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YOUR BODY’S DEFENSES

Chapter 27 Section 2
OBJECTIVES:
 Describe how your body keeps out pathogens

 Explain how the immune system fights


infections

 Describe 4 challenges to the immune system


FIRST LINES OF DEFENSE:
 Eyes/Mouth: special enzymes destroy
pathogens

 Nose/Stomach: mucus carries pathogens


away

 Skin: outer cells are dead and flake off;


glands secrete oil (chemicals kill pathogens)
FAILURE OF FIRST LINES:
 What if skin gets cut?
 Blood flow to injured area increases
 Platelets seal the wound
 Cells of the immune system are activated

 Immune System: the cells and tissues that


recognize and attack foreign substances in the body
CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM:
 3 Main kinds of cells:
 Macrophages:
 engulf and digest microorganisms that enter the
body
T Cells
 Coordinate the immune system and attack
infected cells
B Cells
 Immune system cells that make antibodies

 Antibodies: proteins that attach to


specific antigens
 Antigens: substances that stimulate an

immune response
RESPONDING TO A VIRUS:
1. Two paths: some virus particles are engulfed by
macrophages others infect body cells; viruses have
viral antigens
2. Two responses: helper T cells have receptor proteins
that recognize viral antigens; they begin a T cell
response or a B cell response
3. T Cell Response: helper T cells activate killer T cells
4. Destroying Infected Cells: Killer T cells recognize the
antigens on infected cells. Killer T cells destroy them.
5. B Cell Response: Helper T cells activate B cells which
then make antibodies
6. Destroying Viruses: antibodies bind to antigens on
viruses; clumped viruses are marked for destruction.
IMMUNE RESPONSE:

http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/immune_response.gif
FEVERS:
 When macrophages activate helper T cells
they send a chemical signal that tells your
brain to turn up the heat!

 A moderate fever (102°F or 39°C) slows the


growth of some pathogens

 Best temperature for T & B cells to multiply


faster

 Temp too high (104-106°F) can be dangerous


MEMORY CELLS:
 Your immune system responds better to a second
exposure than the 1st

 1st encounter: B cells make antibodies against a


pathogen’s antigens – takes about 2 weeks – not fast
enough so you get sick

 Some of the B cells become memory B cells – they


remember how to make an antibody for a specific
antigen

 2nd encounter: memory B cells can make antibodies in


3-4 days
CHALLENGES TO THE IMMUNE
SYSTEM:
 The immune system is not perfect

 In some conditions the immune system does


not work properly

 Such as…
 Allergies
 Autoimmune Diseases
 Cancer
 AIDS
ALLERGIES:
 Sometimes the immune system overreacts to
antigens that are not dangerous

 Allergy: an inappropriate reaction to food,


medicine, pollen, dust…

 Symptoms: itchy eyes, asthma, sneezing…


AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES:
 When the immune system attacks the body’s
own cells

 Immune system cells mistake the body’s


cells for pathogens

 Examples:
 Rheumatoid Arthritis
 Type 1 Diabetes
 Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
 Lupus
CANCER:
 Healthy cells divide at a regulated rate

 Tumors develop when cells divide at an


uncontrolled rate

 If cancers invade the circulatory or lymphatic


systems, they can be spread to other parts of
the body

 Treatments: Surgery, radiation, drug


therapies
AIDS:
 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

 HIV infects the immune system

 Helper T cells are destroyed

 People with AIDS usually die from other


diseases they cannot fight off