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Basic Biomass Power Plant

Efficiency

Biomass Heating Value


Fuel

Moisture
(%) (AR)

Lower Heating Value


(kJ/kg) (AR)

Higher Heating Value


(kJ/kg) (AR)

Woodchip

45

8,820

1100

Rice Husk

12

13020

14500

Bagasse

55

7140

9200

EFB

60

7120

9130

* This is indicative value only. Accurate value shall be tested by certified laboratory

Ideal Rankin Cycle on T-S


Diagram
Temperatu
re

2-3 water from feed water


pump is heated up
temperature @ constant
pressure to be rated steam
condition

4-1 low pressure mixing


steam is extracted its
energy by cooling system .
Then mixing steam become
liquid phase condensate
P Constant
water

(2)

3-4 steam is expanded its


pressure in steam turbine .
Steam pressure gradually
decrease in each stage of
turbine blade. Super heated
steam @3 become low
pressure mixing steam @4
(4)

(1)
1-2, condensate water
pressure is increased by feed
water pump to boiler rated
pressure (2)

t
an(3)
t
ns
o
C

Entropy

Power Plant Equipment


(3)

Energy Input (Fuel)

Steam
Turbine

Boiler
(4)

Plant
Efficiency () =

Plant
Heat Rate = kJ/kWh

(2)

(1)
BFWP

Conden
ser

Work Output
(Electricity)

Energy Input and Work


Output

Energy input is fuel fed into boiler then combust and release
energy to boil water to from liquid phase to vapor phase
(typically refer to super heated steam)
Example: boiler consume 15 T/H of wood chip to generate
steam. It is equivalent to
Work Output is electricity generated from steam turbine
generator
Example: from 15 T/H of woodchip, steam turbine generator
produces electricity 9900 kW
Plant Efficiency is = = = 26.93%
Plant Heat Rate =

Effecting parameter on plant


efficiency
Boiler Efficiency
Steam Turbine and Generator
Efficiency
Condenser Efficiency
Cooling Tower Efficiency

Boiler Efficiency
Steam 79.5%
Loss from moisture in fuel 7 %
Loss from H2 in Fuel 6%

Boiler
Efficiency
79.5%
Fuel 100%

Loss in dry flue gas 5 %


Loss from Unburn Carbon 2%
Loss from CO 0.3 %
Loss from radiation
0.2%

Exhaust loss

Leakage loss

Aerodynamic loss

Friction loss

Leakage loss

Admission loss

Steam

Steam Turbine Efficiency

Steam Turbine

Condenser Efficiency

Condenser

- Less cooling water


flow rate
- Fouling on tube
- Incondensable gas
- Overheat duty

Cooling Tower Efficiency


Hot Air

Hot Water

- Evaporation loss
- Drift loss
- Blow down loss
- Etc.
Cold Air

Cold Water

Heat and Mass Balance


Diagram

Heat and Mass Balanced


Diagram

Conceptual Design
Off Design Analysis
What-if Analysis
Off-line and On-line Performance
Monitoring