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The Law of Conservation

Mass in Chemical
Reactions
Stoichiometry

Law of Conservation of Mass


In any Chemical Reaction,
matter cannot be created nor
destroyed. He also added
that The total amount of
mass in planet earth remains
constant it is merely
changing from one form to
another.
--Antoine Lavoisier, 1789

Stoichiometry

Law of Conservation of Mass

Stoichiometry

Structure of a Chemical Equation


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

Reactants appear on the


left side of the equation.

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Stoichiometry

Structure of a Chemical Equation


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

Products appear on the


right side of the equation.

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Stoichiometry

Structure of a Chemical Equation


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

Coefficients are inserted to


balance the equation.

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Stoichiometry

Subscripts and Coefficients Give


Different Information

Subscripts tell the number of atoms of


each element in a molecule
Stoichiometry

Subscripts and Coefficients Give


Different Information

Subscripts tell the number of atoms of


each element in a molecule
Coefficients tell the number of
molecules

Stoichiometry

Symbols in Chemical Equations

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


__Fe2O3 +__H2

__Fe + __H2O

Write the formulas of the substances in the


chemical equation correctly.
An arrow separates the reactant from
the product and plus signs separates
multiple reactants from products.
Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


__Fe2O3 +__H2

__Fe + __H2O

Reactant

Element

Product

2
3
2

Fe
O
H

1
1
2

Count the atoms of the elements on each


side of the equation.
Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


Fe2O3 + 3H2

2Fe + 3H2O

Reactant

Element

Product

2
3
(3)2

Fe
O
H

1(2) = 2
1(3) = 3
2(3) = 6

Adjust the coefficients to make


the number of atoms equal on
both sides

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


Fe2O3 + 3H2

2Fe + 3H2O

Reactant

Element

Product

2
3
6

Fe
O
H

2
3
6

Check if the number of atoms are


the same on both sides

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


__CO2 +__NH3

__OC(NH2) 2 + __H2O

Write the formulas of the substances in the


chemical equation correctly.
An arrow separates the reactant from
the product and plus signs separates
multiple reactants from products.
Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


__CO2 +__NH3

__OC(NH2) 2 + __H2O

Reactant

Element

Product

1
2
1
3

C
O
N
H

1
1+1
2
4+2

Count the atoms of the elements on each


side of the equation.

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


CO2 + 2NH3

OC(NH2) 2 + H2O

Reactant

Element

Product

1
2
1(2) = 2
3(2) = 6

C
O
N
H

1
1+1
2
4+2

Adjust the coefficients to make


the number of atoms equal on
both sides

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


CO2 + 2NH3

OC(NH2) 2 + H2O

Reactant

Element

Product

1
2
2
6

C
O
N
H

1
2
2
6

Check if the number of atoms are


the same on both sides

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


C7H6O2 (g) + O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

Write the formulas of the substances in the


chemical equation correctly.
An arrow separates the reactant from
the product and plus signs separates
multiple reactants from products.
Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


2C7H6O2 (g) + O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

Reactant Element

14
12
4 + 2

C
O
H

Product

1
2
2 + 1

Count the atoms of the elements on each


side of the equation.

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


C7H6O2 (g) + O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

Reactant Element

7
6
2 + 2

C
O
H

Product

1
2
2 + 1

Adjust the coefficients to make


the number of atoms equal on
both sides.

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


2C7H6O2 (g) + 15O2 (g)

14CO2 (g) + 6H2O (g)

Reactant

Element

Product

7(2) = 14
6(2) = 12
2(2) + 2(15)

C
O
H

1(14)
2(6)
2(14) + 1(6)

If the equation is still not balanced,


multiply the coefficient of the first
formula by 2

Stoichiometry

Balancing a Chemical Equation


2C7H6O2 (g) + 15O2 (g)

14CO2 (g) + 6H2O (g)

Reactant

Element

Product

14
12
34

C
O
H

14
12
34

Check if the number of atoms are


the same on both sides

Stoichiometry