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Spectral Decomposition

Vivek B & Shashank Sharma

Spectral Decomposition

uses the discrete Fourier transform to:


quantify thin-bed interference, and
detect subtle discontinuities.

Outline

Convolutional Model Implications


Wedge Model Response
The Tuning Cube
Spectral Balancing
Real Data Examples
Alternatives to the Tuning Cube
Summary

Long Window Analysis

The geology is unpredictable.


Its reflectivity spectrum is therefore white/blue.

Long Window Analysis

Wavelet
w(t)

Noise
n(t)

Amplitude

Amplitude

Seismic Trace
s(t)

Travel Time

Reflectivity
r(t)

TIME
DOMAIN

Amplitude
Frequency

Frequency

FREQUENCY
DOMAIN

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Fourier Transform

Short Window Analysis

The non-random geology locally filters the reflecting wavelet.


Its non-white reflectivity spectrum represents the interference pattern
within the short analysis window.

Short Window Analysis

Wavelet
w(t)

Noise
n(t)

Amplitude

Amplitude

Seismic Trace
s(t)

Travel Time

Reflectivity
r(t)

TIME
DOMAIN

Amplitude
Frequency

Frequency

FREQUENCY
DOMAIN

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Fourier Transform

Wavelet
Overprint

Spectral Interference

The spectral interference pattern is imposed by the distribution of


acoustic properties within the short analysis window.

Spectral Interference

Source Wavelet
Amplitude Spectrum

Source
Wavelet

Reflected Thin Bed


Wavelets Reflection

Thin Bed Reflection


Amplitude Spectrum
Amplitude

Fourier
Transform

Fourier
Transform

Frequency

Frequency

Amplitude

1
Temporal Thickness

Acoustic Reflectivity
Impedance

Thin Bed

Temporal Thickness

SPECTRAL
AMPLITUDES

Travel Time (ms)

FILTERED
REFLECTIVITY
(Ormsby 8-10-40-50 Hz)

Frequency (Hz)

REFLECTIVITY

Travel Time (ms)

Wedge Model Response


0

10

Temporal Thickness (ms)


20
30

40

50

100

Temporal Thickness

200

10

Temporal Thickness (ms)


20
30

40

50

100
200

10

Temporal Thickness (ms)


20
30

100

40

50

Amplitude
0.0015

0
1
Temporal Thickness

200
Amplitude spectrum of 10ms blocky bed
Amplitude spectrum of 50ms blocky bed
10Hz spectral amplitude
50Hz spectral amplitude

Individual Amplitude Spectra

The temporal thickness of the wedge (t) determines the period of


notching in the amplitude spectrum (Pf) with respect to frequency

0.0014

Amplitude spectrum of 10ms blocky bed.

0.0012

Amplitude spectrum of 50ms blocky bed.

Amplitude

0.0010
0.0008

Pf = 1/t
where:

0.0006
0.0004
0.0002
0

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240

Frequency (Hz)

Pf = Period of amplitude spectrum notching


with respect to frequency.
t = Thin bed thickness.

SPECTRAL
AMPLITUDES

Travel Time (ms)

FILTERED
REFLECTIVITY
(Ormsby 8-10-40-50 Hz)

Frequency (Hz)

REFLECTIVITY

Travel Time (ms)

Wedge Model Response


0

10

Temporal Thickness (ms)


20
30

40

50

100

Temporal Thickness

200

10

Temporal Thickness (ms)


20
30

40

50

100
200

10

Temporal Thickness (ms)


20
30

100

40

50

Amplitude
0.0015

0
1
Temporal Thickness

200
Amplitude spectrum of 10ms blocky bed
Amplitude spectrum of 50ms blocky bed
10Hz spectral amplitude
50Hz spectral amplitude

Discrete Frequency Components

The value of the frequency component (f) determines the period of


notching in the amplitude spectrum (Pt) with respect to bed thickness.

0.0014

10Hz spectral amplitude.

0.0012

50Hz spectral amplitude.

Amplitude

0.0010
0.0008

Pt = 1/f
where:

0.0006
0.0004
0.0002
0

10

20

30

Temporal Thickness (ms)

40

50

Pt= Period of amplitude spectrum notching


with respect to bed thickness.
f = Discrete Fourier frequency.

The Tuning Cube


y
x
z

3-D Seismic Volume


Interpret
y
x

Interpreted
3-D Seismic Volume

Subset
y

Zone-of-Interest
Subvolume

x
z

Compute
y

Zone-of-Interest
Tuning Cube
(cross-section view)

x
freq

Animate
y

Frequency Slices
through Tuning Cube
(plan view)

x
freq

Prior to Spectral Balancing

The Tuning Cube contains three main components:


thin bed interference,
the seismic wavelet, and
random noise

Tuning Cube
y
x
freq

y
x
freq

Thin Bed Interference

Multiply

y
x
freq

Seismic Wavelet

Add

y
x
freq

Noise

Short Window Analysis

Wavelet
w(t)

Noise
n(t)

Amplitude

Amplitude

Seismic Trace
s(t)

Travel Time

Reflectivity
r(t)

TIME
DOMAIN

Amplitude
Frequency

Frequency

FREQUENCY
DOMAIN

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Fourier Transform

Wavelet
Overprint

Spectral Balancing

Tuning Cube

y
x
freq

Split Spectral Tuning Cube


into Discrete Frequencies
Frequency Slices
through Tuning Cube
(plan view)

Frequency 1
y
x

Frequency 2

y
x

Frequency 3
y
x

Frequency 4
y
x

Frequency n
y
x

Independently Normalize
Each Frequency Map
Spectrally Balanced
Frequency Slices
through Tuning Cube
(plan view)

Frequency 1
y
x

Frequency 2

y
x

Frequency 3
y
x

Frequency 4
y
x

Frequency n
y
x

Gather Discrete Frequencies


into Tuning Cube
Spectrally Balanced
Tuning Cube

y
x
freq

After Spectral Balancing

The Tuning Cube contains two main components:


thin bed interference, and
random noise

Tuning Cube
y
x
freq

y
x
freq

Thin Bed Interference

Add

y
x
freq

Noise

Real Data Example

Gulf-of-Mexico, Pleistocene-age equivalent of the modern-day


Mississippi River Delta.

Response Amplitude

Channel A
Fault-Controlled Channel
Amplitude
1

Point Bar

Channel B
Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

analysis window length = 100ms

Tuning Cube, Amplitude at Frequency = 16 hz

Channel A
North-South Extent
of Channel A Delineation

Fault-Controlled Channel
Amplitude
1

Point Bar

Channel B
Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

analysis window length = 100ms

Tuning Cube, Amplitude at Frequency = 26 hz

Channel A
North-South Extent
of Channel A Delineation

Fault-Controlled Channel
Amplitude
1

Point Bar

Channel B
Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

analysis window length = 100ms

Heywhat about the phase?

Amplitude spectra delineate thin bed variability via spectral notching.


Phase spectra delineate lateral discontinuities via phase instability.

Amplitude Spectrum

Thin Bed Reflection

Phase Spectrum
Phase

Fourier
Transform

Frequency

Amplitude
Frequency

Response Phase

Faults
Phase
180

-180

N
Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

Tuning Cube, Phase at Frequency = 16 hz

Faults
Phase
180

-180

N
Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

analysis window length = 100ms

Tuning Cube, Phase at Frequency = 26 hz

Faults
Phase
180

-180

N
Gulf of Mexico Example

10,000 ft

analysis window length = 100ms

Discrete Frequency Energy Cubes

y
x

3-D Seismic Volume

z=1

z=n

Compute

y
x
freq
y
x
freq
y
x
freq
y
x
freq
y
x
freq
y
x
freq

Time-Frequency 4-D Cube

y
x
freq

z=1
z=2
z=3
z=4
z=5
z=6

z=n

Subset

Discrete Frequency
Energy Cubes

y
x

Frequency 1

z=1 y
x
z

z=1 y
x
z

z=1

z=n

z=n

z=n

Frequency 2

Frequency 3

y
x

z=1
z

y
x

z=n

Frequency 4

z=1

z=n

Frequency m

Summary

Spectral decomposition uses the discrete Fourier transform to


quantify thin-bed interference and detect subtle discontinuities.
For reservoir characterization, our most common approach to viewing
and analyzing spectral decompositions is via the Zone-of-Interest
Tuning Cube.
Spectral balancing removes the wavelet overprint.
The amplitude component excels at quantifying thickness variability
and detecting lateral discontinuities.
The phase component detects lateral discontinuities.