasis is
on
safe
operation and
precise control
In case
em phasis is
m onitoring .
of Rotary M /Cs
the
on
safe operation and
Measurements : Health of a Rotary machine is best monitored by measuring and monitoring the following
Measurements :
Health of a Rotary machine is best monitored
by measuring and monitoring the following
machine
parameters :
 Vibration levels of casing and / or
 Shaft RPM
shaft
 Relative location of the shaft with respect to a
predetermined mark ( e.g.-Key phasor )
 Axial shift of shaft
Measurements ( CONTINUED):  Temperature of thrust bearing pads  Temperature of bearing housing  Temperature
Measurements ( CONTINUED):
 Temperature of thrust bearing pads
 Temperature of bearing housing
 Temperature of lube oil return line
 Oil/gas flow/pressure to seals
Major control system  Auto start of stand by lube oil pump.  Lube Oil /
Major control system
 Auto start of stand by lube oil pump.
 Lube Oil / Seal Oil back up system
 Sequential start / stop (speed ramping of
turbines) to avoid human error
 Capacity control
 Surge control system
CONTROL SYSTEMS BLOCK DIAGRAM : UCP MCMS ALLEN BRADLEY B-N 3300/3500 PLC-5/40 SERIES WOOD WARD DCS
CONTROL SYSTEMS BLOCK DIAGRAM :
UCP
MCMS
ALLEN BRADLEY
B-N 3300/3500
PLC-5/40
SERIES
WOOD WARD
DCS
MCC
505
CCC/TURBOLOG
FO XBORO
BY
(AS APPLICABLE)
I/A SERIES
ELECTRICAL
PROTECH
ESD
203
TRICONEX
TMR
LOCAL
LOCAL CONTROL
INDICATOR
PANEL
(MTL MAKE)
(IN FIELD)
What is “Surge” ? SURGING IS AN UNSTABLE OPERATING CONDITION THAT CAUSES ERATIC COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE
What is “Surge” ?
SURGING IS AN UNSTABLE
OPERATING CONDITION THAT
CAUSES ERATIC COMPRESSOR
PERFORMANCE
WHERE AND WHEN SURGE EVERY AXIAL AND CENTRIFUGAL OCCURS ? COMPRESSOR WILL EXPERIENCE A DAMAGING PHENOMENON
WHERE AND WHEN SURGE
EVERY AXIAL AND CENTRIFUGAL
OCCURS ?
COMPRESSOR WILL EXPERIENCE A
DAMAGING PHENOMENON KNOWN
AS SURGE WHEN THE FLOW
THROUGH THE COMPRESSOR
DROPS BELOW A CERTAIN LEVEL
Why surge Occurs ? Surge can be induced by low suction pressure, high discharge pressure and
Why surge Occurs ?
Surge can be induced by
low suction pressure, high
discharge pressure and
reduction of speed of the
compressor
How Compressor is affected due to Surging ?  Compressor damage results from repetitive or frequent
How Compressor is affected due
to Surging ?
 Compressor damage results from
repetitive or frequent surging
 During Surge momentary flow reversal
takesplace, this leads to a very rapid
pulsating flow backward and forward
through the internals of compressor,
resulting in SEVERE VIBRATION and
consequent damage
What happens during Surge ?  Flow reverses in 20 to 50 milliseconds  Surge cycles
What happens during Surge ?
 Flow reverses in 20 to 50 milliseconds
Surge cycles at a rate of 0.3 s to 3 s per cycle
 Compressor vibrates
 Temperature rises
 “Whooshing” noise
 Trips may occur
 Conventional instruments and human operators
may fail to recognize surge
Some surge consequences • • • • • Unstable flow and pressure resulting in process upset
Some surge consequences
Unstable flow and pressure resulting in process
upset
Damage in sequence with severity to
seals,bearings,impellers, shaft
Increased seal clearances and leakage
Lower energy efficiency
Reduced compressor life
Some surge consequences • • • • • Unstable flow and pressure resulting in process upset
Anti-Surge control system  To prevent Surge, Surge protection systems are required  If adequate protection
Anti-Surge control system
 To prevent Surge, Surge protection systems are
required
 If adequate protection against Surge is not provided,
there is a risk of machine damage and downtime costs
 Adequate protection is defined as protecting the
compressor but not at the cost of unnecessary upset to
the process
 The job of the antisurge system is to detect the
potential upset and automatically compensate for it by
maintaining a flow through the compressor in excess
of the surge condition
Anti-surge Control system-(contd)  The chief drawback of this approach is the efficiency penalty  The
Anti-surge Control system-(contd)
 The chief drawback of this approach is
the efficiency penalty
 The energy that was used to compress the
recycled will go to waste
 So, the control system should be tailored
to open the surge control valve only when
and as far as necessary to stop surge
ASPECTS OF SURGE CONTROL SYSTEM  Compressor Flow path has probability of sudden flow reduction 
ASPECTS OF SURGE CONTROL
SYSTEM
 Compressor Flow path has probability of
sudden flow reduction
 Is the Compressor provided with Variable
Speed Drive?
 Is the Compressor provided with IGV ?
 Molecular Weight Changes
 Manufacturer’s Surge curve and tested surge
Points
 Safety Margin
REQUIREMENTS FOR ANTI-SURGE CONTROL  API asks for 10% safety distance between Surge line and control
REQUIREMENTS FOR ANTI-SURGE CONTROL
 API asks for 10% safety distance between Surge line and
control line, referred to surge flow
 This corresponds to 4 to 8% referred to full range flow
 This safety distance need to cover:
-
Anti surge controller response time
-
Limited stroke speed of Blow-off valve
-
Transmitter accuracy and drift
-
Measuring errors when the location of the surge line
is determined
-
Compressor fouling and changes in gas composition
REQUIREMENTS FOR ANTI-SURGE CONTROL  API asks for 10% safety distance between Surge line and control
SURGE DETCTION METHODS  DCS-Minimum Flow controller(On spill back)  Mechanical Minimum stopper on suction Valve
SURGE DETCTION METHODS
 DCS-Minimum Flow controller(On spill back)
 Mechanical Minimum stopper on suction Valve
 Operating Point proximity to “Surge control
Line”
 Flow reversal detection - Diff. Pr and Diff
Temp.
 Sudden Drop in Motor current
Compressor Performance Map For any operating curve the point of minimum flow and maximum pressure is
Compressor Performance Map
For any operating curve the point of
minimum flow and maximum pressure is
known as the Surge limit point. The locus
of all such points defines a curve known
as surge line
Surge control Diagram: The diagram below shows the surge control lines . performance map of a
Surge control Diagram:
The diagram below shows the
surge control lines .
performance map of a compressor with the
SKETCH - 3
1
2
3
Pd
------
Ps
4
3
FLOW
1. SURGE LIMIT LINE
3.PERFORMANCE CURVES
2.SURGE CONTROL LINE
4.OPERATING POINT
Effect of Gas composition on Surge 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 M7.8 1.2 M4.6 1 M2 0.8
Effect of Gas composition on Surge
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
M7.8
1.2
M4.6
1
M2
0.8
new
M28
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Effect of Gas composition on Surge 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 M7.8 1.2 M4.6 1 M2 0.8
Antisurge Control System Anti surge system achieve this By manipulating the positions of Recycle valve (Normally
Antisurge Control System
Anti surge system achieve this By manipulating the positions of Recycle
valve (Normally for Hazardous Gas) By using a Blow off valve (Normally for
Air or Non hazardous applications)
rate above a safe, minimum level.
in order to maintain the volumetric flow
Compressor
Antisurge Valve
PT
FT
FT
PT
TT
TT
FY
ANTI SURGE
CONTROLLER
Surge Control Techniques :  Calculate and Monitor the "Operating Point " of the Compressor. 
Surge Control Techniques :
 Calculate and Monitor the "Operating
Point " of the Compressor.
 Open the vent or Blow off valves in a
controlled way .
 Open the recycle valve( Between the
discharge and suction of the compressor)
in a controlled way.
 In variable speed machines , reduce the
speed.
Surge Control Valve  SURGE CONTROL VALVE SIZING Surge control valves should be sized for each
Surge Control Valve
 SURGE CONTROL VALVE SIZING
Surge control valves should be sized for each
of the following
1.
Surge control line at minimum speed and total recycle
2.
Surge control line at maximum speed and total recycle
3.
Surge control line at normal operating pressure
4.
The design capacity of the machine
Normally point 1 is the governing case (i.e. lowest
flow and lowest delta P) and the valve usually pass flow
the machine design capacity
Surge control Valve(contd ) ..  VALVE CHARACTERISTICS The installed characteristics of the surge control valve
Surge control Valve(contd )
..
 VALVE CHARACTERISTICS
The installed characteristics of the surge
control valve should be linear. This can be
accomplished by either a linear trim characteristic
control valve or line arising an equal percentage valve
in the controller
SPEED OF RESPONSE:
The Valve is designed to “Open fully” from “full close”
with in 2 seconds. This is accomplished by proper
punematic accessories with Valve Actuator
CONTROL SYSTEMS INSTALLED AT JG  CCC - COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION - SERIES 3+, SERIES 4
CONTROL SYSTEMS INSTALLED AT JG
 CCC - COMPRESSOR CONTROLS
CORPORATION - SERIES 3+, SERIES 4
 GHH- BROSIG - TURBOLOG
 HARTMANN- BRAUN - PROTRONIC
SURGE PROTECTION/CAPACITY CONTROL FOR CRITICAL COMPRESSORS IN JAMNAGAR  HEAT PUMP COMPRESSOR  MIN FLOW CONTROLLER
SURGE PROTECTION/CAPACITY
CONTROL FOR CRITICAL
COMPRESSORS IN JAMNAGAR
 HEAT PUMP COMPRESSOR
 MIN FLOW CONTROLLER IN DCS WITH
OPERATOR ENTERED SET POINT
 MANUAL SPEED CONTROL THROUGH
DCS
 PLAT FORMER/ISOMAR GAS
COMPRESSORS
 MIN MECHANICAL STOP IN SUCTION
VALVES
TAIL GAS COMPRESSOR  DEDICATED CONTROL SYSTEM "TURBOLOG" FROM GHH BASED ON COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE MAP 
TAIL GAS COMPRESSOR
 DEDICATED CONTROL SYSTEM "TURBOLOG"
FROM GHH BASED ON COMPRESSOR
PERFORMANCE MAP
 SURGE CONTROL BY RECYCLE VALVE
 MIN OPENING BY OPERATOR
 SUCTION PRESSURE CONTROL BY IGV
IMPLEMENTED IN GHH
 TRIP ON SURGE
COKER GAS COMPRESSOR  DEDICATED MULTI VARIABLE CONTROL - CCC SEREIS 3+ CONTROLLER  SURGE CONTROL
COKER GAS COMPRESSOR
 DEDICATED MULTI VARIABLE CONTROL -
CCC SEREIS 3+ CONTROLLER
 SURGE CONTROL BY RECYCLE VALVE
SEPARATELY FOR FIRST AND SECOND
STAGE
 ASC HAS PRESSURE OVERRIDE
CONTROL(POC) FOR THE FIRST STAGE
DISCHARGE PRESSURE
 AUTO CAPACITY CONTROL BY SPEED
VARIATION BASED ON SUCTION
PRESSURE/COLUMN OVERHEAD PR.
 DECOUPLING BETWEEN PERFORMANCE
AND ANTI SURGE CONTROLLER
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VGO HT COMPRESSOR  DEDICATED CONTROL SYSTEM "TURBOLOG" FROM GHH BASED ON COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE MAP 
VGO HT COMPRESSOR
 DEDICATED CONTROL SYSTEM
"TURBOLOG" FROM GHH BASED ON
COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE MAP
 SURGE CONTROL BY RECYCLE VALVE
 TO HASNDLE DIFFERENT PROCESS
CONDITIONS (MOL WT CHANGE)
SELECTION SWITCH IS PROVIDED IN THE
UCP. MOL WT-2.0,4.3,7.2 28
 VISUALIZATION IS PROVIDED IN THE
PIB.
 MIN OPENING BY OPERATOR
 CAPACITY CONTROL IS BY SPEED
PRT  DEDICATED CONTROL SYSTEM FROM CCC SERIES 4 SYSTEM  CONTROL SYSTEM IS DUAL REDUNDANT
PRT
 DEDICATED CONTROL SYSTEM FROM CCC
SERIES 4 SYSTEM
 CONTROL SYSTEM IS DUAL REDUNDANT AND FAULT TOLERANT
 FALL BACK STRATEGY IS IMPLEMENTED
 PRT CONTROLS ARE VERY COMPLEX DUE TO MULTIPLE
INTERACTING CONTROLS SUCH AS
EXPANDER CONTROL
DELTA P CONTROL RX/RG
STEAM TURBINE CONTROLS
BLOWER CAPACITY CONTROL
LOAD SHARING CONTROL
M/G CONTROL( LIMIT CONROL)
 GHH TURBOLOG CONTROL SYSTEM FOR START UP AND MACHINE
PROTECTION
 GHH SPECIAL SURGE DETECTOR BASED ON DP REVERSAL/ 'T'
REVERSAL( FAST T/C) ACROSS SUCTION AND DISCHARGE OF THE
BLOWER
Turbine / Compressor Control System Concept
Turbine / Compressor Control System Concept
References  Shell Dep 16ES-600 - Compressor surge control systems  Shell Dep 16GS-600 - Design
References
 Shell Dep 16ES-600 - Compressor surge
control systems
 Shell Dep 16GS-600 - Design requirements
for compressor surge control systems
 CCC Publication for Accurately defining
surge control line
 GHH-BORSIG - Turbolog operation manual
THANK YOU
THANK YOU
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