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The 3-component System

The main objective of this experiment is to observe


the three-component system which consists of two
liquids and one solid and to be able to construct a
phase diagram. This was done by titrating different
concentrations of saturated sodium chloride with
different concentrations of n-Propanol. While
titrating the solutions, the end point, separation of a
second layer, and the solid formation were observed
and recorded. After this, the weight fraction of nPropanol, sodium chloride, and water were
calculated using their densities. The phase diagram
was then constructed using the weight fractions.

INTRODUCTION
Ternary systems are physiochemical
arrangements comprising of three
components
Their phase boundaries and
concentrations are generally plotted in
a triangular phase diagram
Gibbs Triangle: illustrates the properties
of the mixture when different ratios of
the constituents are present

INTRODUCTION
Gibbs Triangle: illustrates the
properties of the mixture when
different ratios of the constituents
are present
equilateral triangle usually divided
into 10 equal parts that depicts the
proportions of the three components
with respect to each other

OBJECTIVE
to observe the three-component
system which consists of two liquids
and one solid and to be able to
construct a phase diagram

PROCEDURE
The solutions of NaCl in water were
prepared using the table 1.1, and the
titrants were prepared using the
table 1.2
Aqueous n-propanol was added to
this solutions corresponding to a, b,
c, and d in Figure 9.2. The binary
mixtures of water and n-propanol are
represented by the points a, b, c, and
d.

Table 1.1
SOLUTION

SATURATED NaCl
(mL)

Water (mL)

10

10

0.1

10

0.2

10

0.5

Table 1.2
n-Propanol (mL)

Water (mL)

30

10

25

35

Figure 9.2

A solution was prepared by mixing 1.0mL


saturated sodium chloride solution to 10.0mL
pure n-propanol was made and was labeled as
composition X.
The samples in the following tables 1.1 and
1.2 where added with a small amount of
iodine, and then were titrated. During the
titration, the flask that was being titrated
where twirled and a sheet of white paper was
placed under it, in order to be more accurate
in the various end points and phase changes.

While titrating the solutions, the end


point, separation of a second layer,
and the solid formation were
observed and recorded

RESULTS

In the experiment, aqueous sodium


chloride solutions were titrated with
n-propanol
TABLE 3.1

The white arrow in depicts a


representation of the changes in
concentration for the first eight
mixtures

The white arrow in Figure 3.4 depicts a


representation of the changes in
concentration for the last two
mixtures.

TABLE 3.2

CONCLUSION
The ternary system with one solid
(NaCl) and two liquids (n-propanol
and water) was successfully
observed in the experiment and its
phase diagram was constructed.

RECOMMENDATION
Precise measurement is very crucial
in this method because slight
differences may shift the proportions
of the components to different
regions in the phase diagram