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You are on page 1of 31

Spring 2008

Objectives

1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and

turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully

developed flow

2. Calculate the major and minor losses

associated with pipe flow in piping networks

and determine the pumping power

requirements

3. Understand the different velocity and flow rate

measurement techniques and learn their

advantages and disadvantages

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

2

Introduction

Average velocity in a pipe

Recall - because of the no-slip

condition, the velocity at the walls of

a pipe or duct flow is zero

We are often interested only in Vavg,

which we usually call just V (drop the

subscript for convenience)

Keep in mind that the no-slip

condition causes shear stress and

friction along the pipe walls

Friction force of wall on fluid

3

Introduction

For pipes of constant

diameter and

incompressible flow

Vavg

Vavg

down the pipe, even if

the velocity profile

changes

Why? Conservation of

Mass

same

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

4

same

same

Introduction

For pipes with variable diameter, m is still the

same due to conservation of mass, but V1 V2

D1

D2

m

V1

V2

m

2

5

6

Definition of Reynolds number

(Recr) for flow in a round pipe

Re < 2300 laminar

2300 Re 4000 transitional

Re > 4000 turbulent

approximate.

For a given application, Recr

depends upon

Pipe roughness

Vibrations

Upstream fluctuations,

disturbances (valves, elbows, etc.

that may disturb the flow)

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

7

For non-round pipes, define the hydraulic

diameter

Dh = 4Ac/P

Ac = cross-section area

P = wetted perimeter

Ac = 0.15 * 0.4 = 0.06m2

P = 0.15 + 0.15 + 0.5 = 0.8m

Dont count free surface, since it does not

contribute to friction along pipe walls!

Dh = 4Ac/P = 4*0.06/0.8 = 0.3m

What does it mean? This channel flow is

equivalent to a round pipe of diameter

0.3m (approximately).

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

8

Consider a round pipe of diameter D. The flow

can be laminar or turbulent. In either case, the

profile develops downstream over several

diameters called the entry length Lh. Lh/D is a

function of Re.

Lh

9

Comparison of laminar and turbulent flow

There are some major differences between laminar and

turbulent fully developed pipe flows

Laminar

Can solve exactly (Chapter 9)

Flow is steady

Velocity profile is parabolic

Pipe roughness not important

It turns out that Vavg = 1/2Umax and u(r)= 2Vavg(1 - r2/R2)

10

Turbulent

Cannot solve exactly (too complex)

Flow is unsteady (3D swirling eddies), but it is steady in the mean

Mean velocity profile is fuller (shape more like a top-hat profile, with

very sharp slope at the wall)

Pipe roughness is very important

Instantaneous

profiles

No analytical solution, but there are some good semi-empirical

expressions that approximate the velocity profile shape. See text

Logarithmic law (Eq. 8-46)

Power law (Eq. 8-49)

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

11

Wall-shear stress

Recall, for simple shear flows u=u(y), we had

= du/dy

In fully developed pipe flow, it turns out that

= du/dr

Laminar

Turbulent

slope

slope

w

w = shear stress at the wall,

acting on the fluid

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

12

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Pressure drop

There is a direct connection between the pressure drop in a pipe and

the shear stress at the wall

Consider a horizontal pipe, fully developed, and incompressible flow

w

Take CV inside the pipe wall

P1

P2

(good review problem!)

13

Pressure drop

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of x-momentum

and V1 = V2

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

14

Pressure drop

Thus, x-momentum reduces to

or

Velocity terms cancel again because V1 = V2, and 1 = 2 (shape not changing)

hL = irreversible head

loss & it is felt as a pressure

drop in the pipe

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

15

Friction Factor

From momentum CV analysis

Laminar flow: solve exactly

Turbulent flow: rely on empirical data (experiments)

In either case, we can benefit from dimensional analysis!

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

16

Friction Factor

w = func( V, , D, )

inside wall of the pipe

-analysis gives

17

Friction Factor

does not affect the flow unless it

is huge

18

19

Friction Factor

Moody chart was developed for circular pipes, but can

be used for non-circular pipes using hydraulic diameter

Colebrook equation is a curve-fit of the data which is

convenient for computations (e.g., using EES)

using the root-finding algorithm in EES

to 15% due to roughness size, experimental error,

curve fitting of data, etc.

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

20

In design and analysis of piping systems, 3

problem types are encountered

1. Determine p (or hL) given L, D, V (or flow rate)

Can be solved directly using Moody chart and Colebrook

equation

2. Determine V, given L, D, p

3. Determine D, given L, p, V (or flow rate)

problems, i.e., selection of pipe diameters to

minimize construction and pumping costs

2. However, iterative approach required since

both V and D are in the Reynolds number.

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

21

Explicit relations have been developed which

eliminate iteration. They are useful for quick,

direct calculation, but introduce an additional 2%

error

22

Minor Losses

Piping systems include fittings, valves, bends, elbows,

tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and contractions.

These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and

cause additional losses because of flow separation and

mixing

We introduce a relation for the minor losses associated

with these components

KL is the loss coefficient.

Is different for each component.

Is assumed to be independent of Re.

Typically provided by manufacturer or

generic table (e.g., Table 8-4 in text).

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

23

Minor Losses

Total head loss in a system is comprised of

major losses (in the pipe sections) and the minor

losses (in the components)

i pipe sections

j components

24

25

26

Two general types of

networks

Pipes in series

Volume flow rate is

constant

Head loss is the

summation of parts

Pipes in parallel

Volume flow rate is the

sum of the components

Pressure loss across all

branches is the same

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

27

For parallel pipes, perform CV analysis between

points A and B

in all branches is the same

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

28

Head loss relationship between branches allows the following ratios

to be developed

easy to solve with EES!

Note: the analogy with electrical circuits should be obvious

Flow flow rate (VA) : current (I)

Pressure gradient (p) : electrical potential (V)

Head loss (hL): resistance (R), however hL is very nonlinear

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

29

When a piping system involves pumps and/or turbines, pump and turbine head must be included in the energy

equation

The useful head of the pump (hpump,u) or the head extracted by the turbine (hturbine,e), are functions of volume flow

rate, i.e., they are not constants.

Operating point of system is where the system is in balance, e.g., where pump head is equal to the head losses.

30

Supply curve for hpump,u:

determine experimentally by

manufacturer. When using EES,

it is easy to build in functional

relationship for hpump,u.

System curve determined from

analysis of fluid dynamics

equations

Operating point is the

intersection of supply and

demand curves

If peak efficiency is far from

operating point, pump is wrong

for that application.

ME331 : Thermofluid Dynamics

31

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