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Spectral Decomposition

quantify thin-bed interference, and

detect subtle discontinuities.

Outline

Wedge Model Response

The Tuning Cube

Spectral Balancing

Real Data Examples

Alternatives to the Tuning Cube

Summary

Its reflectivity spectrum is therefore white/blue.

Wavelet

w(t)

Noise

n(t)

Amplitude

Amplitude

Seismic Trace

s(t)

Travel Time

Reflectivity

r(t)

TIME

DOMAIN

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency

FREQUENCY

DOMAIN

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Fourier Transform

Its non-white reflectivity spectrum represents the interference pattern

within the short analysis window.

Wavelet

w(t)

Noise

n(t)

Amplitude

Amplitude

Seismic Trace

s(t)

Travel Time

Reflectivity

r(t)

TIME

DOMAIN

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency

FREQUENCY

DOMAIN

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Fourier Transform

Wavelet

Overprint

Spectral Interference

acoustic properties within the short analysis window.

Spectral Interference

Source Wavelet

Amplitude Spectrum

Source

Wavelet

Wavelets Reflection

Amplitude Spectrum

Amplitude

Fourier

Transform

Fourier

Transform

Frequency

Frequency

Amplitude

1

Temporal Thickness

Acoustic Reflectivity

Impedance

Thin Bed

Temporal Thickness

SPECTRAL

AMPLITUDES

FILTERED

REFLECTIVITY

(Ormsby 8-10-40-50 Hz)

Frequency (Hz)

REFLECTIVITY

0

10

20

30

40

50

100

Temporal Thickness

200

10

20

30

40

50

100

200

10

20

30

100

40

50

Amplitude

0.0015

0

1

Temporal Thickness

200

Amplitude spectrum of 10ms blocky bed

Amplitude spectrum of 50ms blocky bed

10Hz spectral amplitude

50Hz spectral amplitude

notching in the amplitude spectrum (Pf) with respect to frequency

0.0014

0.0012

Amplitude

0.0010

0.0008

Pf = 1/t

where:

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0

Frequency (Hz)

with respect to frequency.

t = Thin bed thickness.

SPECTRAL

AMPLITUDES

FILTERED

REFLECTIVITY

(Ormsby 8-10-40-50 Hz)

Frequency (Hz)

REFLECTIVITY

0

10

20

30

40

50

100

Temporal Thickness

200

10

20

30

40

50

100

200

10

20

30

100

40

50

Amplitude

0.0015

0

1

Temporal Thickness

200

Amplitude spectrum of 10ms blocky bed

Amplitude spectrum of 50ms blocky bed

10Hz spectral amplitude

50Hz spectral amplitude

notching in the amplitude spectrum (Pt) with respect to bed thickness.

0.0014

0.0012

Amplitude

0.0010

0.0008

Pt = 1/f

where:

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0

10

20

30

40

50

with respect to bed thickness.

f = Discrete Fourier frequency.

y

x

z

Interpret

y

x

Interpreted

3-D Seismic Volume

Subset

y

Zone-of-Interest

Subvolume

x

z

Compute

y

Zone-of-Interest

Tuning Cube

(cross-section view)

x

freq

Animate

y

Frequency Slices

through Tuning Cube

(plan view)

x

freq

thin bed interference,

the seismic wavelet, and

random noise

Tuning Cube

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

Multiply

y

x

freq

Seismic Wavelet

Add

y

x

freq

Noise

Wavelet

w(t)

Noise

n(t)

Amplitude

Amplitude

Seismic Trace

s(t)

Travel Time

Reflectivity

r(t)

TIME

DOMAIN

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency

FREQUENCY

DOMAIN

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Fourier Transform

Wavelet

Overprint

Spectral Balancing

Tuning Cube

y

x

freq

into Discrete Frequencies

Frequency Slices

through Tuning Cube

(plan view)

Frequency 1

y

x

Frequency 2

y

x

Frequency 3

y

x

Frequency 4

y

x

Frequency n

y

x

Independently Normalize

Each Frequency Map

Spectrally Balanced

Frequency Slices

through Tuning Cube

(plan view)

Frequency 1

y

x

Frequency 2

y

x

Frequency 3

y

x

Frequency 4

y

x

Frequency n

y

x

into Tuning Cube

Spectrally Balanced

Tuning Cube

y

x

freq

thin bed interference, and

random noise

Tuning Cube

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

Add

y

x

freq

Noise

Mississippi River Delta.

Response Amplitude

Channel A

Fault-Controlled Channel

Amplitude

1

Point Bar

Channel B

Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

Channel A

North-South Extent

of Channel A Delineation

Fault-Controlled Channel

Amplitude

1

Point Bar

Channel B

Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

Channel A

North-South Extent

of Channel A Delineation

Fault-Controlled Channel

Amplitude

1

Point Bar

Channel B

Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

Phase spectra delineate lateral discontinuities via phase instability.

Amplitude Spectrum

Phase Spectrum

Phase

Fourier

Transform

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Response Phase

Faults

Phase

180

-180

N

Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

Faults

Phase

180

-180

N

Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

Faults

Phase

180

-180

N

Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

y

x

z=1

z=n

Compute

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

y

x

freq

z=1

z=2

z=3

z=4

z=5

z=6

z=n

Subset

Discrete Frequency

Energy Cubes

y

x

Frequency 1

z=1 y

x

z

z=1 y

x

z

z=1

z=n

z=n

z=n

Frequency 2

Frequency 3

y

x

z=1

z

y

x

z=n

Frequency 4

z=1

z=n

Frequency m

Summary

quantify thin-bed interference and detect subtle discontinuities.

For reservoir characterization, our most common approach to viewing

and analyzing spectral decompositions is via the Zone-of-Interest

Tuning Cube.

Spectral balancing removes the wavelet overprint.

The amplitude component excels at quantifying thickness variability

and detecting lateral discontinuities.

The phase component detects lateral discontinuities.

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