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Anatomi dan

Fisiologi Ginjal

Presented by Fransisca Melani (12-002),


Serlina Patattan (12-006), Skolastika (12-

Fungsi Ginjal
Mempertahankan keseimbangan H2O di
tubuh.
Mempertahankan osmolaritas cairan
tubuh yang sesuai, terutama melalui
regulasi keseimbangan H2O. Fungsi ini
penting untuk mencegah fluks-fluks
osmotik masuk atau keluar sel.
Mengatur jumlah dan konsentrasi
sebagian besar ion CES, termasuk
natrium (Na+), klorida (Cl-), kalium (K+),
bikarbonat (HCO3-).
Mempertahankan volume plasma yang

Fungsi Ginjal
Membantu mempertahankan
keseimbangan asam-basa tubuh.
Mengeluarkan produk-produk akhir
(sisa) metabolisme tubuh.
Mengeluarkan banyak senyawa
asing.
Menghasilkan eritropoietin.
Menghasilkan renin
Mengubah vitamin D menjadi bentuk
aktifnya.

Lokasi Ginjal
bf 7

Kidneys lie in a retroperitoneal


position in the superior lumbar
region.
The right kidney is
crowded by the liver and lies

mass about 150 g (5


ounces). Average
dimensions : 12 ; 6 ; and
3 cm

Struktur Ginjal

Renal capsule
Renal cortex

Renal corpuscle
Nephrons

Renal medulla

Renal
cortex

Minor calyx

Major calyx
Renal
medulla

Renal sinus
Renal column
Fat
in renal sinus

Collecting
duct

Renal
tubule

Papilla
Renal pelvis

Minor calyx

Renal papilla
(b)
Renal pyramid

Ureter

(a)

(c)

Blood and Nerve Supply

Afferent
arteriole
Blood
flow

Efferent
arteriole

Slit pore

Pedicel

Primary process
of podocyte

Blood
flow

Glomerular
capsule
Parietal layer
of glomerular
capsule

Slit pore

Glomerulus

Proximal
convoluted
tubule

Visceral layer of
glomerular capsule
Pedicel

Primary process
of podocyte

David M. Phillips/Visuals Unlimited

Nephrons

Location and structure of

Renal cortical tissue and


renal tubules

Blood Supply of a
Nephron

Cortical and Juxtamedullary


Nephrons

Cortical nephron

Renal
cortex

Juxtamedullary
nephron

Renal
medulla

Collecting
duct

Juxtaglomerular
Apparatus

Urine Formation
The main function of the nephrons and collecting ducts is to
control the composition of body fluids and remove wastes
from the blood, the product being urine
Urine contains wastes, excess water, and electrolytes
Urine is the final product of the processes of:
Glomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion

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Glomerular Filtration
Glomerular filtration
Substances move from the blood to the glomerular capsule

Glomerular
Filtration
Rate

Effects of Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex.
It helps regulate the concentration of extracellular
electrolytes by conserving sodium and excreting potassium
ions. Its secretion is regulated by concentration of
electrolytes in body fluids and by the renin-angiotensin
mechanism.

19

Effects of ANP
ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE (ANP)

A hormone produced by the heart, atrial


natriuretic peptide (ANP), increases
sodium excretion and decreases blood
pressure and blood volume.
ANP is released into the bloodstream in
response to stretching of the atrial
muscle cells by increased blood volume.
ANP has the following physiological
effects:
Increases glomerular filtration rate
by dilating afferent arterioles
Inhibits the collecting ducts from
reabsorbing sodium, both directly
and indirectly (by inhibiting
aldosterone secretion)
Inhibits release of renin
The renin-angiotensin system and ANP
function antagonistically in
20 the
maintenance of fluid/electrolyte balance

Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular reabsorption
Substances move from the renal tubules into the
interstitial fluid where they then diffuse into the
peritubular capillaries
The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs (70%):
Glucose, water, urea, proteins, and creatine
Amino, lactic, citric, and uric acids
Phosphate, sulfate, calcium, potassium, and sodium
ions

21

Tubular Secretion
Tubular secretion
Substances move from the plasma of the peritubular
capillaries into the fluid of the renal tubules
Active transport mechanisms function here
Secretion of substances such as drugs and ions

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Peritubular capillary
Blood flow
K+ or H+

Tubular reabsorption

Na+

Na+

Na+
Na+

Tubular secretion

Na+

H+

K+

Na+

Na+
K+

K+

Na+

Na+

Na+
Tubular fluid

H+

Distal convoluted tubule

Na+

K+

Na+

Na+

Ascending limb
of nephron loop

Collecting duct

Tubular secretion is
important for:
Disposing of substances, such as certain drugs and
metabolites, that are tightly bound to plasma proteins.
Eliminating undesirable substances or end products that
have been reabsorbed by passive processes.
Ridding the body of excess K+.
Controlling blood pH.

Mechanisms for
forming dilute and
concentrated urine.

Summary of
tubular
reabsorption

Daftar Pustaka
Irianto, K., 2012, Anatomi dan Fisiologi,
Alfabeta, Bandung, pp. 288-290.
Sherwood, L., 2013, Human Physiology:
From Cells to Systems, 9th
Edition, Cengage Learning, USA,
pp.960-985.
Sherwood, L., 2011, Fisiologi Manusia,
edisi 6, EGC, Jakarta, pp.553-590.