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E2E Volte optimization- Offerings & Capabilities

Planning & implementation

Testing & Tools

KPIs

Challenges of implementation

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

Introduction to VOLTE

LTE is a packet only architecture designed to improve data performance. It does not support CS
voice or video call.

In order to accommodate voice on LTE, two approaches were taken i.e. CSFB(Circuit Switch Fall
Back) and Volte.

GSMA Voice over LTE has evolved as the preferred standard for telephony solution in LTE that
has been accepted by the operator community.

GSMA has defined Voice over LTE (Volte) in describing minimum set of requirements for delivering
voice in an all IP environment based on existing 3GPP IMS based
multimedia
telephony
. by LTE
IMS/SRVCC(Voice
Solution
Provided bysolution
IMS and Data
Voice and Data Services

EPC.LTE Subscribers can Roam on 2G/3G network by SRVCC

Provided
By the LTE Network

Voice Services are Provided by OTT(Over the Top Content


Delivery of Audio and Video Over Internet with help of ISP)
Carrier

LTE Voice Solutions


Data Services Provided

Voice Services Provided by CSFB (Subscribers Fall back to

By the LTE Network and

Traditional 2G/3G Networks)

Voice Services Provided


By the CS Network

SVLTE: Dual Radio Terminals are required ,the 2G/3G


Network Provides Voice services and LTE Provides data

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

VoLTE Phase-based Deployment Policy(Planning)

LTE

LTE

Initial commercial use

Initial smartphone
LTE data card and LTE
CPE(Customer premises
equipment (CPE)

Deployment suggestions:
CSFB
CPEs subscribe to IMS-based VoIP
voice services.
Soft clients subscribe to rich media
RCS services(Rich
Communication
Services) program is a GSM
Association (GSMA) .

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

2G/3G

2G/3G

Pre-VoLTE
Terminals:

LTE

LTE

2G/3G

Phase 3:
Full LTE coverage

Phase 2:
Continuous LTE coverage

Phase 1:
Hot spot LTE
coverage

Terminals:

Smartphone
LTE data card and LTE
CPE(Customer premises
equipment (CPE))

Deployment suggestions:

Large-scale commercial
deployment

IMS-based VoLTE voice services


eSRVCC
Convergent database SingleSDB
LTE-based rich media RCS
services

Terminals:

Smartphone
LTE data card and LTE
CPE(Customer premises
equipment (CPE))

Deployment suggestions:

The LTE network becomes the


mainstream.
ICS(IMS Centralized Services)
IMS roaming and interworking

Overview of the Data collection Using Wireshark and


TEMS Discovery
TI
Logs

MME
Traces
collected

1) TI-Logs are Terminal Logs or UE Logs Collected during drive test and Analyses Using
Tems Discovery Like RRC Failure Analysis and L3 Message Analysis
2) 2)As a Part of Enode B Performance Analysis Wireshark Logs Collected at MME on S1
AP,X2 AP to analyse the Performance issues happening on SIP protocols to identify
UE and ENodeB Performance issues

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

High level Troubleshooting Guide For


Performance Analysis
Collect Data

Analyze UE Layer 3

RF
Correlation
Found?

YES

Correlate with Traces

Evaluate in detail

RAN
ISSUE

NO
Evaluate SIP Log

IMS
Correlation
Found?

YES

Evaluate in detail

NO
Potential MME/EPC
Issue?

Cascade to E2E Team

CORE
ISSUE

Trouble Shooting to Improve Volte Performance are done Via Drive Test Logs an Logs
Collected at MME
Access ability and Retain ability are two main KPIs for LTE Layer 3 Analysis. Tems
Discovery Volte report also provides LTE RRC KPIs like RRC Setup Failure Rate, RRC Setup
Attempts, RRC Setup Complete, RRC Drop Rate, RRC Calls Successfully Completed, RRC
Drops, etc.
5
I
Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

VOLTE Log Analysis Using Wireshark(SIP


Messages)
UE Registration with IMS

The Above Snap shows the analysis of Packet Capture for SIP Messages done on ENodeB to MME S1 AP
Interface analysis done using wireshark.The Log shows the UE is Registered in Volte Domain(registered
with IMS) and IMS AKA-Authentication(Authentication and Key Agreement) has been Completed by
Core
Network
andMahindra.
UE isAllReady
to make Volte Calls
I
Copyright
2016 Tech
rights reserved.

RRC(L3) Analysis Procedure from Tems Discovery

The Above Snap shows the analysis of UE logs collected during drive test and analyzed using Tems
discovery, the L3 analysis above shows that the UE is started reading the System Information messages
and ready for registration to LTE network
7

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

LTE/VOLTE COUNTER KPIS & THRESHOLD

Volte OSS KPIs

LTE OSS KPIs

LTE Counter KPI'S for 10


MHz
% Accessibility
% Retainability
% HOSR
% IRAT Rate
DL Throughput (Mbps)
UL Throughput (Mbps)
CSFB Succ Rate

Volte Drive Test

KPI Target
>99%
> 99 %
> 98.5 %
< 1%
> 11
>5
> 98.5 %
VOLTE Drive KPI
VOLTE MO
Accessibility
VOLTE Retainability
VOLTE MO
Retainability
VOLTE MT
KPIs
Retainability
VOLTE MO Voice
Setup Time
VOLTE MT Voice
Setup Time
% of Samples with
MOS>2.1
% of call stayed on
VOLTE

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

VOLTE Counter KPI'S


% Accessibility
QCI1

KPI Target
>99%

% Retainability
QCI 1

> 99 %

% HOSR
QCI1

> 98.5 %

%SRVCC Succ Rate


KPI Threshold
>99%
>99%
>99%
>99%
<8.5 sec
<3.5 sec
> 98 %
>96%

> 98.5 %
VOLTE Drive Scenario
MS1
LTE_Scanner
Long Call DL (DO
MS2
only)
Long Call UL (DO
MS3
only)
MS4
MO CSFB Call
MS5
MT CSFB Call
MS6
VOLTE MO UE
MS7
VOLTE MT UE

VOLTE OPTIMIZATION(Drive Test and OSS Statistics)


Volte Performance can Analysed by Drive Test data and OSS Statistics
The purpose of VOLTE drive test is to evaluate the coverage and performance of a network for voice call
services. The Major VOLTE drive test parameters are as RSRP, SINR, DL RSSI, MOS Score, RSRQ, UE TX
Power etc.
Techmahindra has to perform few basic checks with drive logs and parameter audit sheets like : Site are
not radiating or radiating with poor footprint, Antenna Swap, MIMO Swap, PCI Collision, Alarms, UL RSSI,
VSWR, Cell Status, eNodeB Power and check for Parameter.
Session setup success (Accessibility), session completion failure (Retainability) and SRVCC success rate are
two main KPIs for analysis from Drive Test data and OSS Stats
With the help of drive test data and OSS Stats, Techmahindra can check below points:
Coverage footprint of sites
Accessibility
Retain ability
Mobility
Quality
MOS Score
SRVCC
If Any degradation in any drive KPI, then has to find out RCA and has to provide solution as per specific
problems. Please find some basic troubleshooting and recommendation for improvement of drive KPI in
next slide:
SRVCC - SRVCC is the Main KPI which needs to be Optimized when there is no Volte Coverage When the
handset leaves the LTE coverage area, then VOLTE connection can be handed over to a CS connection in a
legacy network. This procedure is called SRVCC (Single Radio Voice Call Continuity). If LTE coverage is
extensive, then SRVCC probability is Low. It is beneficial to have a low SRVCC probability to gain full benefit
of VOLTE.

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

VOLTE OPTIMIZATION(Flow Chart for Accessibility)


START
Call Access
Failure?

Check Hardware Fault (RRU, Neighbor Cell fault or down),

Yes

Check current alarm, History & Activity logs

HW Fault /Down
Time?
NO

Tx Fault?

Yes

Check Media, S1 continuity, Tempoint status.

NO

is Accessibility
fail to Due o
High/LOW RSSI

Yes

NO

Is Fails due to
Poor RF

Yes

NO

Fails due to
Other Reasons?

Yes

END

10

Identify Poor RF Coverage, Check CQI & Power Limitation.


Recommend Physical Optimization of cells or Propose New
Coverage sites. Check for faulty antenna, High VSWR,
damaged cables or connectors.

Try to offload Cell/Site, Apply Layer management strategy if

NO

As Fails due to
Congestion?

Yes

Check PCI Collision, Interference (UL RSSI), overshooting


and Hardware

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

multicarrier carriers available, Apply Hi Cap settings & Do


possible Physical Optimization.

Check for any Non RF Ready Or Pre launch sites nearby,


Check layer management strategy for Multicarrier sites,
need to check core Network issues by UE traces or MME
traces analyzed using Wireshark.

VOLTE OPTIMIZATION(Flow Chart for Retainability)


START
No
Call Drop?

Check Hardware Fault (RRU, Neighbor Cell fault or down),

Yes

Check current alarm, History & Activity logs

HW Fault /Down
Time?
NO

Tx Fault?

Yes

Check Media, S1 continuity, Tempoint status.

NO

Is Drop due to
HO Fail Or High
UL RSSI?

Yes

NO

Is Drop due to
Poor RF

Yes

NO

Drops due to
Other Reasons?

Yes

END

11

Identify Poor RF Coverage, Check


CQI & Power Limitation.
Recommend Physical Optimization of cells or Propose New
Coverage sites. Check for faulty antenna, High VSWR,
damaged cables or connectors.

Try to offload Cell/Site, Apply Layer management strategy if

NO

Is Drop due to
Congestion?

Yes

Check PCI Collision, Interference (UL RSSI) on target cell,


overshooting Check UL RSSI on cell. High Interference cause
drops.

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

multicarrier carriers available, Apply Hi Cap settings & Do


possible Physical Optimization.

Check for any Non RF Ready Or Pre launch sites nearby,


Check layer management strategy for Multicarrier sites,
need to check core Network issues by UE traces or MME
traces analyzed using Wireshark.

VOLTE OPTIMIZATION(Flow Chart for Mobility )


START

NO

Term point to MME missing on target cells. Check if all MME


link is working if MME is in Pool.

Poor HO Preparation
Yes

NO
Incorrect Parameter
setting in Target

Yes

NO
Yes

Handover preparation may fail because the target eNodeB


cannot provide the necessary resources for the handover
during congestion or cannot interpret the contents of the
handover request message. Check Ho Parameters and Call
traces with log analysis to check the incorrect parameter

Target cell might be


loaded

NOO

Check for X2Failure alarm or S1 Failure alarm in

Yes

Alarm in the target


NO

The target cell

Check for Overshooting cells with drive plots/Prach


Report ,Recommend Physical Optimization of these cells
and parameter optimization to restrict the Cell footprint.
Propose Coverage optimization for sites having coverage
holes.

NO
Overshooting

Yes

NO
Collectogs on X2 and S1
AP

END

12

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

Analyse using Wireshark and check for the Cause

VOLTE OPTIMIZATION CASE STUDIES during Drive Test


S. N

2
3

Description
Troubleshooting
Solution
If Both the Tx branches of Antenna or
It can we verified with scanner Tx1 & Tx2
RRU are not dominant in same
Inform customer so that the tower
RSRP plot in Tems discovery to see that the
TX Imbalance direction, it is refered as Tx Imbalance,
crew can be sent to site for
difference between TX1 and TX2 rsrp should
(Difference between two TX branches <
rectification.
not exceed 10db.
10db).
Feeder cables are physically
PCI plot need to be checked on Tems
Inform customer so that the tower
Feeder Swap incorrectly connected between the
discovery to see if the sectors are radiating in crew can be sent to site for
RRU and Antenna.
the expected direction.
rectification.
PCI distribution need to be check in PCI Plot. Inform customer so that the tower
If existing orientation of antenna are
Azimuth Issue
PCIs are shifted either clockwise or anti
crew can be sent to site for
different from the designed azimuth.
clockwise with respect to the azimuths
verification.
Need to Check PCI collision. Check for UL
RSSI, Check for coverage, check for Alarm, Fix the problem after implementation
Accessibility
Poor Accessibility observed during
check for License capacity. Check for SIP
of recommendation on the basis of
Issue
Drive Test
call flow, there can be several reason
analysis.
observed from SIP messages.
Check for coverage, Check for PCI collision,
check for UL RSSI, check for handover
Fix the problem after implementation
Retainability
Poor Retainability observed during
parameters. Check for SIP call flow. If there of recommendation on the basis of
Issue
drive test
is no RTP packet for 10 sec then it will
analysis.
pegged a drop.
Need to check the neighbor definition and
During the mobilty test when UE tries
Fix the problem after implementation
check for ANR parameters as well.
HO Failure
to Handover from one PCI to another
of recommendation on the basis of
Need to check the basic Handover
PCI and it got failed.
analysis.
Parameters.

MOS Score
Issue

13

Problem

Poor MOS Score (<2.1)

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

Need to check RF conditions. Check for UL


RSSI, Alarms, VSWR and verify for codec
rate etc.
.

Fix the problem after implementation


of recommendation on the basis of
analysis.

Challenges To Deploying VoLTE


The flipside of being able to deliver voice and data over one network is that those networks must now be
optimized for both voice and data. Delivering high-quality voice is more challenging, and doing so in the
form of data packets even more so.
Aside from the sheer novelty of this undertaking, VoLTE involves lots of new moving pieces, unproven
technologies, and interdependencies. Major challenges to ensuring successful

Deployments out of the gate include:

Validating New Devices and Configurations


By 2016, ARC Chart expects the installed base of Volte-enabled handsets to top 74 million. Such devices are already
available in Korea and other countries leading adoption. Expects to see many more devices available in many more
countries by the end of 2014, and
all of these new devices need to be evaluated for performance, interoperability, and reliability.
Interoperability in Increasingly Multi-vendor Environments
the interfaces involved in Volte are also prone to customization by vendors, including critical Diameter protocols used
in the EPC core, and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) implementations within IMS.
Signaling
Spikes in hard-to-predict signaling traffic are already occurring due to smartphones generating up to 20x the
signaling traffic of traditional phones. Signaling volumes may actually overwhelm infrastructures, leading to costly and
embarrassing outages.
Fallback
Volte is not a forklift upgrade; its a whole new deal. Until every mobile phone in use supports it, operators will need
to support legacy air-links and provide seamless fallback to 2G/3G networks where LTE is unavailable.
Ensuring Quality of Experience (QoE)
For Volte to be worth the formidable investment, it not only has to deliver better quality than what OTT players
provide, but exceed what 2G/3G networks deliver as well. Early indicators
Impact on value-added services
What impact will increased complexity have on features like Call Waiting, forwarding, voicemail, and conferencing? In
migrating voice to LTE, operators need to be sure subscribers satisfaction with the features theyve come to rely on wont
14be Icompromised
Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.

VOLTE

15

Key Optimization CHALLENGES

Copyright 2016 Tech Mahindra. All rights reserved.